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The pacific Monthly. 



Volume I. 



October 1898— March 1899- 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO 
Portland, Oregon. 



Copyrighted. (All rights reserved.) 



F * so 
P l q 



The Pacific Monthly. 



ALEX. SWEEK, President. 
J. THORBURN ROSS, Vice-President. 
WILLIAM BITTLE WELLS, Manager. 
MSCHEN M. MILLER, Assistant Manager. 



"if "SCO, 
mncroft CONTENTS. 

LIBRARY PAGE 

A Rough Rider, (Short Story) F. J. McHenry 56 

Augustus Dana's Wife, (Short Story) Lischen M. Miller 65 

A New Era in Our National Life B. B. Beekman 22 

Avalon Bay, Catalina Island, California, (Illustration) 124 

An American Ideal Chas. H. Chapman, Ph. D. . . 132 

President of University of Oregon. 

A Boy's King, (Poem) S. E. Riser 168 

Adam's Mother, (Short Story) Mrs. W. L. Wood 183 

As In a Dream, (Poem) Marion Cook 230 

Alaska George M. Miller 243 

A Fantasy in E Minor Oraarv 245 

Beauty, (Poem) Francis M. Gill 244 

Books 164, 209, 261 

Columbia River Salmon Hollister D. MeGuire 44 

College Correspondence 40, 80, 118, 166 

Columbus En Voyage, (Poem) Lischen M. Miller 234 

Chess 264 

Camp Scenes, Camp McKinley, Oregon 2, 25, 27, 28 

Constancy, ( Poem) ... John Vance Cheney ....... 44 

Democracy, (Poem) Walt Whitman 64 

Digging the Gold Capt. Cleveland Rockwell ... 85 

Despondency, ( Poem) John Liesk Tait 12 

Drift 

Storiettes , 41 

My Indian Lover Romeyn Merritt 120 

On the Overland Train E. Clare Joslyn 120 

Inconoclastic Gleanings Dr. G. H. Morre 121 

Consolidated University Notes 122 

A Feminine Deduction "J!f" 169 

Humorous Selections 169 

An Etching Oraarv 170 

Humorous Selections 170 

Human Nature 213 

The Sulu Archipelago 213 

When a Girl Really Loves 214 

''What Dreams May Come" 214 

The Horse to Become Extinct 215 

Old Manila 216 

► Dr. Stork's Bill * 217 

Poems to Order J. P. Brashear 218 

Frederick Warde 262 

McKinley's Opinions 263 

Croak, Little Bull Frog, Croak 263 

Education in France Samuel Jacques Brun . 20, 62 96 

Fall of Tyranny, (Poem) William F. Phipps HI 

Frederick Warde as " Macbeth " 220 

How the Commander Sailed David Starr Jordan 13 

u How Knoweth This Man Letters, Having Never 

Learned ?" William Bittle Wells 224 

In the Beginning 34 

In Autumn, (Poem) Edward Maslin Hulme 75 

In Starlight, (Poem) Florence May Wright 61 



CONTENTS.— Continued. 

PAGE 

It Might Have Been, (Short Story) David Burr Chase 100 

Immigration and Immigrants G. H. Morre 103 

Joseph Simon, Oregon's Junior Senator 187 

Kabwayo, (Short Story) Lizzie G. Wilcoxson 231 

Little George, (Short Story) Adonen 195 

Life's Elegy, (Poem) Valentine Brown 191 

Literary Comment 39, 78, 117 

Love's Remembrance, ( Poem ) Lischen M. Miller 68 

Looking Back, (Poem) Florence B. Cartwright. ... 79 

Man, (Poem) Cowper 152 

Mother and Mammy, (Poem) Howard Weeden 238 

Mother Goose for Grown-up Folkes 257 

Mt. Hood, Oregon 84 

Our Point of View, (Editorial) 35, 71, 112, 153, 203, 249 

Oriental Learning J. Hunter Wells, M. D 192 

Over the Bar, (Short Story) Lisehen M. Miller 17 

October, ( Poem) Marion Douglas 33 

Physical Characteristics of the Northwest Capt. Cleveland Roekwell. . . 3 

Prythee, Poet, Sweetly Sing, (Poem) 73 

Quatrain Florence May Wright 24 

Retrospection, (Poem) John Leisk Tait 135 

Sport in the Pacific C. F. Holder 125 

Salmon Fishing on the Lower Columbia C. L. Simpson 53 

Some Phases of Our National Life C. E. S. Wood 235 

Some Day I Shall Meet My Love, (Poem) Lischen M. Miller 163 

The Month ...38, 76, 115, 161, 206, 254 

In Literature, Art, Science, Politics, and Education, with Leading Events. 

The Voice of the Silence, (Continued Story) 141, 188, 239 

The Genius of Shakespeare Frederick Warde 221 

The "Kid," (Short Story) Bessie May Guinean 247 

The King's Oath, (Poem) Adonen 253 

The Magazines 37. 74, 113, 157, 209, 258 

The Dynamics of Speech Robert W.Douthat,Ph.D. 137, 198 

The "Lettre de Cachet" in California David Starr Jordan 194 

The Dewey Medal 172 

"That Good May Con^e," (Short Story ) 129 

Thorns, (Poem) Florence May Wright ] 31 

Through Winter's Snows, (Short Story) Walter Cayley Belt, M. D. . 136 

The University of Washington Edmond S. Meany . 149 

To the Oregon Grape, (Poem) J. W. Whalley 160 

The Lost Ledge, (Short Story) Laura Miller 94 

Three Links and a Jewel, (Short Story) J. D. Hassfurther 107 

The Violin, ( Poem) Lischen M. Miller 116 

The Oregon Emergency Corps Mrs. Levi Young 26 

The Mermaid, (Poem) William Martin 82 

The Scarlet Huntsman, (Poem) Walter Cayley Belt, M. D. . 186 

Vashti to Ahasuerus, (Poem) Adonen 128 

Westward Ho! (Poem) Joaquin Miller 29 

"Was He Justified?" (Story) 30, 69 

"When Shepherds Watched," (Poem) Lischen M. Miller 117 

With Aguinaldo in the Phillipines Capt. H. L. Wells 173 

"Will You Be My Valentine?" Lischen M. Miller 202 



HE NEW PACIFIC COAST MAGAZINE I1 10 Cents 






I Volume 1 



October Number J 




A MAGAZINE Of EDVCA~ 
TION AND PROGRESS. 

TEN CENTS A COPY j» ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 
THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO. 
PUBLISHERS * > ^ j» PORTLAND, OREGON 



•..In This Number*** 

Physical Characteristics of the Northwest — 

Capt. Cleveland Rockwell 

How the Commander Sailed — 

Dvoid Starr Jordan, Pre*, of Letand Stanford, Jr. UnhtersHy 

Education in France — 

Samuel Jacques < Brun 

A New Era in Our National Life — 

B. B. Beehman 
And Other Interesting Articles 






HE NEW PACIFIC COAST MAGAZINE I1 10 Cents 



THE "PACIFIC ^MONTHLY. 

Contents for October, 1898. 



Page 



Frontispiece — 

Camp Scenes, Camp McKinley 

Physical Characteristics of the Northwest- 
Despondency (Poem) — 
How the Commander Sailed — • 



Ca.pt. Cleveland Rockwell 

John Liesk Tail 

David Starr Jordan 
Pres. Leland Stanford, Jr. University 
. Lischen M. Miller 



3 
12 
13 



Over the Bar ( Short Story ) — 

Education in France— Samuel Jacques Brun 

Part I of a Series of Articles on this Interesting Subject 
A New Era in Our National Life— .... B. B. Beekman 

Quatrain — Florence May Wright 24 

The Oregon Emergency Corps— Ms. Levi Young 26 

Westward Ho! (Poem)— Joaquin Miller 

" Was He Justified?*' (Story)— 

October (Poem) — Marion Douglas 

In the Beginning — 

A Record of Oregon's Pioneers, commenced in " Drift " 

Our Point of View (Editorial)— 

The Magazines — 

Harper's, Century, McClure's, Scribner's, Cosmopolitan, Munsey's 

The Month — 

A Record of the Principal Events of the Month 

Literary Comment — 

College Correspondence — 

Drift— 



22 



29 
30 
33 

34 

35 
37 

38 



TERMS— $1.00 A YEAR IN ADVANCE. 10 CENTS A COPY. 

All communications should be sent, and all checks or drafts made payable, to The 
'Pacific SMonthly Publishing Company. Agents for The 'Pacific SMonthly are wanted in 
every locality. Write for our exceptional terms and inducements. 



Alex Svoeek, President 
J. Thorburn Ross, Vice-President 
Geo. L. < Peastee, Secretary 
W. B. Wells, Manager 
Lischen M. Miller, Asst. Manager 

Lischen M. Miller) 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY PUB. COMPANY, 
Macleay Building, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 

Copyright, 1898, by W. B. Wells. Extracts may 
be made from any of the articles if proper credit is 
given the Magazine. 



^*^vv*'r»*»**-*#i^**#**^#^^#*^#*r***#i^ 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY—ADVERTISING SECTION 



\7f\f* ^0\'p. F^nllilfC BY PURCHASING YOUR DRUOS, PATENT MEDICINES AND 
l"U *l7ClVC LyUlldld TOILET ARTICLES OF WOODARD. CLARKE & CO. 



Mere words don't tell it all. Here are some prices. Remember every Patent Medicine, Toilet Article or Drug 
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Regular Price 

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Ayer's Sarsaparilla 1 00 

Carter's Pills 25 

Oastoria 35 

Scott's Emulsion 1 00 

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Syrup of Figs 50 



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Fourth and Washington Streets, Portland, Oregon 



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EYE SPECIALISTS 



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Ship Chandlers, Store and 
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Agents (for DEARBORN & CO.'S DISPATCH LINE 

of Clipper Ships from New York 

and Philadelphia 



Northern Assurance Company of London 
St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company 



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SURETY BONDS 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, - $2,500,000.00 

Fidelity and Deposit Company 

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Issues guarantee bonds to employes in posi- 
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Court Bonds, Federal Officers,' City, County 
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208 Worcester Block, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Telephone Main 986 




Cawston & Co., 

Dealers in 

Engines and Boilers, 



Wood-Working Machinery, 
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48 & 50 First Street 

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Blake's Single and Duplex Pumps. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Chapter One 



Oregon 
Kidney 
Tea... 



How to be Beautiful 

IN FIVE CHAPTERS 

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Proprietors 

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...Perfect Telephone Service... 

Can be obtained only through a complete Metallic Circuit 
for each Subscriber, and 

■* NO PKRTY LINES^ 

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HAS THESE ADVANTAGES 

OFFICES, 606-607 0REG0HIAN BUILDING, PORTLAND, OREGON 

LATEST STYLES AND FIRST -CLASS 

Jewelry, Diarnonds, Watches and Silverware 

AT MODERATE PRICES 

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Corner Third and Washington Streets 
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Up-to-Date and Exclusive Dealers in 

Ladies; Children's and infants' Wear 

Styles up to the Standard in all Lines 

infants' Wardrobes and Weaning Trousseaus 

A SPECIALTY 



Price List Sent on Application 



«ERIT IS THE ONLY THING THAT COUNTS, AND WE CLAIM THAT 
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0. C. OLINE OIL & PAINT GO. 

144 FIRST STREET 
Portland, Ore. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



doors, Windows, plate and window glass 

IniKUL F»7£F>ER 
And the General Lines of BUILDING MATERIAL 

GLAZING A SPECIALTY 

Columbia Telephone 290 



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W. H. McMONIES 

Wholesale Manufacturer of 

.,? Harness, Horse Collars and Leather Specialties 



Jobber of SADDLERY HARDWARE, Etc. 

Ladies- & Gents' Beits 74 Front Street, Portland, Ore. 

Mexican Hand Stamped Work * T* 

Telephone Oregon Main 517 

CONSOLIDATED UNIVERSITY 

( PORTLAND-PUGET SOUND) 

Fall Term Opened c Superior Instructors 

...October 4th | Fine Equipment 

EXCELLENT DORMITORY EQUIPMENT 

Write for particulars to Chancellor C. R. THOBURN, S. T. D., 
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Northwestern Mutual Life 

OF MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Grants more Insurance for the Same Cost or the Same Insurance 
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Largest Purely American Company. 
Official Reports of State Insurance Departments Represent it to be the 

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Concord Building, Portland, Ore. 

BURN ROSLYN COAL ||#|| The Blue Mountain Ice and Fuel Company 



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John H. Mitchell Albert H. Tanner 

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Attorneys at Law 
Commercial Block, PORTLAND, ORE. 



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District Attorney 



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Attorneys at Law 

Offices, 508509 Commercial Building 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



A. C. & R. W. EMMONS 
Attorneys at Law 
PORTLAND AND SEATTLE 



Chamber of Commerce 
Portland, Ore. 



SAMUEL J. BRUN 

Attorney and Counselor at Law 
sixth floor, mills building 

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Practices in all the Courts 



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Real estate 

Fire Insurance and Conveyancing; Commissioners of 

Deeds for all the States and Territories 

Notaries Public. 

COMMERCIAL BLOCK, PORTLAND, OREGON 

'Phone Oregon Main 6 
E. D. White 'Phone Oregon Black 1141 



Residence, 475 Morrison St. Res. 'Phone, Ore. Red 2721 

JOHN C. LEASURE 

Attorney at Law 

Criminal, Probate and Corporation Law Specialties 

Office Rooms 

4OI-2-20-2I COMMKRCIAL BUILDING, PORTLAND, ORK. 

Office 'Phone, Oregon Main 6 



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JAS D. MALCOLM 

SPECTACLES AND EYEGLASSES 

OF ALL KINDS 

Repairing a Specialty 

Room 8, Washington Bloc, S. E. Cor. Fourth and Washington Sts 

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No. 202 Marquam Building, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Fashionable Suits $5 up. Latest French Styles 
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Manufacturers of 

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Tailor... 

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Offiee and Salesrooms, 208-210 Fifst Street 



Factory, 209-211 F^ont Street 



POSTIiHND, OREGON 




I 

To the Eastern cHchertiser... 

The war has drawn the attention of the world to the Pacific 
Coast, and because of its inexhaustible natural resources, its never- 
failing crops and proximity to the Orient an immediate and won- 
derful prosperity and future is predicted for this region. 

The Pacific Coast is, therefore, one of the most desirable fields 
in the country for judicious advertising, and the wise advertiser 
will make the most of this. 

The Pacific Monthly has the greater part of this great field to 
itself, and offers inducements that cannot be duplicated by any 
other medium reaching the Pacific Coast. 

It will pay the advertiser to write us. 

THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y 

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The Title Guarantee and Trust 
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WM. M. LADD, President 

J. THORBURN ROSS, Manager 

T. T. BURKHART, Asst. Secretary 



Chamber of Commerce 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



DO YOU KNOW... 



Where the Best Place is to get 



Hardware, Tinware, Granite Iron Ware, Aluminum Ware. Air 
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We do Goods are retailed at 
Wholesale Prices by 



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Next Door to Wm. Gadsby's Furniture Store 



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We give Special attention to Prescriptions and 

the Selection of High-GraoJe 

Bristle Goods. 

151 THIRD STREET 

PORTLAND, OREGON 




CAMP SCENES. 

See article on Oregon Emergency Corps. 



THE PACIFIC mONTHLY. 



Vol I 



OCTOBER, 1898 



No, 1 



PHYSICIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 
NORTHWEST. 



By CAPT. CLEVELAND ROCKWELL, Late of U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



'"T HE earlier exploration of the north- 
* west coast of America was made first 
in the interests of commerce. The wonder- 
ful discovery of Columbus produced such 
an excitement of adventure that in the 
thirty years succeeding that momentous 
event the whole world had been circum- 
navigated by Magellan, and the entire 
eastern coast of America, from Greenland 
to Cape Horn, explored, and the Pacific 
ocean discovered and navigated. The in- 
vestigation of our subject carries us back- 
ward over the lapse of time and through 
the vistas of many years while tracing the 
trackless pathways of the intrepid navi- 
gators of old. 

The only monuments and mile-stones 
left to mark those devious paths are the 
great capes, islands and rocks along the 
shores, the rivers, waterways and sounds, 
and, towering above them all, the glis- 
tening ice-clad peaks, set like jewels on 
the mountain summits, piercing the sky, 
and often visible from the decks of their 
small but venturesome vessels. 

The northwest coast of America was 
discovered by that marine marauder, Sir 
Francis Drake, who made a landing in 
latitude 48 degrees, on the coast of Wash- 
ington, in the year 1558. 

The mythical Juan de Fuca, said to be 
a Greek pilot with one of the Spanish 
navigators, made a survey of the coast 
as far as latitude 55 degrees north, and, 
at all events, the great strait between 
Washington and British Columbia bears 
his name. 

Among the early navigators who visited 
the coast were La Perouse, Mofras, Cook, 



Meares, Portlock, Viscaino, Lesiansky, 
Heceta, Quadra, Vancouver, and many 
others. Many of these expeditions were 
sent out for purposes of trade and barter 
in furs with the native tribes, or in the 
vague hope of conquest or gold. 

That greatest of navigators, Captain 
James Cook, in the year 1778, while at- 
tempting to realize the dream of explor- 
ers and crowned heads, the discovery of 
a northwest passage through the continent 
of America, as a shoit route to the Bast 
Indies, sailed along the coast, and named 
the most prominent capes as far as Cook's 
inlet, in Alaska, in 60 degrees north lati- 
tude. In 1792-4, Captain George Van- 
couver, of the British navy, in two vessels, 
the Discovery and the Chatham, made a 
complete survey of the coast, from Cali- 
fornia to Alaska, and in his endeavors to 
find the hypothetical northwest passage 
pushed his surveys into every inlet pene- 
trating the continent, until satisfied that 
a passage did not exist. To him, more 
than to any other of the old navigators, 
we owe the prominent names of the coast, 
from Puget sound, through the devious 
passages of British America and Alaska, 
to Cook's inlet. In naming the many 
places he visited, the noble families of 
princes, dukes, ambassadors, lords of the 
navy, brother officers and friends have 
all been remembered and their names per- 
petuated for ages to come. 

Vancouver had been a midshipman un- 
der Captain Cook in his first voyages, and 
was a very industrious and most accom- 
plished navigator. Vancouver did not dis- 
cover the Columbia river, but, having 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



fallen in with the discoverer, Captain 
Gray, sent the vessel Chatham, under 
Lieutenant Broughton, who anchored near 
Astoria and with his boats explored the 
river as far as the present city of Van- 
couver. Later additions to the geographi- 
cal knowledge of the coast were made by 
Commodores Wilkes, Belcher and others. 
The more accurate and detailed surveys 
of the coast were commenced in 1851, by 
the United States coast and geodetic sur- 
vey, and still later the interior surveys 
have been begun by the geological survey. 

In the course of time, complete informa- 
tion of the topography, hydrography, 
geology, botany, climate and resources of 
every kind will have been collected, suffi- 
cient for a history of physical geography. 

In 1804-5, the memorable expedition 
across the continent by Captains Lewis 
and Clark gave to the world the first infor- 
mation of the interior of the country. At 
later dates, exploring expeditions under 
Fremont, Stevens and others made still 
further known the broad geographical 
features of the territory. 

The title to the country was finally con- 
firmed to the United States by the Louis- 
iana purchase from France in 1803, and, 
after much contention, the consummation 
of the Ashburton treaty with England in 
1842 defined the limits of our neighbor's 
territory on the north at latitude 49 de- 
grees. The very late purchase of the 
great territory of Alaska from Russia 
extended the limits of the Northwest far 
towards the frozen ocean, and nearly to 
the Asiatic coast. The geographical out- 
lines of the northwest coast, the great 
mountain chains, the general courses of 
the rivers, are familiar to all. 

The topographical aspects are exceed- 
ingly varied. The great Cascade range of 
mountains, about 130 miles from and 
parallel with the coast line, a continua- 
tion of the Sierra Nevada chain in Cali- 
fornia, rises to a general height of 6,000 
or 7,000 feet, extends into British Colum- 
bia, and is traced to the far North. The 
Coast range, reaching elevations of 3,000 
or 4,000 feet in places, about thirty or 
forty miles distant from and parallel to 
the coast, can also be traced for long dis- 
tances north and south, as a distinct 
mountain chain. Between these two 
ranges lies the Willamette valley, one ot 



the most fertile areas of land on the sur- 
face of the earth. 

Transverse ranges and spurs connect 
these iwo great mountain systems at inter- 
vals, and between them lie the Umpqua 
and Rogue River valleys. To the north 
of the Columbia no great valleys occur, 
the streams draining the western slope of 
the Cascades having but narrow valleys, 
with rolling country between. 

Through the two mountain ranges lat- 
eral or transverse rents occur at intervals, 
where great streams like the Columbia 
and Fraser rivers, and lesser ones like 
the Klamath, Rogue, Umpqua, Stickeen, 
Skagit and Skeena break through a pass- 
age to the sea. The great gorge of the 
Columbia is the only transverse rent 
which has been cut down to a tide-water 
level. 

East of the Cascade mountains are sev- 
eral independent mountain systems, as 
the Blue mountains, the Coeur d'Alene 
and the Bitter Root mountains, a chain 
of the Rockies, and, towards the north, 
the great Selkirk range. 

Eastern Washington and Oregon is 
largely an elevated plateau of great fertil- 
ity, the southeastern portion of the state 
extending into Nevada being a volcanic 
plateau of arid land. To a tourist travel- 
ing up the Columbia river, the country 
presents anything but an attractive ap. 
pearance, and he would be likely to ob- 
serve, on further inspection of the coun- 
try, that the valley of the Columbia con- 
tained all the sand, and the fertile lands 
occupied the hills. 

The lake systems of Oregon and Wash- 
ington are small, many of the largest 
lakes being merely the widening of the 
river channels occasioned by the oscilla- 
tions of level of the land or the outflow 
of basaltic lavas. 

The transverse range of the Siskiyou 
mountains, which separates Oregon from 
California, is the highest of those chains, 
extending from the Cascades nearly to the 
coast, and produces a marked dissimilar- 
ity in the climates of the two regions. 
The Coast range through the state of 
Washington gradually breaks down to the 
northward, and gives place to the great 
mountain mass of the Olympics, terminat- 
ing at Cape Flattery. These mountains 
reach an altitude of 7,000 to 8,000 feet, 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHWEST. 



retaining snow on the highest peaks 
throughout the summer season. Vancou- 
ver's island consists of another independ- 
ent mass of rough mountains, except in 
the southeastern part, rising to elevations 
of 5,000 feet or more. 

The country constituting the shores of 
Puget sound, including the numerous isl- 
ands, is formed generally of immense 
stratified beds of clay, sand and gravel; 
but, going northward, the islands and 
headlands through the Canal de Haro, Ro- 
sario straits and the Gulf of Georgia be- 
come high and rocky. 

Still further to the northward, through 
the wonderful labyrinth of fiords and in- 
lets forming the inland navigation pass- 
ages of British America, and up through 
the hundreds of islands of the Archipelago 
Alexander, in Alaska, as far as Cross 
sound and Glacier bay, the shores main- 
tain their rugged, rocky character. The 
channels through these islands are very 
deep, the charts often showing 100 fath- 
oms and no bottom; and, at the head of 
nearly every fiord penetrating the con- 
tinent, great glaciers force their way down 
to the salt water. Above Cross sound the 
immense mountain range containing the 
peaks of Mounts Fairweather, Cook and 
Crillon commences, running northwest and 
culminating in Mount St. Elias, the 
loftiest mountain in North America. In 
this latitude the peninsula of Alaska pro- 
jects towards the southeast, and in con- 
tinuation the Fox islands, running along 
nearly parallel with the Arctic circle, 
stretch away towards the shores of Asia. 
The great river, Yukon, rises in British 
America, eastward of Mount St. Elias, 
traverses the whole width of Alaska, 
touching the Arctic circle, and flowing 
through many mouths into Behring sea. 

To the north of this river the country 
is entirely unexplored, but is believed to 
be a sterile, treeless waste, covered with a 
thick growth of spagnum or moss, to the 
shores of the Arctic ocean. 

The coast of Oregon and Washington, 
from the California line to Cape Flattery, 
runs nearly north and south, and presents 
no very great projections of capes, and 
affords but few harbors for vessels in dis- 
tress. 

The spurs of the Coast range of moun- 
tains often reach the seashore, and when 



the land first emerged from the waters 
the ocean reached much further inland 
than at present. Formerly the waves of 
the ocean broke directly on the shores of 
Young's bay and the present site of As- 
toria, as far as Tongue point. Afterwards 
the ocean currents, following along the 
shores, deposited the sand washed down 
from the cliffs, in the long beaches reach- 
ing from headland to headland, leaving 
an opening or entrance whose width was 
determined by the area of the tidal basins 
enclosed within. 

Gradually the tide lands were built up 
from the silt brought down the streams, 
and the two great forces, the sea on one 
side and the enclosed waters on the other, 
established the present forms of the nu- 
merous small bays along the coast. Port 
Orford, on the southern coast of Oregon. 
is the largest and best summer roadstead, 
but it is exposed to the fury of winter 
gajes. Destruction island, off the Wash- 
ington shore, is the only spot of land on 
the coast large enough to be called an 
island. 

The influence of man in improving for 
his benefit the conditions imposed by 
nature may be instanced in the works at 
the entrance to the Columbia river, where 
in place of a dangerous channel and bar a 
very good and secure one has been formed. 
The tremendous forces of nature may often 
be seen on our coasts in the effects pro- 
duced by ocean waves breaking on the 
shore. In the summer of 1877, while at 
work on the adjacent coast, a very high 
tide occurred, with an immense surf roll- 
ing in from the westward, the result of 
some storm far out at sea. The beach 
had been piled up with drifting sand to 
a great depth, and the sea rose so high as 
to lash the foot of the cliffs; but one high 
tide sufficed to level the beach as smooth 
as a floor, and sweep the sand into the 
ocean, a result that 100,000 laborers could 
not have accomplished in many years. 

The bottom of the ocean, off the shores 
of Oregon and Washington, is mainly t» 
smooth plateau or floor, having a very 
gentle, regular slope many miles off the 
coast. The continuity of this sub-ocean 
plain is broken is some places by ranges 
of submarine hills, parallel with the Coast 
range. The summits of these hills are 
known as banks, and are the feeding- 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



grounds (as well as the fishing-grounds) 
for vast numbers of fish. The streams or 
currents of the ocean along the northwest 
coast are dominated by the effects of the 
Japanese stream, the great ocean current 
of the Pacific, which, having its rise in 
the warm regions of the tropics, flows past 
the coast of Japan, and, crossing over, 
loses itself on the American shores. The 
course and effect of this stream is very 
similar to the well-known Gulf stream 
of the Atlantic. It keeps the temperature 
of the ocean at nearly a constant degree of 
warmth throughout the year, and we shall 
see that it has the effect of maintaining a 
very modified and mild winter climate in 
comparatively high latitudes. 

The ocean currents, however, are 
changed by the force and direction of the 
prevailing winds on this coast. For 
nearly half of the year, northwest winds 
prevail along the whole coast, while dur- 
ing the winter months the winds come 
from the southeast and southwest. The 
summer winds, far off the coast, are the 
trade winds, and blow from the southwest, 
gradually shifting, as the coast is ap- 
proached, to the northwest. In winter the 
southerly winds pile up the waters along 
the coast, and, flowing off, produce a 
strong current to the northward, as is 
seen by the frequent presence of redwood 
logs cast up on the shores, a tree which 
hardly appears north of the California 
line. The prevailing winds of summer, 
blowing from off the ocean, maintain a 
very equable degree of temperature over 
the land, as far as their influence reaches, 
a temperature entirely controlled by the 
effects of the Japan stream. The polar 
current of cold, Arctic waters, flowing 
down through Behring straits, owing to 
the difference in specific gravity of warm 
and cold water, settles down and flows 
underneath the warm equatorial waters. 

The winas blowing over the warm sur- 
face waters absorb tue radiated heat and 
maintain the high annual mean tempera- 
ture over our land, which we enjoy. Were 
it not for the great modification in cli- 
mate produced by the Japan stream, the 
limit ot perpetual snow would reach far 
down the slopes of the Cascade moun- 
tains, and the glaciers of Mount Hood 
and Mount Adams probably reach to the 
Columbia river. The effects of these 



winds are felt along the coast as far inland 
as the Cascade mountains. 

East of that great barrier, the summers 
are warmer and the winters colder than 
on the west. The climate in other re- 
spects is very dissimilar, rain being more 
prevalent on the west, and snow on the 
east side of these mountains. 

The geological features of the northwest 
coast are well marked. The eozoic forma- 
tion is found in the Coast range and in 
the Blue mountains — but the greatest ex- 
emplification of any geologic age in the 
Northwest is the volcanic. 

The Sierra Nevada and Cascade range 
was elevated at the close of the Jurassic 
period, but not to its present height. At 
the end of the Miocene period, simul- 
taneously with the elevation of the Coast 
range, the Cascade and Sierra Nevada 
mountains were lifted up to their present 
great elevation, and, under the tremen- 
dous pressure, seem to have been rent 
and fissured along the entire crest from 
Middle California to the far North in 
British America. During this elevation 
took place the most stupendous exhibition 
of volcanic and eruptive energy of any 
age or part of the world, great floods of 
liquid lava and basalt pouring from the 
Cascade range, covering nearly the whole 
of Oregon, Washington and Idaho, ana 
extending into Nevada, California and 
British Columbia, and into the ocean. 
This great deposit flowed over the country 
in waves and sheets, filling the beds of 
rivers and creeks to a depth of 2,000 to 
4,000 feet, and utterly destroying all life. 
The gloomy canyon of the Snake river is 
a most striking illustration of the depth 
of the lava flow, where may be seen along 
its terraced sides the thickness of the suc- 
cessive sheets. The bottom of this lavi» 
flow is an unknown depth below the sea 
level, as can be seen in the great ocean 
capes and in the bluffs along the Columbia 
river. Towards the close of this eruption, 
the vents of the imprisoned fires became 
confined to the points known as Mounts 
Shasta, Hood, Rainier, etc., from which 
liquid lava, scoriae, pumice and ashes 
continued to be emitted for a long period, 
building up their cones to a height prob- 
ably far above their present altitude. The 
action of glaciers and melting ice is be- 
lieved to have woru away the height of 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHWEST. 



these great peaks 1,000 feet or more, and 
in most instances all traces of a crater 
have been obliterated. Crater lake occu- 
pies a crater of what was probably a great 
lava vent in the earlier outflow. It is 
6,000 feet above the sea level, and, being 
nearly 2,000 feet in depth, is the deepest 
body of fresh water in North America. 
On all these great peaks of the Cascade 
and Sierra Nevada range, of which the 
most southern is Lassen's butte, in 
Plumas county, California, solfataras, or 
hot springs, abound, an evidence that the 
subterranean fires are not yet extinct. 
Mount Vesuvius was not known to be a 
volcano until the year 79 A. D., when it 
broke forth in the momentous eruption 
that buried the cities of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii under a deluge of ashes and mud, 
and for nearly 2,000 years since has been 
periodically active. 

There are traditions that Lassen's butte, 
Mounts Hood and St. Helens have given 
evidence of being still alive, but no great 
outburst of lava has probably taken place 
for a long period. Lassen's butte shows 
more signs of activity than any volcanic 
cone in the Sierra Nevada range, boiling 
springs, fumerells, geysers and mud vol- 
canoes on a small scale being constantly 
active and energetic on the south side of 
that peak. On the peninsula of Alaska, 
however, and on several of the Aleutian 
islands, the volcano of Illiamnoe, the 
Redobt volcano and others are still alive 
and active. The great capes along the 
coast are generally of basaltic lavas, the 
result of the ancient flow; the sea, that 
great leveler, having «aten away the 
softer Tertiary deposits, leaving the hard- 
er material projecting far into the ocean. 

Cape Lookout, for instance, projects two 
miles from the beach into deep water. It 
is a great basaltic dike, perpendicular 
along the south tace, 430 feet high at the 
point, and nearly 1,000 feet high where 
the coast trail passes over. 

When the Cascade range was elevated 
large bodies of the ocean were enclosed 
between that range and the Rocky moun- 
tains. The transverse fissure, now occu- 
pied by the Columbia river, was after- 
wards formed and served to drain the salt 
water from a vast portion of the interior, 
the sea retreating to a few of the saline 
lakes in Southeastern Oregon. During the 



cretaceous period, animal and plant life 
was abundant in the Northwest, as is 
shown by the great number of fossil re- 
mains in the valleys of the Des Chutes, 
Crooked and John Day rivers; also in 
Grand Ronde valley and Hangman's 
creek. Huge animals of the mastodon 
family wandered through the forests of 
the infant world, and along the grassy 
shores of the ancient lake grazed the gen- 
tle oreodon, unmolested by the twang of 
the bow-string or crack of the hunter's 
rifle; man had not yet appeared upon the 
earth. 

In regard to the carboniferous meas- 
ures, geologists are disposed generally to 
refer all the coal deposits to the Tertiary 
period, and class them as different forms 
and grades of lignite. Several deposits of 
coal in British America are asserted to be 
anthracite in character, but the anthra- 
citic character of the deposits is claimed 
to be produced by heat due to local pres- 
sure only. 

The coal deposits of the Northwest are 
found to the northward and within the 
Arctic circle. Coal is known to be due to 
the mineralized carbonaceous deposits of 
vegetable life; and, moreover, that life 
must have been very abundant and fa- 
vored by the existence of a sub-tropical 
climate, as is shown by the fossil remains, 
animal and vegetable. But scientists are 
at a loss to account for the fact that 
such a climate and vegetation existed at 
that time in latitudes far beyond the pres- 
ent limits of trees, or indeed any other 
growth except mosses and lichens. If 
astronomy would admit that the poles oi 
the earth had changed during the life of 
the infant world, the problem would be 
solved. Many authorities claim that 
though the poles of the earth have during 
past ages pointed towards far different 
stars than they do now, the geographical 
poles have always maintained the present 
angle with the ecliptic or plane of the 
earth's path around the sun, thus making 
the seasons always the same as now. 
Others, however, admit that the axis of 
the earth may have changed 20, 30 or 40 
deg. in inclination. The subject is too 
involved, except for a student of science, 
and need not be pursued further. No 
thorough geological examination of the 
country has yet been made, and until that 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



is done it is impossible to study the sub- 
ject in detail. 

The glacial epoch is well marked in the 
Northwest, and all the northern canyons 
of the great peaks as far south as Mount 
Shasta still contain glaciers, many of 
them exceeding the celebrated glaciers of 
the Alps. 

The glaciers become larger and reach 
further down the mountain sides as you 
go north, until Alaska is reached, where 
all the mountain summits are capped with 
wide fields of snow, and the glaciers force 
their way down to the sea, and every 
gorge is filled. During the glacial age 
vast fields of ice and snow covered the 
Northern hemisphere of both continents 
for a great distance from the poles to an 
unknown depth, driving all existing forms 
of animal life towards the sub-tropical 
zone and substituting arctic forms. 

The evidence of erosive action of gla- 
ciers is unmistakable in many localities, 
and one of the finest effects of such action 
may be seen near the city of Victoria, 
Vancouver island. Opposite the city, 
across the bridge, on the reservation, is a 
large area of bare basaltic rock ploughed 
and furrowed by glacial action, the striae 
running from northwest to southeast. At 
the time the ocean wharf was building, 
the rock was uncovered during the process 
of grading a road, and the glacial mark- 
ings were bright, clean and not weathered. 
Long grooves, generally parallel and often 
10 or 12 inches deep, gouged out of the 
solid ledge, looked like the handiwork of 
a skilled stone-mason and were polished 
as smooth as a piece of statuary. Science 
is also unable to inform us of the momen- 
tous changes that must have taken place 
to produce the ice age, when all plant life 
over a large part of the Northern hemi- 
sphere was destroyed and animal life of 
the temperate clime driven towards sub- 
tropical regions. Some theorists have ad- 
vanced the hypothesis that the surface of 
the sun was to a very large extent covered 
with spots which are now seen to prevail 
at successive intervals of 11% years, and 
that owing to this prevalence the amount 
of heat and light given forth was very 
much lessened. This aspect of the sun 
being continued through many thousand 
years, polar conditions of climate were 
practically maintained over a large area 



of the Northern hemisphere. Gradually 
the ice and snow disappeared from the 
temperate zones, the glaciers retreated to 
their proper homes in the North, and life 
once more flourished over a smiling land. 

The northwest coast, in common with 
all parts of the globe, has been subject to 
great and frequent oscillations of level, 
epochs of subsidence and upheaval being 
well marked in the Tertiary and post- 
Tertiary or latest geological age'. These 
oscillations sunk the land below the sur- 
face of the ocean many thousand feet, 
raising it again to present elevations, as 
is shown by the abundance of fossil ma- 
rine life on the summits of very high 
mountains. I have gathered shells of 
clams, identical with existing species, on 
the summit of Bald mountain, near Port 
Orford, 3,000 feet above the sea level. 
While engaged in professional duties near 
San Simeon, on the California coast, I 
discovered a bed of the "Ostrea Titan," or 
gigantic fossil oyster, specimens of which 
were two feet or more in length, with a 
thickness of shell near the hinges of four 
or five inches. A half dozen raw or on 
the half-shell would be a formidable dish 
to set before a king. Above this oyster 
bed was a ledge of coral rock, and there 
on the mountain side, among the sage- 
brush, blooming ceanothus and wild 
morning-glory, firmly cemented to the 
extreme point of a projecting coral rock, 
was the beautiful, enameled tooth of a 
shark. But how changed the scene; in- 
stead of some dark, unfathomed cave far 
beneath the blue waters, where the sea 
anemone opened its petals among the 
corals, where the fierce and predatory 
shark pursued its prey, the jay flew 
screaming down the canyon, and the wild 
bee hung to the nodding flowers. 

The oscillations of level of the land can 
be studied very conveniently and near at 
home on the adjacent coast. There exists 
a long line of high cliffs between Siletz 
bay and the mouth of Salmon river, where 
the erosive action of the surf has exposed 
to view a great section of alternate beds 
of sand, gravel and marl or bog mud, in 
which are imbedded the roots and pros- 
trate trunks of spruce and alder trees, of 
the same varieties as existing species. 
These trunks protrude from the banks, 
greatly compressed by the immense 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHWEST. 



weight of one or two hundred feet of sand 
and gravel, were not yet fossilized, but 
would burn when thrown on the campflre 
with but little flame, leaving an ash 
strongly colored with oxide of iron. 

In some localities this wood has been 
partly carbonized, forming a semi-lignite 
or partial coal. These beds of fossil wood 
occurring as strata at three or more suc- 
cessive elevations In the face of the cliffs 
are identical in soil and vegetable prod- 
ucts with existing tide lands, which are 
always formed near the level of high 
tides. They indicate distinct periods of 
repose, when the deposits of mud were 
forming and the trees reaching their 
growth. They also point to a subsidence, 
more or less sudden, when the deposits of 
sand and gravel were accumulated, fol- 
lowed by another cycle of building and 
growth. . . . Associated with the ge- 
ology of the country is the study of min- 
eralogy and the various mineral, metallic 
and other products of the earth. 

The older mountain ranges of the Cas- 
cades, Blue mountains and Coeur d'Alenes 
are rich in deposits of precious and use- 
ful minerals. No portion of our country 
has so many and varied mineral resources 
as the Northwest, though the develop- 
ment of these hidden treasures can hardly 
be said to have been commenced. 

The gold mining of the Northwest is 
principally in placer deposits. The coun- 
ties of Jackson, Curry, Coos, Josephine, 
also Baker, Grant and Union in Eastern 
Oregon, are all productive of gold. Placer 
deposits in British Columbia, the Fraser 
and Stickeen rivers, and on the Yukon, all 
yield gold. Gold is also produced from 
rock quartz in Eastern Oregon and in 
Alaska. Silver in various ores and in lead 
is found and mined in great quantities in 
Idaho and elsewhere in the Northwest, 
and forms a leading industry of the coun- 
try. Ores of iron, including magnetic bog 
and hematite varieties, are found in near- 
ly every portion of the country, and are 
being worked in several localities. 

Oxides and carbonates of copper occur 
in the southwestern counties, also chromic 
iron, cinnabar, platinum, tellurium and 
nickel. In the same region, limestone, 
hydraulic-cement rock, marble, granite, 
syenite, building sand-stones and slates, 
gypsum, asbestos, plumbago, brick and 



potters' clays, steatite and glass sand are 
among the valuable and varied resources 
of the country. Borax in the purest form, 
the borate of soda, is found near the sea- 
coast in Curry county. Chalcedony, sil- 
icified wood, jasper, carnelians and agates 
of great beauty are found on the banks of 
the Columbia and adjacent streams, par- 
ticularly where the river breaks through 
the Coast range near Oak Point and Cath- 
lamet. Coal is mined in a great many 
localities, from Coos bay to Alaska, and 
also east of the mountains. The most 
valuable coals have been found in the 
western foothills of the Cascades on Puget 
sound, on Vancouver island near Nanaimo, 
and at Roslyn, on the eastern slopes of the 
mountains. 

In respect to the forests of the North- 
west, the extent and value of them have 
been well published. The great elevated 
plateau east of the mountains is a tree- 
less region, covered thinly with sage- 
brush, bunch-grass, juniper and dwarf 
pines in places, and with a little willow 
and cottonwood along the streams. The 
mountains, however, are well supplied 
with many varieties of trees found west 
of the Cascades. 

It is in the western division that the 
flora of the country attains its richest de- 
velopment, and, with the exception of the 
Willamette and other smaller valleys, the 
whole northwest coast is covered with a 
luxuriant growth of verdure. As the palm 
is the characteristic tree of the tropics, so 
is the pine the tree of the North. Chief 
among the trees of the Northwest is the 
Douglas spruce or red fir, reaching in fa- 
vored groves great height and size, and 
valuable for the uses of man. The red- 
wood of the California Coast range barely 
steps over the state line, and its place is 
at once taken by the white or Oxford 
cedar, a variety having a very limited 
habitat in Oregon and found in no other 
part of the world. This tree having a 
very thin bark is easily killed by the for- 
est fires, but still remains standing, dry 
and sound for many years, and it is 
curious to see the loggers hauling these 
hard white trunks to the mill to be made 
into lumber. The coniferous pines are 
represented by several species; among 
which are the sugar, black, silver and yel- 
low pine. The white, lovely, yellow and 



IO 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



red fir, the hemlock, spruce, larch, yew, 
cypress, yellow and red cedar are in great 
numbers. Many and indeed most of 
these trees are exceedingly valuable to 
the uses of man. The deciduous trees in- 
clude the white, black and yellow oak, the 
maple, ash, alder and laurel, besides many 
flowering trees. 

The undergrowth in the forests is made 
up of many flowering trees, shrubs and 
plants, and the camas and wapato, flower- 
ing bulbous roots, are common, being used 
as food by the native tribes and Chinese. 
Flax is indigenous in Southern Oregon. In 
addition to the native woods and plants, 
man has introduced great varieties of 
each, and such is the adaptability of a 
generous soil and mild climate that all 
the trees and plants of the temperate 
zone and many of the sub-tropical species 
can be grown in some part of the North- 
west. Large and varied crops of cereals 
and fruits are now raised on lands former- 
ly considered useful only for grazing cat- 
tle and sheep. 

The soil in most portions of the North- 
west is very productive, as is well known 
by the large yield of wheat and other 
cereals grown on certain lands for many 
successive years, without the application 
of artificial fertilizers. The fertility of 
the land is no doubt due in a great meas- 
ure to the volcanic nature of the country. 

The disintegration of various lavas and 
basalts forms a soil rich in the mineral 
salts and earths adapted to the nourish- 
ment of plants and trees. Though the 
climate is classed as dry, as indicated by 
instruments used for determining relative 
humidity, the distinction is applicable 
only to the atmosphere. 

The rainfall is abundant and timely to 
foster the growth of all plant life, and the 
undergrowth in the regions west of the 
Cascade mountains is as dense and impen- 
etrable, though of far different character, 
as in the valley of the Orinoco or Amazon 
rivers. 

The waters abound with fish, of which 
the various species of the salmon family 
are the most numerous and valued. The 
sturgeon, one of the oldest types of fishes, 
surviving the changes of thousands of 
years, and the taking of which was con- 
trolled by the royal perquisites of the 
ancient kings of England, is common — 



in fact, is met with every day on the side- 
walks of our city. The sea is prolific of 
life; whales pass up and down the coast 
from their feeding grounds in the Arctic 
to their breeding grounds in the warm 
bays of Lower California. 

Halibut and herring are caught in great 
quantities, and the cod-fishing grounds in 
Behring sea are the largest and richest in 
the world. Smelt and sardines visit the 
largest rivers in incredible numbers to 
deposit their spawn. Oysters, clams and 
other shell fish inhabit the salt-water 
bays, and the pholus or rock oyster bores 
its home in every soft rocky ledge along 
the coast. . . . 

The fauna of the northwest coast is an 
interesting study, embracing every species 
known to the temperate zone. The black 
and cinnamon bear are common, and the 
formidable grizzly bear may be found in 
the mountains, if any one cares to go and 
look for him. The great gray wolf inhab- 
its the gloomiest forests, but is rarely seen 
except when driven by deep snows to 
prey upon herds of sheep or cattle, and 
that thief of the plains, the coyote or 
prairie wolf, is common east of the moun- 
tains. Among the predatory animals may 
be mentioned the cougar or mountain lion 
and the Canada lynx or wildcat. 

Reindeer, cariboo, elk, the mule and 
the Virginia deer, and the fleet-footed 
antelope represent the family of the cer- 
vidae. 

The mouflon or big-horned sheep and 
the great mountain goat frequent the most 
inaccessible rocky peaks of the highest 
mountains, above the limits of perpetual 
snow. The fur-bearing animals, whose 
winter coats are sought after by man to 
make his winter coats, embrace numerous 
species, as the fur seal, sea and land otter, 
beaver, fisher mink, the silver, cross and 
red fox, muskrat and weasel or ermine. 
Of these animals, the fur seal is by far 
the most important, the capture of which 
is likely to lead to serious international 
complications. The polar bear and walrus 
inhabit the frozen regions, and are objects 
of the chase for the Northern coast tribes, 
and with the confinon or hair seal form 
their main subsistence. Harmless snakes 
are numerous west of the mountains, and 
the rattlesnake is occasionally found in 
the eastern portion of the country and in 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NORTHWEST. n 



Southern Oregon. Swans, geese and brant, 
together with nearly every known species 
of ducks, cranes, plover, snipe and other 
wading birds, are found in incredible num- 
bers, breeding in and migrating to and 
from various parts of the Northwest. 

Eagles, vultures, owls, hawks and buz- 
zards are numerous, besides great varie- 
ties of song birds, and the tiny humming- 
bird flashes its brilliant colors through the 
foliage of the Alaskan summers. Grouse 
of several varieties, and quail are plenti- 
ful. 

The Mongolian pheasant has been read- 
ily acclimated and added to the list of 
game birds of the country. Very many 
varieties of this list of animals, birds and 
fishes are exceedingly valuable to the uses 
and pursuits of man. 

The varieties of the human race, indig- 
enous to the Northwest, can be placed in 
two divisions, the Indian and the Aleut 
or Esquimaux. The vast number of na- 
tives seen and mentioned by Lewis and 
Clark, along the shores of the Columbia, 
have melted away before the advance of 
civilization like snow before the sun. That 
great numbers did exist is shown also by 
the numerous shell heaps, piles of kitchen 
middens, broken stones, pestles and mor- 
tars, arrow heads and other implements 
found at every advantageous point on the 
rivers and bays along the whole coast. 
Some of these deposits are laid bare by 
the washing away of the alluvial banks 
under which they have been buried for 
long years, as may be seen in places by 
the large trees growing directly over the 
deposits. These natives were always di- 
vided into numerous tribes, inhabiting a 
larger or smaller territory, and the tribal 
divisions were so distinctly marked and 
had been maintained through so many 
generations, that the language or dialect 
of one tribe could not be understood by 
the other. The different tribes were gen- 
erally in an attitude of armed peace, or 
else engaged in active war, the successful 
contestants carrying off and making slaves 
of their female captives. 

The fishing tribes along the coast were 
the least warlike or aggressive, and suf- 
fered from frequent raids and forays of 
their mountain neighbors. Those tribes 
of the interior and the North, depending 



more on the pursuits of the chase, were 
more predaceous and warlike. 

The Aleuts of the Codiak peninsula and 
Fox islands were found to resemble in 
every respect of race, characteristics and 
mode of life the Esquimaux of the Siberian 
coast. Ethnologists have found that this 
race inhabit a circle surrounding the 
North Pole, and that the race types are 
well and distinctly marked. 

Primeval man or his descendants, the 
aboriginal races, have, like the native 
race of animals, been content to pursue 
a life of nature, hunting, fishing, gather- 
ing the natural products of the soil and 
waters, or preying on each other's sub- 
stance by raids and wars. With civilized 
man it is far different, and no view of 
physical geography would be complete 
without considering the changed aspects 
of the face of nature produced by the vast 
workings of civilized man. In the book 
of Genesis we are told that God gave man 
dominion over the earth and over every 
living thing, with the injunction to sub- 
due it, and man has interpreted the text 
literally; for, not content with gathering 
the fruits and killing the animals nature 
presents for his sustenance, he has entered 
into a contest not only to take possession 
of the earth, but to make war upon the 
operations of nature herself. 

Man's vast operations have not yet had 
the effect upon our Northwest that may 
be traced in other countries, but give him 
time and he will no doubt fulfill his con- 
tract. 

The character of a race is largely in- 
fluenced by its environment. It cannot be 
doubted that diversity of pursuits and 
occupation in man leads to difference in 
character and acquirements. The im- 
mense hordes of human beings inhabiting 
the wide steppes of Russia and Siberia, 
and the vast plains of Tartary, have for 
ages followed the monotonous life dictated 
to them by the dreary desolation of their 
limitless horizon. 

A vast expanse of boundless prairie, 
barely supporting at the most favorable 
seasons the lives of their cattle and horses, 
has the natural tendency to repress all 
ambition and desire for elevation. They 
have not advanced beyond the semi-civil- 
ization of their progenitors in the occupa- 
tion of tending their flocks and herds. 



12 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



Their environment offers them no diver- 
sity of pursuits. 

The physical geography of the North- 
west shows a country so rich and varied 
in diversity of surface, of wide plains, 
smiling valleys, dense forests, broad rivers 
and rushing torrents, that the influence 
of the face of nature is inspiring. We 
look from some high mountain summit 
over the grand forests and valleys of our 
country, watching the clouds chase their 
shadows across the gorges and canyons, 
and, as the voices of the swaying pines, 
the murmur of a torrent or roar of some 
unseen waterfall falls upon our ear, our 
minds are full of thoughts that words fail 
to express. As we turn our faces towards 
the sublime height of the snow-clad moun- 
tains, lifting their peaks far above the 
limits of all life, our fancy takes us back- 
ward; we see again the fiery cones belch- 
ing forth stones and ashes, and rivers 01 
lava pushing their resistless course 



through the burning forests, and the sky 
covered with a sable pall, and our hearts 
are filled with wonder and awe. 

The varied industries necessary to sub- 
due and develop the vast resources of the 
country will in the future attract men of 
all professions and artisanships. The 
herdsman, the farmer, the horticulturist, 
the miner, the millwright, the engineer, 
the mechanic and cunning artificer In 
wood and metal, will all find material 
ready to his hand. 

The physical characteristics of the 
Northwest, under a careful study of the 
different subjects, the climate, the soil, 
the varied products of nature, the inspir- 
ing influence of pastoral and sublime 
scenery on our moral and intellectual na- 
tures, all will develop the knowledge that 
in our country may be found every mate- 
rial and natural resource necessary to tha 
development and well-being of the high- 
est types of the human race. 




DESPONDENCY. 



Yearnings for only a glimmer 
Of harvest of golden grain- 
Praying to God in the darkness; 
Praying for light and for rain; 
For rain that this barren desert 
May bloom in fullness of song — 
Praying, and watching, and waiting; 
Patiently waiting and long. 
Oh! must our watching be futile? 
Oh! must our prayers be in vain? 
Oh! shall we never behold it— 
The waving of rip'ning grain? 
God send us aid to be faithful! 
Grant that our hearts may be strong! 
Grant but a glint of the laurels, 
To those who watch faithful and long. 
Grant us assurance of welcome 
At last to proud victory's throng. 

—John Liesk Tait. 



HOW THE COMMANDER SAILED. 



By DAVID STARR JORDAN, President of LeUnd Stanford, Jr. University. 



O' 



NCE there was a great sea captain, 
born in Jutland, in 1681, and his 
name was Vitus Bering. But when he 
went away from Denmark and became a 
commander in the Russian navy they 
called him Ivan Ivanovich Bering, for 
that was easier for the Russians to sa\. 
He was a man of great stature, ana 
greater heart, strong, brave and patient, 
and so the Russians chose him to lead 
in the explorations of Siberia and North 
America. 

And so it chanced that in the spring of 
1741 Vitus Bering found himself in the 
little village of Petropaulski, the harbor 
of Peter and Paul, which is the capita 
of the vast uninhabitable region of moss, 
volcanoes and mountain torrents they 
call Kamchatka. 

And from the village of Peter and Paul 
Bering sailed forth to explore the icy 
sea and to find North America, and to 
learn how to reach it from Kamchatka. 
There were 77 men all told on board the 
St. Peter, and one of them was George 
Wilhelm Steller, the German naturalist, 
clear-headed, warm-hearted and impera- 
tive, who has told the story of the voy- 
age. 

First they sailed for Gamaland, a great 
island, which, on the Russian maps of 
that day, lay in the ocean to the south- 
east of Kamchatka. But when the St. 
Peter came to where Gamaland was, they 
said: "Only sea and sky; a few wan- 
dering birds, and no land at all." There 
never was any Gamaland, but Bering did 
not know this, so he was surprised to 
find no land nearer than the bottom of 
the sea. 

The east wind blew and the great fogs 
hid the sun and stars, but still Bering 
sailed on. Away over the sea where Gam- 
aland was not, away to the eastward, on 
and on, till at last they saw before them 
a great belt of land. The coast was high 



*I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to 
Peter Lauridseu, whose "Life of Vitus Bering" has 
been freely consulted in the preparation of this 
article. 



and jagged, covered with snow in July, 
and lined with wild islands, between 
which the sea swept in swift currents. 
Over the scrubby forests of stunted fir a 
snow-capped mountain towered so high 
that they could see it 70 miles away. "I 
do not remember," Steller wrote, "of 
having seen a higher mountain in all 
Siberia and Kamchatka." And he was 
right, for there was none other so high 
in all the Russian dominions. As it was 
the day of St. Elias, they named the 
mountain for the saint, and the bay and 
the cape and the island, everything they 
saw was named for St. Elias. And they 
are named for St. Elias to this day; and 
Mount St. Elias is the highest in all 
North America. They found no inhabi- 
tants in St. Elias-land. They had all run 
away in fear at the sight of the ship 
and the white men. But they found a 
"house of timber with a fireplace, a bath- 
basket, a wooden spade, some mussel- 
shells and a whetstone," used to sharpen 
copper knives. Besides these articles 
they found in an earth hut "some smoked 
fish, a broken arrow and the remains of 
a fire." Some of these things they took 
away with them. So, to make every- 
thing fair, Bering left in the house "an 
iron kettle, a pound of tobacco, a Chinese 
pipe and a piece of silk cloth." But no 
one was there when the Indians returned 
to see what use they made of these un- 
expected presents. 

They did not stay long about the bay 
of St. Elias. Bering knew that the 
summer was well along, and that if they 
were to learn anything of the coast they 
must go along it rapidly. With their few 
provisions and their small ship they 
could not spend the winter in this rough 
country. Many men have blamed him for 
going away so soon. Whether Bering did 
right it is not for us to say. We know 
Steller's opinion, but Bering's we have 
not heard. Steller said: "The only rea- 
son for leaving was stupid obstinacy, 
fear of a handful of natives, and pusil- 



H 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



animous homesickness. For 10 years 
Bering had equipped himself for this 
great enterprise; the explorations lasted 
10 hours." "We have gone over to the 
New World," he said, "simply to bring 
American water to Asia." 

But however this may be, Bering had 
none too much time for his return to 
Kamachatka. Half his crew were sick 
already, and the rest were none too 
strong. Those who would stay here 
longer, Bering said, forget "how far we 
are from home and what may yet befall 
us." So the St. Peter sailed homeward 
on the wings of a southeast gale. In 
the mist and fog the coast was invisible, 
though the soundings showed that land 
was not far away. Islands they sighted 
from time to time, black, inhospitable 
headlands, where the great surf broke 
before the constant gales. They sailed 
around the great island of Kadeah, nar- 
rowly escaping shipwreck on an island 
they called the Foggy one; but every 
island is foggy in those wild, storm- 
washed seas. 

Once more they saw the tall, snow- 
capped volcanoes of the mainland, as 
they passed close below the seven high 
rocks we call the Semidi; and whenever 
the sun shone for a day the sea grew 
rougher than ever, for a break in the 
clouds of the north is the signal for a 
new storm. Salted meats and hard bis- 
cuit without change of diet brought on 
the disease called scurvy. This comes 
when men eat too much salt without 
fruit or vegetables, and it shows itself 
in loosened teeth which fall out of the 
shrunken gums. Affairs grew worse and 
worse, Bering and more than half his 
men were sick, and when they came to 
the 13 ragged, barren islands that rise 
above the surf in the thick mist, they 
landed there and carried the sick ones 
ashore. One of the sailors, named Shu- 
magin, died here, and so the islands are 
called Shumagin to this day. 

While the men searched for fresh water 
Steller looked everywhere for roots and 
berries with which to heal the men sick 
with scurvy. Some of the most delicious 
berries in the world grow on these islands; 
and Bering was wonderfully helped by 
them. The medicine chest, it was said, 
contained "plasters and salves for half 



an army," but no remedies for men who 
were hurt inwardly by the poor food. 

At the Shumagins the sailors filled 
their water-casks, but they took water 
from a pond into which the surf hao 
broken, and when they came to drink it 
the scurvy grew worse than ever. One 
of their boats was wrecked as they went 
on, and they had trouble with the Esqui- 
maux on the shores. Still they sailed on, 
with the east wind behind and the thick 
cloud rack overhead. 

Then the wind blew from the west *uid 
rose from time to time into hurricanes. 
"I know of no harder, more fatiguing 
life," wrote one of Bering's officers, "than 
to sail an unknown sea." And of all the 
seas in the world, none is rougher than 
the one the St. Peter sailed, and none 
has such a wilderness of inhospitable 
islands along its shores. When Bering's 
men thought they were half-way home 
they saw land to the north of them, still 
another wild, inhospitable cliff, topped 
by a snowy volcano. They called the 
island St. Johannes, but its real name 
is Atka, and there are many more such 
before one comes to the end, where the 
far west joins "the unmitigated east." 
Still they sailed against the west wind, 
which Steller said "seemed to issue from 
a flue, with such a whistling, roaring 
and rumbling that we expected every 
moment to lose mast and rudder, or to 
see the ship crushed between the break- 
ers. The dashing of the heavy sea 
against the vessel sounded like cannon." 
They could not stand erect on the ship; 
they could not cook. The few who were 
well remained so because they did not 
dare to get sick. All lost "their firmness 
of purpose; their courage became un- 
steady as their teeth." Still they sailed 
on. It was as easy to do that as to re- 
turn. Still another snow-topped island, 
Amchitka, came in view to the north, 
again to their great surprise, for they 
thought they were in the open sea. They 
knew nothing of the long line of Aleutian 
volcanoes which pass in a great bow 
from Alaska across to Kamchatka. They 
sailed past Attu, the last of the Aleutian 
islands. After a time they came to a 
long, steep coast, running north and 
south, which they took for Kamchatka. 
Every one was overjoyed. Bering crawl- 



HOW THE COMMANDER SAILED. 



t5 



ed from his bed to the deck, revived by 
the sight of what seemed to be friendly 
land, and in such fashion as they could 
they celebrated their "happy return." 

But though the land they found was 
very different from the Aleutian islands, 
and bore no volcano at its summit, they 
could not recognize it, nor did they find 
it hospitable. Medni island is a narrow 
backbone of rock, shaped like a crosscut 
saw, with wild cliffs and great r.eefs, 
over which the surf breaks on the deep 
green waves. There were no inhabitants, 
no harbors, no landing places, and the 
winds came down in wild gusts or "wil- 
lie-waugs" from the snow-covered craggy 
heights. A storm carried away their 
mainsail, and as they drifted along, to 
the northward, the island came to an 
end in a cluster of jagged rocks. So it 
could not be Kamchatka. Their joy gave 
way to direst distress. The sailors broke 
out in mutiny. Nobody cared for the 
ship. It drifted on to the west with the 
gentle wind beating against a little sail 
at its foremast, but the ship with neither 
helmsman nor commander. 

Soon another island loomed up before 
them, a shore of great flat-topped moun- 
tains, ending in huge black vertical cliffs 
at the sea. In a clear night they came 
to anchor in a little bay to the north of 
a black promoncory now called Tolstoi 
Mys, the thick cape. In the great surf 
"the ship was tossed like a ball," the 
cable of their anchor snapped, and the 
vessel came near being crushed on the 
jagged rocks of the shore. 

In the morning they landed in the lit- 
tle sandy bay north of Tolstoi, and set 
out in search for inhabitants. They found 
none, for Bering's men were the first who 
ever set foot on the twin Storm islands. 
The little bay was surrounded by high 
craggy steeps, without trees, overgrown 
by dense moss, and cut by swift brooks. 
The sailors, under Steller's direction, 
built a house in the sand, and covered it 
with driftwood and turf, and made its 
walls of the carcasses of the foxes they 
had killed for their skins. Everywhere 
swarmed the little foxes, blue foxes and 
white foxes, Eichkao and all his hungry 
family, and those of the sailors who died 
were devoured almost before they could 
be buried. Other little huts they made 



of driftwood and foxes, their floors dug 
out of the sand. 

Then Commander Bering, still helpless, 
was placed in one of these. The vessel, 
when he had left it, was beached by a 
storm, and the crew dragged it up into 
the sand, where it could be all winter. 
The blue fox, the most greedy and selfish 
of animals, hung around the camp all 
winter, attacking the sick and devouring 
the dead, almost before the eyes of their 
friends. Of the 77, 31 died, among them 
Bering himself. "He was," Steller said, 
"buried alive; the sand kept constantly 
rolling down upon him from the sides of 
the pit and covered his feet. At first 
this was removed, but finally he asked 
that it might remain, as it furnished him 
a little of the warmth he so sorely need- 
ed. Soon half his body was under the 
sand, and his comrades had to dig him 
out to give him a decent burial." 

So perished the great commander at 
the age of 60 years. The island where 
he died has ever since then been called 
Bering island. The two great "Storm 
islands," Bering and Medni, or Copper 
island, have been called for him, Kom- 
andorski, the Islands of the Commander, 
and the great icy sea is known as Bering 
sea. And his life and work, says Laurid- 
sen, will ever stand as "living testimony 
of what northern perseverance is able 
to accomplish, even with the most hum- 
ble means." In the spring of 1742 Stel- 
ler and the rest made of the wreck oi 
the St. Peter an open boat, in which 
they traversed the 150 miles of the icy 
sea between Bering island and Petropaul- 
ski, and we need not follow them fur- 
ther. 

But their stay on Bering island is for- 
ever famous for the discovery of the 
"four great beasts" of the sea, on the 
account of which Steller's fame as a nat- 
uralist largely rests. These were the 
sea cow, the sea otter, the sealion and 
the sea bear. 

In the giant kelp which grows on all 
the sunken reefs, like a great tawny 
mane, the sea cow had her home. A 
huge, blundering, harmless beast, feeding 
on kelp, shaped like a whale in body, but 
with a cow-like head, a split upper lip 
and a homely, amiable appearance, as be- 
fits a beast of great ugliness who lives 



i6 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



like a cow on weeds. The creature was 
40 feet in length and weighed about three 
tons. Bering's men soon found that the 
seacow made good seasteaks. They fed 
freely on her meat, and the sailors who 
came after them in years to come de- 
voured and destroyed them all. The last 
one was killed in 1768, and its bones are 
now among the treasures of the great 
museums. 

Next came the seat otter, a creature as 
large as a good-sized dog, with long gray 
fur, the finest of all fur for cloaks and 
overcoats. The sea otter lived in the 
sea about the islands, the female swim- 
ming about in the kelp, with her young 
in her arms, and making long trips from 
place to place in search of food. The sea 
otter is not extinct, but it is growing rare, 
and a good skin is worth now from $500 
to $1500. 

The great sealion was a ponderous 
beast, like the fur seal in figure and 
habits, but much larger, the male weigh- 
ing upwards of 1500 pounds. His huge 
head is like that of a St. Bernard dog, 
and his roar is one of the grandest sounds 
on earth. It is a rich, mellow, double 
bass, like the voice of a mighty organ, 
and it can be heard for miles. The female 
is much smaller, also yellowish gray in 
color, and has also a rich bass voice an 
octave higher. When a herd of sealions 
are driven into the sea, they will rise 
out of the surf at once and all together, 
roaring in chorus. Such a wonderful 
chorus can be heard nowhere else on 
earth, and it is no wonder that the lion 
of the sea made a great impression on 
Steller. The sealions live in families on 
the rocks, where the males fight for su- 
premacy, often overturning huge boul- 
ders in their struggles. The young are 
cinnamon-colored, and when they are born 
they look much like female fur seals, and 
are almost as large. And when the old 
males are fighting they toddle away, else 



they will be crushed under the rocks, or 
trampled on by huge, flappy feet. 

But most interesting of all the great 
beasts of the sea was the one Steller 
called the sea bear, "Ursus Marinus," 
or, as men now call it, the "fur seal." 
These creatures came on shore by the 
thousands on the west coast of Bering 
island, when the ice left the island in the 
spring. They made their homes on the 
rocks of Poludionnoye, as it were a great 
city rising from the sea. 

But the story of how "the great man 
seal haul out of the sea" on Bering and 
Medni and St. Paul and St. George and 
Robben has been many times told, and 
in many ways, so I need not give it 
here. 

But we can imagine how Steller looked 
down on the slopes of Poludionnoye and 
saw the old beach-masters roar and groan 
and weep and blow out their musky 
breath as they fought for supremacy. 
We can see with him the trim ranks of 
sleek and dainty matkas, tripping up ihe 
beach as they come back from the long 
swim. We can imagine the great groups 
of snug kotiks that clustered about the 
warring beach-masters, while along the 
shores wandered and played the hosts of 
young bachelors eager to keep near the 
homes, but afraid to enter them till their 
wigs and tusks had grown. We can 
see them in countless hosts, trooping, 
playing, sleeping on the sands, reckless 
of drive and unharmed by clubs, and we 
can understand the splendid enthusiasm 
with which the discoverer of all these 
things wrote of the "beasts of the sea." 
And as a recompense for all the pain and 
disappointment in Bering's life, we can 
place the fact that he was the first. His 
for all time are the twin Storm islands, 
where the St. Peter was wrecked and tht 
commander met his death, and his for- 
ever shall be the great icy sea. 




OVER THE BAR. 



By LISCHEN M. MILLER. 



(~\ N the loneliest of lonely shores, on 
^ the very verge of the continent, 
nestled close against the base of the 
grassy headland, stands, or used to stand, 
a little cabin built of driftwood. 

From its low doorway one locks out 
over a stretch of sand and surf and wind- 
swept sea to the place where the sun 
goes down. Northward the view is shut 
off suddenly by the frowning cliff, upon 
whose rugged front the waves beat cease- 
lessly. It is a quiet and restful spot in 
spite of its solemn grandeur, and one 
grows into closer kinship with Nature 
there. In those days travelers did not 
often come that way, for there was no 
road, only a narrow trail winding in and 
out among the hills and along the brow 
of the beetling cliff. The nearest human 
habitation was a good 1.0 miles away to 
the south. 

One stormy night in November we 
gathered about the driftwood fire that 
oiazed upon the generous hearth in the 
little cabin. Outside the wind shrieked 
and howled, and the roar of the surf 
was something awful to hear. The rain 
beat furiously against the one small win- 
dow and fell in sheets upon the "shakes" 
overhead. 

At every fresh outburst oi the tempest 
we shivered, not from fear or cold, but 
with a delicious sense of contrast — the 
fury without, the warmth within. 

"If it had happened on such a night 
as this," said the captain, breaking 
through the easy silence. "If it had hap- 
pened on such a night, I could better 
have understood the loss." His deep, full 
voice had an unaccustomed ring of sad- 
ness, and his face, showing like a splen- 
did bronze in the ruddy firelight, wore a 
retrospective look as he gazed into the 
leaping flames. 

"What was it that happened on a night 
not like this?" asked Neja, saucily, from 
her sealion pelt in the corner. Neja did 
not share our respect for the captain. 
She stood in no awe of him, or of any 



one, in fact. She was a law unto her- 
self. 

The captain looked up at her question. 
"I was thinking of my boys," he said. 
"I must have spoken my thought uncon- 
sciously." 

The captain's wife leaned <.ver and 
slipped her white hand into his strong 
brown one. "Tell them about it, dear," 
she said, softly. 

"Yes, tell us," we urged, for we bad 
never heard the story, though we knew 
that in some sad and unaccountable way 
the two young men in question had met 
their fate. 

"It was three years ago," began the 
captain, looking again into the Are. 
"Three years ago. There were not more 
than a dozen white settlers on the river 
then, though the country was full of 
Indians. There was, it is true, the sal- 
mon cannery at the mouth of the river 
where Neja has her claim, but the men 
who worked there were brought in by the 
company at the beginning of the season, 
and taken out at its close. They were in 
no sense settlers. 

"We had come up, my boys and I, a 
few months before, and located our land 
and built our cabins, making the improve- 
ments necessary to establishing claims. 
My wife was still in the city, and I did 
not then propose to bring her into this 
wilderness. The boys were enthusiastic 
over the evident resources of the coun- 
try, the excellence of the harbor which 
they had in a sense discovered, and were 
full of plans for the future. 

"Well, as I said, we had our cabins up 
and fairly habitable, and as winter was 
coming on, and it was unnecessary for us 
all to remain here, Harold decided to 
return to San Francisco to look after our 
interests there till spring. A vessel had 
come in to carry out the season's re- 
sults in salmon, and it seemed a good 
chance for Harold to return home with- 
out the difficulties and delays incident 
to the journey overland. Besides, the 



i8 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



master of the Mist was short of men and 
offered him a berth, which in it3elf was 
an inducement, for our funds were run- 
ning low. 

"A few nights before the vessel was to 
sail, as I lay wrapped in my blankets 
before my cabin fire, I had a disturbing 
dream. It made so strong an impression 
upon me that I urged Harold to give up 
his intended voyage. He only laughed at 
my fears, and, indeed, I had to confess 
them to myself foolish and ungrounded." 
Here the captain lapsed into silence, 
seeming to forget his audience in retro- 
spection. 

"Tell us the dream," ventured Neja, 
softly, and the captain, always responsive 
to her voice, whether grave or gay, con- 
tinued: 

"It was this: I dreamed that, standing 
upon the shore, I watched the Mist, with 
my two boys on board, sail out across 
the bar. As I looked, a great wave lifted 
her upon its mighty crest, held her sus- 
pended thus a single instant, then, as if 
she had been a painted toy, snapt her 
beams asunder, and her parted decks 
went down forever out of sight in the 
gulfs of the sea. 

"Well, the cargo was all stowed, the 
water-casks filled and everything made 
ready for departure. The weather was 
fine, the bar as smooth as I have ever 
seen it. The Mist was to sail in the 
morning at floodtide, which would occur 
about 10 o'clock. Harold was on board, 
and late in the afternoon Fred took a 
small boat and pulled out to the ship 
where she lay anchored in the bend of 
the river just opposite the cannery. He 
meant to spend the night on board and 
take leave of his brother in the morning. 
"As I came down the coast and climbed 
the hills above the cannery in the red 
glow of the setting sun, I saw my brave 
boys leaning over the ship's rail, and 
waved my hand to them. They answered 
gaily, and Fred laughingly called out 
that he was going, too. Their words 
came to me clearly and distinctly in the 
stillness of the evening, and as I rode 
along the shore I heard the voices of the 
sailors and the shuffling of their feet as 
they passed to and fro about their work. 
"Late that night the people at the 
cannery saw the ship's lights shining 



quietly, and thought as they retired to 
rest that all was well with her. At break 
of day, when they looked out, she was 
gone. 

" 'Strange,' they said, 'that she should 
attempt the bar in the night, and at low 
tide, too,' and went about their work. 

"A bank of fog lay close alongshore 
and hid the white surf line and the bar, 
not half a mile distant, whereat the men 
grumbled, for it was a rare sight to see 
a vessel sailing by, and they had looked 
forward for days to the mild excitement 
of watching the Mist cross the bar and 
fade away into the distance down the 
coast. They speculated variously about 
the absent boat and her unaccountable 
movements, commenting severely upon 
the rashness of the captain in braving 
the dangers of a practically unknown 
bar in the darkness of night and at a 
stage of tide considered unsafe even in 
broad day. 

"Along toward noon the fog cleared 
away, and there, not more than a mile 
to the southward and just outside the 
breakers, lay the Mist, motionless, with 
her sails still furled, evidently riding at 
anchor. 

"All day she lay there, and the men 
on shore cast many a wondering glance 
toward her, but she sent no signal or 
sign of distress, only at irregular inter- 
vals, in the breathless stillness, a long- 
drawn, wailing cry came up from the 
sea, the like of which they had never 
heard before. Whether it came from 
the ship, or from the sands or further 
out they could not tell. Sound carries 
strangely in the dead October calms that 
hold these lonely regions as in a spell. 

" 'Sealions, likely,' they said, and yet 
they were mysteriously moved by it. 

"The sun went down and the stars 
came out, and the Mist faded to a dimly 
discernible shadow. She hung out no 
lights, which was in itself a thing to 
cause comment. Something must be 
wrong, and they resolved that if she still 
lay there when morning came they would 
try to discover what it was. Their vague 
uneasiness would not let them sleep very 
soundly that night. As soon as it was 
light some one brought a glass and they 
observed her long and carefully, only to 



OVER THE BAR. 



19 



report that not a soul was to be seen on 
board. 

"Some of the men took a boat and 
rowed across the river, and, walking over 
the sandspit, came down to the shore 
within hailing distance of the vessel 
rocking idly just beyond the breakers. 
They called and shouted themselves 
hoarse, but elicited no response, nor 
caught sight of any living thing on board. 
But as they turned away, above the r^a? 
of the surf rose a cry so wild, so weird 
and mournful that their very hearts 
stood still. Just once they heard it, and 
they could have sworn that it came from 
the deck of the deserted ship. 

"No one thought of sleep that night. 
The mystery surrounding the vessel out 
there in the darkness was a thing that 
oppressed them heavily. 

"The morning of the third day found 
them ready for action. It was out of 
the question to carry any one of the heavy 
fishing boats across the sands and launch 
it through the always boisterous surf, but 
the day was calm, with not a breath of 
wind, and the bar lay as smooth as a 
mountain lake. It would be an easy mat- 
ter to pull out and back before there 
should be any change in the weather. 
Six of the best oarsmen in the place, 
therefore, set off on the last of the tide 
in the gray dawn. They pulled a steady 
stroke, and the swiftly ebbing tide seem- 
ed to fairly shoot them along and out 
across the bar. When well outside they 
turned southward, and those watching 
from the shore could note the small boat 
rise and fall with the swell of the sea. 

"As for the men themselves, a silence 
fell upon them as they turned toward 
the ship, that was unbroken till they 
came within a cable's length of her bows. 
Then they rested upon their oars and 
hailed. There was no answer. Again 
they shouted, and a low, whining cry 
thrilled the morning air. They rowed 
slowly all around her. There was not 
another sound heard from her decks, nor 
had they sight of anything, human or 
alive. 

"The red and blue shirts of the sailors 
were hanging aloft as if to dry. Her life- 
boats were undisturbed. Everything 
looked as it had looked when she lay in 
the bend of the river three days before, 



save that she seemed a little lower in 
the water as she swung there in dan- 
gerous proximity to the breakers, held 
only by her kedge anchor. From her 
stern dangled a rope, evidently the 
painter of Fred's boat. This rope showed 
a clean cut, as if it had been severed by 
a sharp knife. 

"They boarded her without difficulty. 
As the first man stepped over the rail 
the meaning of that weird cry was clear, 
for there bounded to meet him 'Dis,' the 
captain's handsome St. Bernard, gaunt 
with hunger and wild with joy. 

"They searched from stem to stern; 
they went down into her hold; they look- 
ed high and low, everywhere. Not a soul 
was to be found. Save for 'Dis' the ship 
was deserted. How, when or where it 
was beyond them to determine. Nothing 
but the men was missing. The sailors' 
stormcoats and caps were lying in the 
empty bunks, as if but a moment since 
discarded; the ship's log, the captain's 
private papers, the compass, all things, 
in fact, were in place. If master and men 
had left that ship alive they had left it 
empty-handed. Their fate, the strange 
and sudden disappearance, and the man- 
ner of it, are shrouded in impenetrable 
mystery. 

"I never saw my boys again. But — " 
The captain paused and glanced toward 
his wife. There were tears glittering on 
her long, dark lashes. 

"Is there nothing more?" asked Neja 
softly. "Did you never hear or find even 
the least little hint or trace, nothing 
that gave you any clue?" 

"No," replied the captain; "nothing, 
at least nothing that I could be sure of. 
It is true that some six months later 
the headless body of a man was picked 
up on the beach 20 miles to the north; 
that was thought by many to be that of 
the captain of the Mist, from a pecu- 
liarly-chased gold ring found on the 
little finger of the left hand, but no one 
ever really knew. No; there was noth- 
ing, but — " The captain looked again at 
his young wife. She shook her head 
and smiled through her tears. 

"That is another story, my dear," she 
said; "another story altogether, and to- 
night is not the time to tell it." 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



"By SAMUEL JACQUES BRUN. 



THE French youth is duly ushered into 
the world under the auspices of a 
"sage femme" of the village, and wrap- 
ped in swaddling clothes like the infant 
Jesus. In this costume of close wrap- 
pings that gives little play to the limbs, 
he is kept for the first six months; and 
the mother and father will tell you that 
it is a very good system, because a very 
old one. 

Within 48 hours after birth he takes 
part in his first ceremony of state — the 
registry at the mayor's office, and gets 
his birth certificate, which fictitiously 
reads that the child has been brought to 
the mayor of the place, who ascertained 
him to be a child of the male sex, and 
whom the parents wish to have here reg- 
istered under the names of, etc. Then 
follows a period of banishment from the 
parental presence, for most likely he is 
placed with a nurse in the country dur- 
ing his infancy, and upon his occasional 
visits to mamma he may recognize her 
but prefer his foster-mother. Even after 
his return to his parents the bond be- 
tween the two is kept up, and a certain 
patronage expected by his foster-broth- 
ers through life. 

The youth, if he be the eldest, is early 
impressed with his future responsibility 
as head of the family. His conscious au- 
thority asserts itself in many childish 
comedies. As heir apparent and protector 
of the honor of his house and the women, 
he indulges in precocious fancies. He 
vows to cherish his doting grandmother, 
to shelter her in his house forever, and 
to protect her even by means of blows 
from any indignities from his wife. His 
favorite aunt he has already, at the age 
of 6 years, promised to marry, and as- 
sures her he will wed no other. 

Thus, early resenting the offices of the 
match-makers, who would lead the par- 
ents to decide the fate of their children 
before they reach the age of self-asser- 
tion. He does not, like many American 
boys, grow up with books and magazines 



in the home. Instead of the circle around 
the evening lamp with the Youth's Com- 
panion or Saint Nicholas, the French boys 
gather around the hearth and listen to 
story-tellers. Sometimes it is history, 
sometimes romance; but always very real 
like a voice out of their own past. 

History and art he learns from oral 
and object-lessons. The historic monu- 
ments and ruins, the cathedrals, statues 
and paintings are always to be seen or 
accessible, and a constantly educating in- 
fluence to the humblest citizen. The vil- 
lage boy, though he is no student, has a 
remarkable perception of good taste and 
artistic fitness, which comes no doubt 
from his contact with art in the church, 
in public structures, and in public pa- 
rades. He has also a keen appreciation 
of what freedom means; for everywhere 
he sees relics of tho broken bonds of 
fuedal oppression. 

His home work and his home play are 
not unfamiliar to American boys, but a 
glimpse of his school days, college and 
military life and marriage customs may 
be of some interest. 

Guizot, in 1833, gave the first impetus 
to public education in France, but up to 
1870 there were public schools only in 
the more enlightened communities. Poor 
country villages had none, and many boys 
and girls grew up entirely illiterate, 
unable to either read or write their 
names. To be sure, there were a few 
private schools of a religious character, 
but the children of the better class who 
went to school at all did not like to go, 
the schoolrooms were unattractive, the 
lessons dry, and the teachers uninterest- 
ing. 

A Frenchman visiting the United States 
in 1886, noticing how eager our boys and 
girls were to attend school remarked: 
"It is not so in France; they have to 
be driven to school with a stick." Such 
was the case previous to the Franco- 
Prussian war. 

That war, which caused the downfall 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



21 



of Napoleon III, also brought about a 
great awakening in France. The great 
men of that nation realized that Ger- 
many's superiority lay in the education of 
her humblest citizens. "The school- 
teachers of Germany have beaten us," 
was the common saying, and France set 
to work in earnest to popularize educa- 
tion. There were many obstacles to be 
overcome, not the least of which was the 
economy of the peasantry. After the 
schools were built and equipped, they re- 
fused to take their children from work 
to send them to school. So, for the good 
of the children who were growing up in 
ignorance, the government obtained from 
parliament in 1882 a school law which 
embodied two good provisions, viz., free 
tuition and compulsory education, from 
the age of 6 to 14. Inspectors were ap- 
pointed to see that the provisions of the 
law were complied with, and in case of 
infraction the father or guardian was lia- 
ble to three kinds of punishment. For 
the first offense his name was to be post- 
ed, either for two weeks or a month, in 
the most conspicuous part of his village 
or town; for the second offense, he was 
to be fined from 11 to 15 francs, and for 
the third offense sent to jail for five days 
and even deprived of his political and 
civil rights. The law has worked well, 
and today there are fewer opponents to 
its enforcement than there were 15 years 
ago. Very few children are now illiter- 
ate; it is no longer necessary to drive 
them to school; they go of their own ac- 
cord, and are as eager, almost, for an ed- 
ucation as are American boys. 

To give the details of the work in the 
public schools would lead me too far, but 
I will describe a feature of the system 
not generally known. I refer to the cre- 
ation of bureaus of savings in connection 
with the government schools. The aim 
of these bureaus is to cause children to 
contract early habits of thrift and econ- 
omy. France is a thrifty and rich na- 
tion. She owes her wealth to her geo- 
graphical position, to the fertility of her 
soil, to the thorough cultivation of her 
fields, to the intelligent preservation of 
her forests; in short, to the proper hus- 
banding of all her numerous resources. 
But she also owes her material prosper- 
ity in no small degree to the inborn 
thriftiness of her inhabitants. It was to 



further foster that trait of French char- 
acter that the law was enacted. States- 
men were quick to recognize that in the 
possessions and comfort of the greatest 
number depended the stability of their 
institutions. 

The creation of these bureaus of sav- 
ings is not, however, compulsory. It is 
mainly left to the individual initiative of 
the school teachers, who are an able body 
of patriotic men and women, and to pri- 
vate benevolence. In the Department of 
Basses-Pyrenees, a philanthropist, Mon- 
sieur Tourasse, spent no less than $100,- 
000 in taking upon himself the creation 
of over 600 bureaus of savings, and en- 
couraging by all legitimate means thrift- 
iness in the scholars. 

School boys and girls in all countries 
get hold of pennies, which they often 
waste on useless things. French boys 
and girls once in a while get hold of 
French sous, and it was with a view 
to induce them to accumulate those sous 
that bureaus of savings were started. In 
1887 no less than 22,000 of those bureaus 
were in operation, with a credit to the 
scholars' side of $2,400,000. 

The government accepts no amount 
under one franc, or about 20 cents in 
American money. Now, for a boy to 
carry 20 cents in his pocket is a little 
rash. If he does not lose his money he 
will surely spend it. To save him from 
either unfortunate predicament the school 
teacher sells him as many penny stamps 
as he has pennies to purchase them with. 
The stamps the scholar pastes in a book 
furnished him at his request by the 
postal department. At the end of the 
month, or oftener, if the teacher thinks 
best, the books are gathered and sent to 
the nearest postoffice. If the postoffice is 
conveniently near, the boys themselves 
may take their own books there. The 
postmaster cancels the stamps and gives 
the scholars credit on another book for 
the amounts the stamps represent. The 
scholars who are perseveringly saving of 
their sous have soon a snug little sum to 
their credit. This sum may be with- 
drawn by the pupils with the father's or 
guardian's consent, if they are under 16 
years old, and without any one's consent 
if above 16. By such a system school 
children become small capitalists, and 
their money is in safe keeping. 



A NEW ERA IN OUR NATIONAL LIFE. 



% B. B. <BEEKMAN. 



THE 19th century has taught the world 
that a great nation can be successfully 
evolved upon the principles of justice 
and equality. The problem as to wheth- 
er the constitution of the United States 
embodied a feasible plan of government 
has long since been settled, and that 
great charter of liberty remains a most 
marvelous work of constructiveness. The 
weak republic of 100 years ago has be- 
come a mighty and puissant nation. The 
constitution has grown, with each dec- 
ade, in the affections of the people, and 
our institutions have been jealously 
cherished and guarded as sacred monu- 
ments of constitutional liberty and free- 
dom. 

Government of the people, by the peo- 
ple, and for the people has become an es- 
tablished fact, and "shall not perish from 
the earth." The great current of Amer- 
ican life has been sweeping through the 
century towards "liberty, equality and 
fraternity." 

The dominion of the republic has been 
extended, in magnificent continuity, from 
the rock-bound shore of the Atlantic to 
the golden sands of the Pacific, and the 
flag of the Union, enriched and glorified 
by 32 additional stars, floats in triumph 
over a land of almost limitless re- 
sources. The tide of population, swell- 
ing with the passing years, has swept 
Westward, bearing on its bosom the 
blessings and glories of the new civiliza- 
tion. 

The history of the United States during 
the century has been one of unparalleled 
progress, and the great republic stands 
forth at the threshold of the 20th cen- 
tury a mighty power pre-eminent in all 
the elements that make a nation great. 
With more than 70,000,000 of people, with 
marvelous strength and resources, with 
wide-extended trade and commerce, she 
presents a splendid contrast to the feeble 
republic of 100 years ago. In close touch 
with the four quarters of the globe, her 
foreign relations rival in magnitude and 



importance the wonderful expansion and 
development of her domestic affairs. A 
mighty nation in a mighty age — the con- 
ditions underlying our national life and 
energy demand the adoption and main- 
tenance of definite national policies com- 
mensurate with our greatness. The 
hegemony attained in the two Americas 
in the early decades of the century im- 
pelled the United States to the enuncia- 
tion of a distinctively American doctrine 
— a doctrine that the other powers of the 
earth have been uniformly compelled to 
respect. The Monroe doctrine, based in 
part upon the principle of self-preserva- 
tion and self-interest and in part upon 
the sentiment of altruism, has become 
an inseparable part of our governmental 
policy — a doctrine that our liberty-loving 
people are resolved to maintain and per- 
petuate. Whatever may be the destiny 
in store for the republics of the Americas, 
the United States has once and for all 
firmly decided that never again shall any 
one of them pass under Old World dom- 
ination; that these continents are and 
of right ought to be dedicated forever to 
the holy cause of freedom. The Monroe 
doctrine guarantees our own future 
safety and welfare, but equally does it 
serve as a palladium to the liberty of the 
weaker and less-favored peoples of this 
hemisphere. 

Startling as was the announcement of 
the Monroe doctrine, and far-reaching as 
have been the consequences flowing 
therefrom, it remained for our govern- 
ment to take a still more advanced step. 

From 1895 the people of the United 
States have followed with growing inter- 
est and concern the heroic efforts of the 
Cubans in their last and supreme strug- 
gle for freedom, and desire for inter- 
vention in their behalf has grown 
stronger with the passing months. Ad- 
miring and sympathizing with the valor 
and heroism of the Cuban patriots, con- 
vinced of the incapacity and inability of 
Spain to subdue and conquer the insurg- 



A NEW ERA IN OUR NATIONAL LIFE 



23 



ent forces, horrified at the cruelty of 
Spanish warfare, and at length aroused 
to deepest anger by the cowardly and 
treacherous destruction of the battle-ship 
Maine, and the murder of 266 of our 
brave seamen, while in a supposedly 
friendly harbor, the American people 
with remarkable unanimity, declared and 
promulgated, through the government at 
Washington, the right and purpose to in- 
tervene and end the long period of Span- 
ish misrule in this beautiful isle of the 
sea. 

Once again has our never-conquered 
nation donned the panoply of war, and 
once again have its proud banners waved 
in triumph. Never have more altruistic 
and disinterested motives moved a peo- 
ple to deeds of righteousness, and never 
have the strength and power of a nation 
been exerted in a more magnanimous un- 
dertaking. Martyrs to Spanish treachery, 
the blood of the Maine's seamen is upon 
that despotic nation — but to them will 
be reared a lasting memorial among men 
— a new republic, another gem in the 
crown of Freedom. 

Our manifest national policy has been 
foreshadowed by the conditions that have 
been created. Averse to wars of con- 
quest, and free from disturbing visions 
of imperial power and grandeur, the na- 
tion has become great beyond the dreams 
of its founders. A new era is upon it — 
a condition and not a theory confronts it. 
Its traditions must be partially shattered 
and its policy revised and shaped with 
reference to the exigencies of the times. 
In the future the words, "I am an Ameri- 
can citizen," are to become a still prouder 
boast, a password to higher respect, a 
synomyn for governmental protection 
commensurate with our national strength, 
for — 

"New occasions teach new duties; Time 

makes ancient good uncouth; 
They must upward still and onward who 

would keep abreast of truth; 
Lo! before us gleam our campfires; we 

ourselves must pilgrims be; 
Launch our Mayflower and steer boldly 

through the desperate sea, 
Nor attempt the future's portals with the 

past's blood-rusted key." 

Our extended trade and commerce, and 
the economic considerations for the fur- 
ther expansion thereof, our hegemony in 



this hemisphere and the firmly establish- 
ed doctrines it has entailed, and our in- 
tricate and complex relations with the 
world at large have greatly extended the 
horizon of our governmental and national 
duties and responsibilities, and are likely 
to constantly bring us face to face with 
critical questions, and often, perhaps, to 
the verge of conflict. We can no longer 
trust to chance, and to maintain peace 
and security we must be able to re«ort to 
and exercise force whenever necessary. 
The surest guarantee of peace is pre- 
paredness for war, and upon this truism 
we should base and shape our future 
course. This country in its resources is 
sufficient unto itself, but every considera- 
tion of public policy demands the ability 
to act immediately when danger threat- 
ens. American conditions do not call 
for an armed imperialism, but do re- 
quire an easily available military reserve 
force and a naval strength commensurate 
with our national dignity. ■ Against pos- 
sible foreign attack and invasion our har- 
bors and coast cities should be rendered 
invulnerable, and wherever American 
commerce and interests extend there 
should float our flag over ships and fleets 
of war. 

We front two oceans, and our trade 
relations extend to Orient and Occident, 
from northern ice-bound coasts to dis- 
tant lands upon which shines the south- 
ern cross. Here and there our war vessels 
should be seen, and as, in naval warfare 
of today, coal is king, strong and forti- 
fied strategic stations and outposts 
should be maintained. Again, naval as 
well as commercial interests demand that 
our Eastern and Western states be more 
closely joined, and to that end the United 
States should at once construct the Nic- 
aragua canal to furnish short and speedy 
passageway for all our ships. Every cit- 
izen is proud of our present navy, and 
will eagerly hail its steady increase un- 
til our flag shall float on every sea and 
American men and ships and guns shall 
everywhere and always be ready to main- 
tain against any foe the rights of the 
humblest citizen, and to protect our in- 
terests whatsoever they may be. We 
glory in the past deeds and achievements 
of our military and naval heroes, and we 
know full well that American valor and 



24 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



daring, skill and genius still exist. We 
have given to fame a Jones, a Lawrence, 
a Perry, a Decatur, and a Farragut, and 
we have startled the world with the 
brave and invincible Dewey. 

In the light of past events, in the face 
of present deeds, we welcome the new 
era, and shall hail with pride and joy 
the inauguration of a more vigorous 
naval and military policy. 

In the broader conditions of our na- 
tional life, in our extensive foreign rela- 
tions, in our expanding commerce, and 
in our extended governmental policies, 
we must recognize correspondingly in- 
creased duties and responsibilities. The 
hour is come for the United States to 
shake off the apparent lethargy of the 
last three decades and prepare to meet 
successfully any crisis that may occur. 
We are not eager for colonization in and 
of itself, but we are desirous of trade re- 
lations throughout the world, and the 
exigencies of the times point to the hold- 
ing of certain strategic points beyond 
our shores. The near future is very like- 
ly to witness the Americanization of the 
isles of the seas, and to behold the un- 
furling of the Stars and Stripes over 
alien races and strange lands. Our aims, 
though conservative, are determined and 



certain of accomplishment, and having 
reaped the fruits thereof we must be pre- 
pared to preserve and protect them. Our 
future foreign policy must be marked 
with vigor, albeit leavened with conserv- 
atism, and foreign aggression and inter- 
ference be less brooked than heretofore. 
Identity of interests may some day ob- 
literate the differences of the past, and 
cause — 

"Strand to nearer lean to strand, 
Till meet beneath saluting flags, 
The lion of our mother land, 
The eagle of our native crags!" 

The events of the times are pointing 
in that direction, and should mutual In- 
terests be superadded to common tongue 
and law and faith and an Anglo-Ameri- 
can co-operation or alliance result, the 
conjoined forces of the Anglo-Saxon 
race would insure the most magnificent 
safeguard of free government. But 
whether or not this mighty race shall 
hereafter act in unison and jointly guar- 
antee the continuance and extension of 
popular rule, America must be pre- 
pared not only to defend and maintain 
her own national honor and prestige, but 
also to prevent aggression and interfer- 
ence in the affairs of her less-favored 
sisters to the south. 




QUATRAIN. 

When first my sky with clouds was overcast, 
"Alas!" I cried, "The joys of life are past." 
But now the clouds have fled, the joys re- 
main, 
All sweeter grown, as violets after rain. 

—Florence May Wright. 







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3 



THE OREGON EMERGENCY CORPS. 



By SMrs. LEVI YOUNG. 



I N response to an appeal from the state 
military board, at the first "call to 
arms," the Oregon Emergency Corps was 
organized in Portland April 27, with Mrs. 
Henry E. Jones, president; Mrs. W. A. 
Buchanan, vice-president; Mrs. F. E. 
Lownsbury, secretary, and Mrs. Martin 
Winch, treasurer. Mrs. O. Summers, 
Mrs. A. Meier, Mrs. Levi White, Mrs. W. 
T. Gardner, Mrs. B. E. Miller, Mrs. J. E. 
Wright, Mrs. E. C. Protzman, Mrs. R. S. 
Greenleaf, Mrs. G. F. Telfer and Mrs. J. 
M. Ordway constituted an executive com- 
mittee. The purpose of the organization 
was to assist the military board in pro- 
viding material comforts for the Second 
regiment, Oregon volunteers, and to 
soften the transition from civil to army 
life for the raw recruit. And the society 
was composed of women from every walk 
of life, who hastened to enroll as mem- 
bers and offer their services in the name 
of patriotism. 

The first work of the corps was to raise 
a regimental fund and to supply such 
needful articles for the soldier's knapsack 
as army quartermasters do not keep in 
stock. At Camp McKinley, where the 
Second regiment was being introduced to 
military life, members of the corps were 
daily visitors, and nothing that loving 
hearts and willing hands could do to 
add to the well-being of volunteers was 
left undone. The membership grew into 
the hundreds, subscriptions and funds 
came pouring from every side and from 
unexpected sources. Rooms were kept 
open at 132 First street and came to be 
known as headquarters for all interested 
in patriotic work. And meetings were 
held every Saturday afternoon in the 
Armory. Meantime circular letters had 
been sent to the towns throughout the 
state, urging the women to form auxil- 
iary societies for the purpose of raising 
money to swell the regimental fund and 
help in purchasing a flag to be presented 
to the volunteers by the women of Ore- 
gon. Hood River was the first to re- 



spond, with Roseburg, Pendleton, Cor- 
vallis, Hillsboro, La Grande, Lafayette, 
Hubbard, Weston, Woodburn, Astoria 
and The Dalles quickly falling into line. 
Faithfully have these auxiliaries labored 
in the cause of the soldier, meeting 
promptly and willingly every call from 
the mother corps. 

Sunday, May 8, a sacred and patriotic 
concert was given at Camp McKinley 
The presence of over 10,000 people wag 
an evidence of the zeal and interest felt 
by the public. The programme was fur- 
nished by the First Regiment band, Miss 
Rose Bloch and Madame Norelli. 

It was a scene never to be forgotten 
by that audience, when, at the close ot 
the evening drill, the Stars and Stripes 
were slowly lowered at the booming of 
the sunset gun, and the long lines of 
volunteers listened to the strains of the 
"Star-Spangled Banner," floating out 
upon the evening air. 

When, May 16, the First battalion, un- 
der command of Major Gantenbein, and 
a week later the remaining companies, 
with Colonel Summers in command, left 
for San Francisco, the Emergency Corps 
gave to each of the 10 captains and to 
Major M. H. Ellis, the regimental su- 
geon, $100, besides sundry supplies 
necessary to the health and comfort of 
the men. 

In addition to looking after the welfare 
of the Oregon volunteers, the corps re- 
ceived and fed all troops passing through 
Portland on the way to the front, and 
whenever called upon fitted out recruits 
from its own and other states, and sent 
fever bandages, caps and cordials to San 
Francisco. There has never at any time 
been a lack of funds when funds were 
needed, and every call upon the corps 
has been promptly met. Finding it ad- 
visable to extend the work, and in order 
to secure transportation of supplies 
through military lines at Manila, the 
Oregon Emergency Corps, in July, under 
the direction of Judge Sheldon, an au- 




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SCENES AT CAMP McKINLEY. 



THE OREGON EMERGENCY CORPS. 



29 



thorized officer of the National Red Cross 
Society, affiliated with that organization. 
The wisdom of this step was demonstrat- 
ed a few weeks later, when the govern- 
ment gave transportation to Manila to 
two Oregon nurses, Dr. Frances Woods 
and Miss Lena Killiam. These nurses 
were selected, outfitted and sent forward 
supplied with funds by the Oregon 
Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society. 
In August the society sent its president, 
Mrs. Henry E. Jones, and Mrs. Levi 
Young to San Francisco to investigate 
the conditions reported to exist at Camp 
Merritt. 

(As a result of their visit there such 
active measures were brought to bear by 
an indignant public as went far toward 
improving the situation of the soldier at 
this unhappy camp. — Editor.) 

The formation of a state Red Cross 



Society speedily grew to be a necessity of 
the times, and on the 23d of September, 
in a convention called for the purpose by 
the mother corps, the state organization 
was effected. Delegates were present from 
the auxiliary and other patriotic relief 
societies throughout Oregon. Mrs. Henry 
E. Jones, president of the Portland corps, 
was elected to that office in the state so- 
ciety; Mrs. Levi Young became vice- 
president; Mrs. F. E. Lownsbury, secre- 
tary, and Mrs. E. C. Protzman, treasurer. 
The Oregon Emergency Corps, organized 
to meet an exigency, thus became a per- 
manent society, incorporated under the 
laws of Oregon, and endowed with full 
power to act at all times in the larger in- 
terests of humanity, at the same time 
preserving its right to perform in the 
manner that seems best any local work 
that comes within its reach. 




"WESTWARD HO! 



What strength! what strife! what rude un- 
rest ! 
What shocks! what half -shaped armies met! 
A mighty nation moving west, 
With all its steely sinews set 
Against the living forests. Hear 
The shouts, the shots of pioneer. 
The rended forests, rolling wheels, 
As if some half-check'd army reels. 
Recoils, redoubles, comes again, 
Loud sounding like a hurricane. 

O bearded, stalwart, westmost men, 
So tower-like, so Gothic built! 
A kingdom won without the guilt 
Of studied battle, that hath been 
Your blood's inheritance. . . . Your heirs 
Know not your tombs: The great plow-shares 
Cleave softly through the mellow loam 
Where you have made eternal home, 
And set no sign. Your epitaphs 
Are writ in furrows. Beauty laughs 
While through the green ways wandering 
Beside her love, slow gathering 
White starry-hearted May-time blooms 
Above your lowly level'd tombs; 
And then below the spotted sky 
She stops, she leans, she wonders why 
The ground is heaved and broken so, 
And why the grasses darker grow 
And droop and trail like wounded wing. 

Yea, Time, the grand old harvester, 
Has gather'd you from wood and plain. 
We call to you again, again; 
The rush and rumble of the car 
Comes back in answer. Deep and wide 
The wheels of progress have passed on; 
The silent pioneer is gone. 
His ghost is moving down the trees, 
And now we push the memories 
Of bluff, bold men who dared and died 
In foremost battle, quite aside. 

—Joaquin Miller. 



" WAS HE JUSTIFIED?" 



A more delightful traveling compan- 
ion than Harriet could not be desired. 
Virginia thought her young sister charm- 
ing, and even the sweet-faced nuns at 
the convent accepted her as a happy 
interruption to their serenely monoto- 
nous quiet. 

"She is the spirit of the West, an em- 
bodiment of its free winds, its rushing 
crystal rivers, its untamed grandeurs," 
sighed the mother superior, recalling a 
journey she had once made to the slope 
beyond the Rockies. 

"She is certainly untamed," replied 
Sister Agatha, who was to accompany 
the two girls to New York, and who 
was receiving her instructions for the 
journey in the privacy of the mother's 
sitting-room, "I tremble to think of her 
inflence over Virginia." 

"Virginia is secure," said the mother 
superior. "It is she who will wield the 
stronger influence. You understand 
clearly what it is you have to do?'" 

"It is very simple, is it not? I am 
to deliver the young ladies into the hands 
of the father who will be waiting to re- 
ceive them. All provisions for their com- 
fort will have been arranged. And I am 
then to bid them good-bye and return 
at once to Montreal. Is it not so?" 

It was so, and after a few words of 
admonition and warning, Sister Agatha 
was dismissed, and the mother superior 
sat musing in the dusk alone. It was 
five years since Virginia had entered the 
convent doors, brought thither by her 
young husband. A mere child she had 
seemed to the gentle sisters; timid and 
silent, yet eager to explore the realms 
of learning. They had watched and 
guided her mental growth. The gradual 
unfolding of her woman's nature had 
been a beautiful spectacle to them. It 
was as if some lovely flower nourished 
and protected by their tender care had 
blossomed to reward them with its sweet- 
ness. They had shared her simple joys, 
and her sorrow had been theirs. In all 
things they felt she was their own, and 
they would miss her when she went 



away, out into the great world to play her 
part in the drama of life. The mother 
superior sighed when she thought of the 
trials and temptations that might beset 
the path of her young favorite. And 
then, for she was a woman, and had a 
woman's love of romance still in spite of 
convent walls, black veil and ivory cruci- 
fix, she fell to dreaming of a future for 
Robert Raymond's widow, in which one 
who was near and dear to her should play 
the part of the prince. 

"May I come in, mother?" a soft 
voice broke through her dreaming. 

"My child, yes, come in." 

Virginia moved forward in the warm 
darkness of the narrow room, and knelt 
at the mother's knee. "It is the last 
night," she said. "I wanted to come 
to you to tell you how deeply, truly 
grateful I am for all your loving care 
and kindness. This roof has been my 
home for five happy years, and now 
when I am going away, perhaps forever" 
— her voice broke — "O mother, mother, I 
want to stay with you. I am afraid, 
afraid of the world." Mother Elizabeth 
laid her hand upon the young head bowed 
upon her knee. 

"My child, why do you fear?" she 
asked. 

"I do not know," murmured Virgina. 
"Only I am terrified. When I think of 
what may come I feel so alone." 

"You have your sister. She has cour- 
age enough for two." 

Virginia smiled through her tears. "Har- 
riet is afraid of nothing," she said. "She 
is eager to see the world; but I do not 
care for this journey across the seas. 
If it were not for Harriet I should give 
it up even now." 

"It is best that you should go, my child. 
Besides," she hesitated, then went on, 
"there is one who will be disappointed 
if you do not." 

Virginia was silent. She was wonder- 
ing, as she had often wondered of late, 
how it was that her future seemed or- 
dered for her. That while no direct oppo- 
sition was made to her expressed wishes 



"WAS HE JUSTIFIED?" 



3i 



she yet found all her own planning futile, 
over-ruled or set aside as by a strong, 
invisible hand. And her fortune, too. 
Harriet had called her a "rich widow," 
and she was puzzled, for she did not 
understand how it could be, or where her 
fortune came from, if she really had 
one. Robert had told her that he had 
nothing that he did not earn, and his 
salary was not large, barely sufficient 
to pay their combined expenses, and yet 
she could not deny that she lacked for 
nothing. It was in her mind to question 
the mother superior concerning this seem- 
ing mystery, but something held her 
dumb. Perhaps it was a vague intuition 
that her questions would be ignored. 

They talked of other things presently; 
of the places she was to visit, of Italy 
and of the holy father, the pope, whom 
Mother Elizabeth had seen once in her 
youth, and of the wonders of Rome — the 
churches, the palaces and the pictures. 
When at last Virginia said good night 
and went away to her own little cell-like 
room she was as eager to see the world 
as Harriet herself. 

The journey to New York was accom- 
plished without accident or adventure of 
any sort, much to Harriet's expressed 
disappointment. 

"Never mind," she confided to Virginia, 
"just wait till we get out from under 
the shadowing wing of Sister Agatha, and 
we will create a sensation." 

"We will do nothing of the kind," re- 
plied Virginia, with unexpected firmness. 
"If we cannot be trusted to conduct our- 
selves with becoming modesty we will 
return to Montreal with Sister Agatha." 

"Dear me!" cried Harriet, "I didn't 
mean that we were to do anything shock- 
ing or bold. Only you know yourself 
that people fight shy of nuns." 

They were in the parlor of the hotel, 
waiting for Sister Agatha. They stopped 
their discussion as she entered, and were 
surprised to note that she was not alone. 
At her side walked a Catholic priest. 

Something in his face and manner 
struck Virginia as oddly familiar; but 
it was not until she heard him speak 
that she recalled where and when she 
had met him before. At sound of his 
voice the memory rushed back upon her 
of the fair October morning, when she 



had stood under the oak trees with Rob- 
ert's arm around her, and this man's 
words had made them one. She felt again 
the warm air on her cheek and brow, 
and heard the crickets in the grass and 
the laughter of the debonnaire youth 
gaily bidding Robert lead his bride out 
into the sunshine. And swift on this an- 
other face flashed before her, and then 
was gone; the dark, handsome face of 
Robert's friend, whom she had seen just 
that once, and to whom, Robert always 
insisted, he owed everything. 

If the priest recognized her he gave no 
sign. He expressed his pleasure at being 
able to act as their escort on the coming 
voyage; made a few commonplace re- 
marks concerning the probable state ot 
the weather, and left them. 

They were to sail next morning. There 
was some necessary shopping to be done, 
that occupied the afternoon, and it was 
not until the sisters were in their own 
room and preparing to retire that Har- 
riet ventured to express herself. 

"Are we never to get rid of the Cath- 
olics?" she cried. "Sister Agatha is bad 
enough, but a priest! It is simply be- 
yond human patience to endure. I shall 
shock him fifty times a minute; I know 
I shall. I am not used to priests. Why 
don't you assert yourself and tell them 
we are quite capable of taking care of 
ourselves?" 

"Because," replied Virginia, seriously, 
"I am not sure that we are, and, besides, 
I am too grateful to Mother Elizabeth 
for providing us with an escort on this 
long journey." 

"Oh, well, if you take that view of 
the case, I shall have to make the best 
of it, I suppose. However, I'm thank- 
ful for one thing. He's handsome as a 
Greek god, and I mean to flirt with 
him all the way over." 

"Harriet!" exclaimed her sister, shock- 
ed beyond the power of words to express. 
"Is nothing sacred to you?" 

"Not even the priesthood? Don't look 
so horrified. A priest is only a man, in 
spite of his dress, and your Father Ro- 
quet is a very handsome man, an un- 
usually handsome man. It's a shame the 
Catholic priesthood is sworn to celibacy. 
I think I'd prefer Father Roquet to a 
duel coronet or even to Billy Spencer." 



32 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



But Virginia was too deeply hurt to 
respond to the jest. To her the church 
and all that pertained to it was holy, and 
Harriet's remarks were nothing short of 
sacrilege. 

"There," cried the latter, "I've said 
something perfectly awful, I suppose; hut 
I didn't mean to offend you, Virgie. You 
see I'm not used to the 'church,' as you 
call it. If you'll forgive me this time I'll 
solemnly promise not to look at Father 
Roquet from the time we leave New York 
till we arrive in Liverpool or London, or 
wherever we drop him; and, I was only 
joking, anyway." 

"I cannot bear to hear you speak light- 
ly of such things," said Virginia, submit- 
ting to a shower of penitent kisses. 

"Father Roquet," Harriet remarked, in 
one of her letters home, "seems to have 
no other mission in life than the safe con- 
voy of two charming and helpless young 
women to their destination over the seas. 
Virginia's dependence puzzles and amuses 
me. I don't believe she has the least idea 
where we are going to stop in London, 
or what we are going to do while there. 
When I question her about it, she invar- 
iably replies that Mother Elizabeth has 
arranged everything, or that Father Ro- 
quet will attend to it. And I must confess 
Father Roquet seems equal to anything. 
He is not one bit like my idea of a priest. 
In the first place, he is too good looking 
in spite of his gray hair, and he is per- 
fectly devoted to Virginia. He's been 
everywhere and seen everything, and is 
the life of the captain's table, where we 
are fortunate enough to be placed at 
meals. The stories he tells of frontier life 
and experiences are better than novel 
tales, and he's lived in Oregon, too; seems 
to know everybody in that part of the 
world worth knowing. For real, live com- 
pany, give me a Catholic father every 
time. I am thinking very seriously of 
becoming a fraction of the mother church 
myself, but don't tell Billy Spencer. He 
inclines to Methodism, if I haven't for- 
gotten, and I may have to fall back upon 
Billy after all, though I haven't given up 
the hope of capturing a title yet." 

"Oh! dear," sighed Mrs. Dalgren, when 
she read this effusion of her second daugh- 
ter. "Will Harriet never be serious or 
sensible? I wish she would write letters 



that I could read to the children without 
having to skip whole pages." But she, 
nevertheless, found Harriet's vivacious ac- 
counts very interesting, and, if she had 
confessed the truth to herself, preferred 
them to Virginia's sweetly formal ones. 
She dreamed many dreams, this loving 
mother, in the quiet seclusion of the Ore- 
gon homestead, where her girls were 
growing up around her, all of them with 
increasing promise of beautiful woman- 
hood. There were four younger than Har- 
riet, not to mention the boys, and she is 
to be pardoned if she hoped that Har- 
riet's predictions about the duke might 
be realized. If they were not, there al- 
ways remained, of course, Billy Spencer. 
And any girl might do worse than to take 
Billy, with his cattle ranch on Camp 
Creek, and his bands of horses in the 
range "east of the mountains." As for 
Virginia, it was vaguely understood by 
her family that Robert had left her well 
provided for, and a young widow with 
money and no incumbrances had nothing 
left to wish for in Mrs. Dalgren's esti- 
mation of the case. It had been just the 
reverse with her. She had had the in- 
cumbrances and very little else, and the 
struggle had been a desperate one till that 
unexpected and mysterious check had 
come as if to console her for the loss of 
her firstborn. Since then things had gone 
fairly well; though, with so many to 
clothe and to educate, careful economy 
was always needed in the administration 
of the affairs of the homestead. 

The story of Virginia's romantic mar- 
riage was almost forgotten in the neigh- 
borhood. It had turned out so disappoint- 
ingly well that it had early ceased to be 
interesting. 

The Lamonts had drifted out of the 
state, having, through some questionable 
speculations, lost both wealth and much- 
vaunted respectability, and everybody 
said: "I told you so; I always knew 
there was something not just right about 
that family. They were altogether too 
respectable to last." 

And so time had gone and continued to 
go. Virginia's year abroad lengthened 
to two. They were having the loveliest 
time in the world, Harriet wrote. They 
went everywhere, and saw everything and 
everybody worth seeing. They lived well 



"WAS HE JUSTIFIED?" 



33 



and dressed well. Virginia was univers- 
ally admired, and she had her own share 
of attention. Their wants were always 
supplied. They seemed to have the purse 
of Fortunatus; it was never empty, no 
matter how much they took out of it. 
"Though, to tell the truth," she added, 
"my elder sister has the simplest tastes 
in the world; she never seems to think 
about herself, what she shall eat or wear, 
and yet is always lovely, while I spend 
hours fussing over my clothes, and often 
look a perfect fright in spite of it all." 

At last the welcome news arrived that 
they were coming home; would sail on 
a certain date. Then letters from New 
York; they would stop in San Francisco 
for a few days, and finally a telegram 
from the last-named city: 

"Virginia married this morning. Ex- 
pect me the 20th. Explanations on ar- 
rival. HARRIET." 

There was suppressed excitement at the 
homestead when this announcement was 



received. Virginia married, and no word 
or hint of an engagement! It was be- 
yond belief, and yet, but stay, this was 
the 19th! That telegram had lain at Eu- 
gene for nearly a week. Harriet would 
be home tomorrow, and, best of good luck, 
there was Billy Spencer at the gate with 
him pet team — a pair of high-bred bays 
that had a record of speed not to be de- 
spised. Billy Spencer was welcomed with 
open arms, and the case laid before him. 
He jumped at the chance to drive down 
and bring Harriet home. He suggested 
putting the bays to the family carriage 
and taking Mrs. Dalgren and Kitty along 
to welcome the returning wanderer. As 
for Virginia's marriage, it did not much 
concern him. He had room in his thought?, 
but for one thing — Harriet was coming 
home, and so nearly as he could make out, 
as free as to her affections as when she 
went away. 

(To be continued.) 




OCTOBER. 

Fire! fire! upon the maple bough, 

The red flames of the frost. 
Fire! fire! by burning woodbine, see, 

The cottage-roof is crossed. 
The hills are hid by smoky haze; 
Look, how the roadside sumachs blaze! 
And, on the withered leaves below, 
The fallen leaves like bonfires glow. 

— Mariou Douglas ill " Keligious Herald." 



IN THE BEGINNING. 



A Continuation of the Record of Oregon's Pioneers 
Commenced in "\ c Drift." 



A striking figure in those early days at 
Fort Vancouver was James Douglas, the 
close companion and trusted friend of Dr. 
McLoughlin, and his opposite in every 
respect save one. One attribute they had 
in equal measure, courage, indomitable 
courage, a high-born fearlessness, that 
held them always true to the nobler con- 
ceptions of life and to the great interests 
and responsibilities placed in their hands. 
Among the many lasting friendships that 
grew up between man and man on the 
rugged frontier there is none more sug- 
gestive of romance than this loyal affec- 
tion of two strong natures, mutually at- 
tracted and indissolubly bound together 
by their very differences. 

It was while Dr. McLoughlin was sta- 
tioned at Fort William, on Lake Superior, 
that James Douglas, then a youth of 17 
years, was sent out by the Hudson's 
Bay Company to join him. A Douglas 
from Scotland — heroic associations clus- 
ter about the name, a gentleman by birth 
and breeding, with the manners of the 
court, brought to grace the lonely life 
at that isolated trading post in the track- 
less wilderness. It is not surprising that 
Dr. McLoughlin's heart warmed toward 
the boy from the first, and that he grew 
to love and regard him as a younger 
brother. In all the years that followed, 
with their changing, shifting scenes, 
James Douglas stood closer to the great 
head of the great company than any 
other living soul. 

There was a grandeur about Dr. Mc- 
Loughlin, a certain broad-mindedness, 
a large and liberal comprehension not 
only of his own time and its tendencies, 
but of the future, which Douglas lacked. 
The latter possessed resolution of char- 
acter, a stern devotion to duty and was 
severely methodical in habit, but his air 
of lofty reserve was in decided contrast 
to the genial frankness and open man- 
ner of the governor. 

There were other interesting charac- 
ters at Fort Vancouver in that day, not- 



ably Peter Skeen Ogden, son of the chief 
justice of Quebec, and a successful trad- 
er. He was the recognized wit of that 
by no means stupid company, and his 
gay good nature went far toward com- 
pensating for an evident lack of culture. 
There was Frank Ermatinger, also a 
good trader, and nicknamed "Bardolph," 
on account of certain habits he had. And 
Thomas McKay, famous for his ability 
to tell a story and to tell it entertain- 
ingly. A rare nature, that of young Mc- 
Kay, a strange mixture of Indian and 
white, of savagery and refinement. He 
seemed to have inherited the best traits 
of both races. From his beautiful Ojib- 
way mother he no doubt derived his deep 
love of nature, and an understanding of 
her manifold mysteries. The woods, the 
water, the towering hills and the vaulted 
sky were to him as the printed pages of a 
are to other men, wherein he read the 
signs and secrets of the changing sea- 
sons and interpreted them for his com- 
panions. His father, lost on the ill- 
fated Tonquin, bequeathed to him cer- 
tain civilized tastes and inclinations. He 
was half white and all Indian. Much 
given was he, in after years, to brood- 
ing over the tragic ending of his father's 
life. At such periods of gloomy reflec- 
tion he was silent, unapproachable. He 
had more than once been heard to vow 
a terrible and bloody vengeance upon 
the guilty tribe, but though he was not 
deficient in courage, the white blood in 
his veins held him passive. 

He was tall and straight and strong, as 
most men were in those days. There 
was little of the Indian apparent in his 
face, save the smoldering fire in his mid- 
night eyes. A handsome man, as many of 
mixed-blood are, and a man to be trust- 
ed, as Dr. McLoughlin well knew. His 
mother, the widow of Thomas McKay, 
became the lawful wife of the governor, 
and he himself married first a Chinook 
woman, the mother of William McKay, 
of Pendleton, and after her death the 
daughter of Montoure, the confidential 
clerk of the company. The son of this 
second union was the famous scout, Don- 
ald McKay, of whom more will be told 
later. 




OUR POINT OF VIEW. 




Emerson declares the world to be "an 
assemblage of gates and opportunities," 
and Disraeli says that "opportunity is 
more powerful than conquerors or 
prophets." It is a belief in both of these 
significant statements that has induced 
the publication of this magazine, for to 
observers of the situation it is apparent 
that the "gate" stands open, and as we 
enter it we look forward to the future 
with confidence — confidence born of the 
realization that there is a wealth of ma- 
terial here that has lain practically un- 
touched, that along our broad rivers and 
under our towering snow-crowned peaks 
it lies waiting to be gathered up, pre- 
served and given to the world of litera- 
ture — confidence born of the belief that 
inevitably there will be a third great 
world center and that it will be on this 
coast — confidence in the need of a maga- 
zine here to meet the demands of the 
times and to voice the literature and art 
of this great Northwest, and confidence 
born of the determination to take ad- 
vantage of the "open gate," to enter this 
field and meet whatever untoward condi- 
tions that may confront us and conquer 
them. 

This century has been a century of 
remarkable and bewildering changes, but 
on the political horizon probably none 
have been more far-reaching in their 
effects than those we have just witnessed. 
Spain has lost her last foothold in the 
Western hemisphere which she discov- 
ered, we have extended our domain to 
the Hawaiian islands, and other changes, 
more momentous than we now dream of, 
have taken, or are now taking place. 
The possibilities of this Pacific coast for 
development in agriculture, mining, 
manufacturing, shipbuilding and com- 
merce have attracted the attention of the 
world, which has suddenly realized that 
a young but sturdy giant has arisen, and 
must henceforth be taken into consider- 
ation in the adjustment of the affairs ot 
the nations. What we wish to especially 



emphasize, however, is the fact that the 
unanimous opinion of conservative men 
is to the effect that the future develop- 
ment of the world and the events of 
international importance are to take 
place on the shores of the Pacific. Add 
to this the fact that our part of the Pa- 
cific coast is the nearest outlet for the 
resources of Alaska, and something of 
the vast possibilities of this region can 
be gained. It is a belief in these things, 
a faith in the glorious future of our Pa- 
cific coast and consequently in ourselves 
that has brought about the publication 
of The Pacific Monthly. It is no lighi 
burden to bear the responsibilities that 
such a work imposes. We appreciate 
this, and shall do our best to carry it 
to the satisfaction of our readers, and 
though this, our first number, is but a 
modest attempt at some of the things at 
which we aim — to establish a magazine 
that will be a fit representative of the 
young and virile West, a magazine of 
literature, art, education and progress, a 
record of our unique history and tradi- 
tions — we believe that it will be received 
with encouragement and commendation. 
* 
The consolidation of "Drift," the first 
issue of which was published in August, 
and "The Pacific Monthly" enables us to 
give our readers a larger and better 
magazine for less money than was pos- 
sible before. The publishers of "Drift," 
like those of "The Pacific Monthly," real- 
ized that there is a demand and a 
field for a magazine here, and in answer 
to this demand each began working out 
plans, ignorant of the other's intentions. 
The consolidation has been effected in the 
full belief that "in union there is 
strength," and the combination begins its 
career under the happiest auspices. 

One of the most daring prophecies in 
history was made when William H. Sew- 
ard, in 1852, said in the course of a 
speech in the senate: 



36 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



"Henceforth European commerce, Eu- 
ropean politics, European thought and 
European activity, although actually 
gaining force, and European connections, 
although actually becoming more inti- 
mate, will nevertheless relatively sink in 
importance; while the Pacific ocean, its 
shores, its islands and the vast region 
beyond will become the chief theater of 
events in the world's great hereafter." 

When Mr. Seward made that remark- 
able prophecy the Pacific coast was prac- 
tically an unknown land. The railroad 
and telegraph had not yet pushed west 
of the Mississippi, and this coast had 
no regular commerce with the Orient. 
China had opened only a few ports to 
the world, and Japan was a place sur- 
rounded by mystery. In the light of 
today, and especially of recent events, 
Seward's prophecy is most extraordinary. 
A writer in The Watchman shows how 
completely it is being fulfilled. He says: 
"In the ten years ending in 1894, while 
the ships of the Atlantic and Gulf states 
decreased 710 in number and 135,000 in 
tonnage, those of the Pacific coast in- 
creased 499 in number and 121,690 in ton- 
nage. Australia is the commercial won- 
der of the nineteenth century. Japan 
has advanced to a first rank among na- 
tions. The resouces of China are to be 
opened to Western civilization. Siberia 
is to become a thoroughfare of the world's 
commerce, and the czar is to be as strong 
in the North Pacific as in the Baltic. The 
interests of America and of Europe, as 
well as of Asia, are today largely on the 
shores of the Pacific." 

With Seward's remarkable insight into 
the affairs of the world, if he could stand 
here at the threshold of the twentieth 
century, how much more brilliant a future 
he might predict for us now. 
* 

The importance of a nearer waterway 
for the United States from ocean to ocean 
than around Cape Horn has been clearly 
demonstrated by the Oregon's long race 
against time from San Francisco to Cuba. 
It is conceded now by even the most 
conservative that a canal across the isth- 
mus would be a great convenience in time 
of war, but it is also plainly apparent to 
the ordinary observer that it would be 
not only a convenience in time of peace 



but that it has become a necessity. Com- 
mercial interests demand its early, its 
immediate construction. Not to the Pa- 
cific coast alone will the benefits incident 
to its completion accrue. The Atlantic 
seaboard will gain nearly if not quite as 
much as the Occident, and since the cities 
of the East are beginning to awaken to 
a knowledge of this important fact there 
is reason to hope for speedy action in 
the case. 

Extracts from the World's interview 
with Joseph Chamberlain: 

"What about the Philippines, Mi 1 . 
Chamberlain?" was asked. 

"Your country is growing," he replied; 
"you can't resist its development. For a 
hundred years you have followed Wash- 
ington's advice. I do not think you can 
find another instance in history where 
one man's word has been so followed. It 
has been treated as an inspired utterance. 
But conditions have vastly changed. It 
is not supposable that Washington would 
have maintained the same attitude if con- 
ditions had essentially altered, as they 
must have altered in a hundred years. 

"You see," he went on, smiling, "there 
were two assumptions, or rather the first 
was a fact; first your resources, tremen- 
dous resources, and secondly your ten- 
acity, for it was believed you were as 
tenacious as your forefathers. 

"All Europe understood the situation. 
The wars of independence, of the con- 
quest of Mexico, of 1860-65, had made 
your national characteristics plain. Your 
inroads into the markets of the world 
had shown your energy and adaptability. 
Your exports of breadstuffs, ttc, had 
shown your fertility. Slow to wrath, 
when once the Cuban situation reached 
an acute stage the end was only a ques 
tion of time. 

"It was for Spain to quarrel with Des- 
tiny. Anglo-Saxon blood would tell; race 
characteristics must be reckoned with. 
Determination, tenacity, boldness, brought 
but one result — ultimate triumph. Left 
alone, the duel was unequal. All saw 
that. 

"If the inside history of this war could 
only be written!" said Mr. Chamberlain, 
then paused, threw back his head, and 
smiled. 




THE MAGAZINES. 




The Cosmopolitan for October contains 
an account of the Indian congress at the 
trans-Mississippi exposition, with the por- 
trait of a painted brave in feathered war 
bonnet for a frontispiece. Harold Fred- 
ric's "Gloria Mundi" strikes the reader 
as being rather aimless, almost as if Mr. 
Fredric had not quite made up his mind 
about his characters, and particularly 
about his hero, and was experimenting 
with them in a half indifferent fashion 
is disappointing. There is a short story 
by Frank Stockton, "The Governor-Gen- 
eral," that is very clever. "Our boys" 
on their way to Manila furnished him 
material for his tale. "The New Ameri- 
can Aristocracy," by Harry Thurston 
Peck, is perhaps the best thing in this 
number. In it he delineates the trait 
which he calls national — the "calm con- 
fidence in the ready-made." "If anything 
is wanted," says Mr. Peck, "it can be had 
if men are able to lay down the price." 
For instance, "Mr. Rockefeller and Mr. 
Stanford turn their minds to education, 
and immediately they secure two admir- 
able ready-made universities with as lit- 
tle fuss as they would have experienced 
in erecting a new oil plant or in placing 
a contract for a lot of railway ties." 

Frank Munsey, not content with having 
bought and absorbed Peterson's Maga- 
zine, has just purchased Godey's, and 
combined it with the Puritan. Where is 
this energetic young publisher going to 
stop? In Munsey's Magazine for October 
Rider Haggard's story of South Africa 
goes on more interestingly than ever. 
"The Castle Inn," by Stanley J. Wey- 
man, ends as all good novels should, in 
a marriage, and the prospect of continued 
happiness. 

The Century has this month an article 
on the Philippine problem by Professor 
Dean C. Worcester, of the University of 
Michigan. Among other things, he says: 
"Has not every crime against civiliza- 
tion in Cuba been duplicated in the Phil- 
ippines a hundred times? ... Is 
it an answer to say that Cuba is near 
and the Philippines are distant? How 
many degrees of latitude and longitude 
measure the difference between right and 
wrong?" There is also an article con- 
cerning the sugar estates in Cuba, by 
Jonathan S. Jenkins, an American who 
lived in Havana during the middle of 
the century. Virginia Woodward Cloud 
has a poem, "Care," that is above the 
average. 



Scribner's Cuban stories are at present 
the leading feature of the magazine. Mr. 
Richard Harding Davis gives a vivid de- 
scription of the battle of San Juan, and a 
careful and complete analysis of the con- 
duct of the whole Santiago campaign. He 
does not hesitate to lay the blame where 
he thinks it belongs, and to give due 
credit to the men who did the real work. 
His criticism of General Shafter is severe. 
"San Juan," he declares, "was taken, not 
by Shafter, but in spite of him." Speak- 
ing of the situation when the American 
troops lay wedged in the trail before San 
Juan, exposed to the merciless fire of the 
Spanish, brought into this "chute of 
death" by "a series of military blunders 
enamating from one source," he says: 
"The generals of divisions and brigades 
stepped back and relinquished their com- 
mand to the regimental officers and enlist- 
ed men." It may interest the members of 
the Oregon Emergency Corps to know 
that the "polka-dot" handkerchiefs with 
which they became so intimately ac- 
quainted during the summer were the 
badge of the famous Rough Riders, and 
that, according to Mr. Davis, Roosevelt 
wore one in his sombrero at the charge 
of San Juan. 

Harper's continues the semi-mystical 
story by Julian Ralph, entitled "An Angel 
in a Web." It is saying a great deal for 
the romance to admit that it is nearly if 
not quite as interesting as its title. In 
the October number appear the opening 
chapters of a serial written by William 
McLennan and J. N. Mcllwraith, and 
called "The Span o' Life." On the prin- 
ciple that "two heads are better than 
one," it ought to prove unusually enter- 
taining. Margaret Deland's "Old Ches- 
ter Tales" grow more delightful every 
month. Dr. Lavender is a rare and alto- 
gether loveable character, and the reader 
experiences a feeling of gratitude to the 
author for the privilege of making the 
acquaintance of the unpretentious clergy- 
man. 

McClure's for this month contains 
among other interesting matter Kipling's 
great poem, "The Recessional," reprinted 
by request, which is something unusual 
in a magazine. There is the full quota of 
war papers, and a number of very de- 
lightful short stories, and an account of 
mountain climbing in South America, 
that rivals some of the adventures of the 
Mazamas. 




THE MONTH. 




September 2. — 

Wilford Woodruff, the head of the Mor- 
mon church, died in San Francisco. 

In the Soudan, the English forces cap- 
tured Omdurman, and rescued Neufeld, 
who had been held in captivity eleven 
years by the dervishes. 
September 3. — 

Emperor William appointed Queen Wil- 
helmina of Holland honorary colonel of 
the Fifteenth Hanoverian hussars. 

The French minister of war resigned, on 
account of the new complications cn. n .t 
have arisen in the Dreyfus affair. 

President McKinley visited Camp Wi- 
koff at Montauk Point, New York. 
September 5. — 

Wilhelmina was crowned queen of Hol- 
land at Amsterdam. 
September 6. — 

The governor of Oregon calls a special 
session of the legislature, to meet on 
the 26th. 

War breaks out again in the island of 
Crete. Hostilities are precipitated by an 
attack by the Mussulmans upon the Brit- 
ish at Candia. 
September 8. — 

News was received to the effect that Li 
Hung Chang had been dismissed from 
the Chinese ministry. No reasons were 
given. 
September 10. — 

Commission to investigate the conduct 
of the war department was named by 
President McKinley. 

It was reported that the French had 
occupied Fashoda, in the Upper Nile 
country. 

The Empress of Austria was assassi- 
nated at Geneva. 
September 11. — 

The business portion of New Westmin- 
ster, Vancouver, B. C, was destroyed by 
fire. 
September 12. — 

Rear Admiral Dewey asked for another 
warship and a cruiser. The request is 
taken as evidence that further trouble in 
the Philippines is imminent. 

The Spanish senate adopted the Hispa- 
no-American protocol. 
September 13. — 

The "currency convention" opened at 
Omaha. 
September 14. — 

The president determined upon a Phil- 
ippine policy, which was not given to 
the public. 

The Barbadoes were swept by a terrific 
hurricane. Great loss of life and prop- 
erty. 



September 15. — 

The peace commissioners received their 
final instructions from the president. 
September 16. — 

The peace commission sailed from New 
York, in route for Paris. 
September 17. — 

Dr. John Hall, of New York, died at 
Bangor, County Down, Ireland. 
September 18. — 

The "Daughter of the Confederacy," 
Winnie Davis, died. 
September 19. — 

Aguinaldo sent a message to the Asso- 
ciated Press, denying his hostility to the 
Americans. 
September 20. — 

The republican convention met at Ta- 
coma, Wash. 
September 21. — 

President McKinley informally received 
a delegation of the Roosevelt Rough 
Riders. 
September 22. — 

The empress dowager of China deposed 
her nephew, the emperor, on account of 
his fondness for reform. 
September 23.— 

The United States peace commission 
arrived at Queenstown. 

Commission to investigate the war de- 
partment announced complete. 
September 24. — 

The state organization of the Red Cross 
Society was effected at Portland, Or. 
September 25.— 

The remnant of the Khalifa's army was 
defeated, and its last stronghold captured 
by Egyptian forces under command of 
Colonel Parsons. 
September 26. — 

The investigation of the war depart- 
ment by the commission appointed by 
President McKinley began. 
September 27. — 

Oregon legislature convened at Salem. 

Theodore Roosevelt was nominated for 
governor of New York by the republican 
convention. 
September 28. — 

Thomas F. Bayard, ex-ambassador to 
the court of St. James, died at Dedham, 
Mass., at the age of 70 years. 
September 29. — 

Queen Louise of Denmark died at 
Copenhagen. 
September 30. — 

Aguinaldo assumed the title of presi- 
dent of the revolutionary government of 
the Philippines. 

President McKinley's Philippine policy 
in favor of holding the islands. 




LITERARY COMMENT. 




Under the title of "Education in 
France" there appears in this, the initial 
number of The Pacific Monthly, the first 
of a series of articles from the pen of 
that most clever writer, Samuel Jaques 
Brun. In 1896 Doxey brought out a lim- 
ited edition of Mr. Brun's charming 
"Tales of Languedoc." This volume is, 
both in style and subject matter, delight- 
fully original, and deals with the hither- 
to unwritten folklore of Southern France. 

Among the new books issued this month 
from the publishing house of F. Tennyson 
Neely is "A Platonic Experiment," by 
Landis Ayr, an extraordinary story of 
unusual interest and quite impossible con- 
clusions. That is to say, the conclusions 
are impossible, judged by complex human 
standards. But the author has written 
above the commonplace and the ordinary, 
and shows man and woman not as they 
are, but as they ought to be. The suc- 
cess of such an experiment as this por- 
trayed by Landis Ayr may be beyond the 
realms of possibility, but it is well worth 
trying. Only to have tried is something 
noble, even though the attempt result, as 
it must in real life, in failure. The book 
is an expression of the higher moral ten- 
dencies of the age. 

"The Rainbow's End" is a Klondike 
story by Alice Palmer Henderson, and 
is published by H. S. Stone & Company. 
It is a woman's account of life and con- 
ditions in the gold fields of the frozen 
north, and is a dispassionate view of the 
situation as it exists today. 

"In the Saddle With Gomez," by Cap- 
tain Murio Carillo, is a series of short 
stories dealing with the adventures of 
many of Cuba's famous soldiers. The 
capture of St. Clara, the charge at Leque- 
tia and the attack on Camajuani, three 
of the most important events in Cuba's 
fight for freedom, are vividly portrayed. 
The book is both pleasant and instruc- 
tive, and comes at a time when public 
interest in its subjects is intense. Mr. 
F. Tennyson Neely is to be congratulated 
upon the appearance of the volumes that 
come from his house. They are always 
well printed, well bound and of high-class 
literary merit. 

Harper Brothers have just issued the 
last volume written by the "Daughter of 
the Confederacy." Winnie Davis was a 
bright and charming writer, and this 
book, "Romance of Summer Seas," is no 
less delightful in style and composition 
than those preceding it. 



One of the interesting books brought 
out recently by Macmillan is "Brown 
Men and Women," from the pen of Ed- 
ward Reeves. The subject is not new, 
volume after volume having been writ- 
ten descriptive of the inhabitants of the 
fascinating islands of the southern seas, 
but no author ever handled the condi- 
tions of life existing in those favored 
regions in quite the frank and fearless 
manner that characterizes Mr. Reeves' 
work. He spares none that are guilty, 
and does not veil his accusations in vague 
or ambiguous terms. 

In the Portland library there is a copy 
of the history of the Plymouth colony, 
printed under direction of the secretary 
of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
by order of the general court, from the 
original manuscript which has recently 
been returned to the United States by 
the hands of Thomas F. Bayard, lately 
ambassador at the court of St. James. 
The restoration, as every one probably 
knows, was ordered by decree of the con- 
sistory court of the diocese of London, 
and the manuscript, all in the handwrit- 
ing of Governor Bradford, with the excep- 
tion of a part of the last page, is erroneous- 
ly known as the "Log of the Mayflower." 
In 1856 a transcript of the document was 
secured from London through the efforts 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and put in print, but this later edition 
differs from the first in that it contains 
only the matter embodied in the original, 
with a brief account of the restoration, 
and is, of course, limited. Mr. F. K. 
Arnold, who presented the volume to the 
Portland library, is a lineal descendant 
of the first governor of Massachusetts. 

Madame Amelie de Fonfride Smith has 
made a valuable contribution to the mili- 
tary records of the state of Oregon in the 
form of an "Official Roster," which is 
illustrated, and is a comprehensive history 
of the officers and enlisted men of the 
year 1898. It is a register that no patri- 
otic citizen of Oregon will care to be 
without. 

The O. R. & N., the pioneer transpor- 
tation company, has recently issued an 
attractive book on "The Resources of 
Idaho. The text is the work of Colo- 
nel P. Donan, and is written in his best 
style. And while the salmon story and 
the potato picture may tax the credulity 
of Eastern readers, it is but fair to say 
that here in the West the truth of these 
things is never questioned. 




COLLEGE CORRESPONDENCE. 




LELAND STANFORD, JR. UNIVER- 
SITY, CALIFORNIA. 

Interest here centers upon the training 
of the 'varsity football team, for which 
there are sixty candidates; more than 
have ever before appeared on the Stanford 
field. Prospects for a victory in the an- 
nual game with the University of Cali- 
fornia at first appeared dubious, as all of 
last year's 28-0 team, excepting four, had 
graduated or enlisted in the Manila regi- 
ments. The men who played substitutes 
last year are now coming forward, and 
will form the nucleus of a strong team. 
Captain Fisher has plenty of men for 
every position excepting the center trio, 
which he is trying to build up from the 
heavy men who are volunteering. Every 
afternoon the candidates for the eleven 
practice running, tackling, punting and 
falling on the ball, and then line up for 
a few minutes' active scrimmage. Harry 
Cross, of Yale, who built up the 20-0 team 
two years ago, will again coach, assum- 
ing charge October 1. Stanford is fortu- 
nate in having on the team this year Mur- 
phy, '00, the greatest punter and runner 
in a scattered field the coast has ever 
seen, and Captain Fisher, a strong half- 
back, both in aggressive and defensive 
work. Prospects for a season of good, 
clean sport and a spirited intercollegiate 
game were never better in the history of 
intercollegiate athletics. 

The captains of the baseball and track 
teams have instituted a system of light 
fall training for the spring contests. 

A centrally located restaurant for the 
university community, costing $5,000, has 
been completed, and is now in successful 
operation. 

Work has begun on the Thomas Wel- 
ton Stanford library building, named after 
the donor, Senator Stanford's brother, 
who furnished the $150,000 needed for its 
construction. The library is two stories 
high, in the same Moorish architectural 
plan of the Quadrangle, and constitutes 
the first building of an outer quadrangle. 
It is modern in every respect, and will 
have a capacity for 200,000 volumes. It 
is built of sandstone, quarried on the 

Mrs. Stanford is living quietly in her 
home on the estate, and can be seen fre- 
quently directing the improvements which 
are constantly being made on the cam- 
pus, and also inspecting the fast-rising 
buildings. Mrs. Stanford is a large- 
souled woman of great executive ability, 



and she is wholly wrapped up in the 
university, and is constantly thinking of 
"my boys and girls," as she calls the stu- 
dents. In a recent conversation she out- 
lined her policy as follows: "I have a 
few hundred thousand dollars more in 
legacies to pay before the estate will be 
free from the control of the court. That 
will not take long. Then I shall devote 
my energies to completing the museum, 
the chapel and the chemistry laboratory. 
After that work is completed and the es- 
tate is free from incumbrance, I shall be 
ready to resign my stewardship to the 
trustees of the university." 

Stanford's president has always been 
recognized as a scientist of the first rank, 
and his appointment to the Behring sea 
fur seal commission and the offer of the 
directorship of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, at Washington, D. C, are only evi- 
dences of this. Last May his commence- 
ment address was a departure from the 
usual order, and considered the national 
expansion movement and its cost to the 
United States. This address, "Lest We 
Forget," has attracted wide notice for the 
statesmanlike way in which the problems 
of imperialism are discussed and summed 
up. Its general trend was in opposition 
to the movement on the grounds that, 
"first, dominion is brute force; second, 
dependent nations are slave nations; 
third, the making of men is greater than 
the building of nations." 

President Jordan was recently given a 
tentative offer of the presidency of the 
University of California, which he refused, 
stating that he intended to stay at Stan- 
ford as long as there was something there 
for him to do. 

A new book by Dr. Jordan will soon 
appear, "Foot-Notes to Evolution," a col- 
lection of essays on evolutionary subjects. 
O. C. LEITER. 



UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, 
EUGENE, OREGON. 

The University of Oregon has sustained 
a severe loss in the death of Professor 
Johnson, who had been connected with 
the institution since its doors were 
opened, and who was for so many success- 
ful years its president. To his untiring 
efforts, and those of his faithful co-work- 
ers, in the early days of the university, is 
due the high rank which the school grew 
to hold in the educational ranks of the 
North Pacific. 



COLLEGE CORRESPONDENCE. 



4i 



Professor Dunn, late of Willamette Uni- 
versity, and an alumnus of the Univer- 
sity of Oregon, is a welcome addition to 
the present faculty. 

There is evident a determination on the 
part of the students to maintain the pre- 
vious record of the institution in the mat- 
ter of field sports. The athletic associa- 
tion has done much to establish and stim- 
ulate a healthy interest in football, and 
already material for a strong team is in 
sight. 



of the state are well represented, and the 
manufacturing interests are a surprise to 
most of the visitors to the fair. 



CONSOLIDATED UNIVERSITY 
AT PORTLAND. 

The opening of the newly consolidated 
university at Portland, Or., is equivalent 
to the founding of a great school whose 
future is assured. It is a splendid and 
harmonious blending of three institutions 
in one, a welding together of educational 
forces already closely akin, and the re- 
sult must, of necessity, be beneficial to all 
concerned. The location of the buildings, 
the site upon which will in time be erect- 
ed a magnificent group of halls and 
dormitories, in addition to those now in 
existence, is one of unequaled beauty. Far 
up above the silver sweep of the bright 
Willamette, where the ships pass up and 
down bearing the commerce of the na- 
tions, it stands. Mount Hood and St. 
Helens look in at its windows, and not 
so very many miles away the majestic 
Columbia rolls its mighty current sea- 
ward. There is room, room to turn 
around in, and to grow, as grow it must. 
Under the administration of Chancellor 
Crawford R. Thoburn, there is every rea- 
son to believe the university will become 
the leading educational institution of the 
North Pacific. The university began its 
fall term October 4, under very flattering 
circumstances. 



DRIFT. 

Oregon is holding this autumn an expo- 
sition that is attracting crowds of visitors 
from everywhere. Eastern people, partic- 
ularly, are finding much to interest them 
in the comprehensive exhibition of Ore- 
gon products. The vast natural resources 



In the early days of Tennessee there 
was an eminent physician by name Doxy. 
He never used a common word in conver- 
sation. Of him the following anecdote is 
related: One afternoon, as Dr. Doxy was 
going out to his home, some twenty-five 
miles from Nashville, he stopped at a 
tavern eight miles northeast of the city 
to spend the night. The tavern was a 
noted place, known as the Gee Tavern. 
Mr. Gee was an old Virginian. He had 
brought from the Old Dominion an old 
servant named Jacob. This old colored 
man prided himself on being a Virginian, 
and that he had waited on the great men 
of Virginia, among them General Wash- 
ington. When Dr. Doxy rode up to the 
tavern he called to Jacob, and said: "Ap- 
proach, thou noble son of Africa, and 
detach this quadruped from his hitching- 
post, and divest him of his bridle, disen- 
cumber him of his saddle, and install 
him, and contribute to him some nutri- 
tious aliment that will be amply adequate 
to sustain him. When the oriental lumi- 
nary rises above the horizon, I will for 
your kind hospitality remunerate you 
with pecuniary compensation." That 
night the horse escaped from the barn and 
ran away. Uncle Jacob thought it would 
not do to talk to such a learned man as 
Dr. Doxy was in common language, so he 
studied up a speech he should make to 
the doctor about his horse getting away 
He went up to the room and knocked at 
the door, and with hat in hand and bow- 
ing very low, he raised himself to his 
full height and said: "Marser, dat dar 
quadruple beast of yourn has actually 
pounced the oldimpanelment of de pound, 
and skater to phisticated de equilibrium 
ob de forst." — Richmond Religious Her- 
ald. 



Not Feminine. — "Papa, the paper this 
morning in speaking of the battle at Car- 
denas says: 'She made no response to the 
New York's fire.' Battery isn't feminine, 
is it?" "No, my boy; you can silence a 
battery." 



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THE HAWAIIANS. 



EVER since the downfall of their royal 
government, the Hawaiian islands 
have drawn to themselves an amount of 
interest seemingly disproportionate to 
their size and importance. It is only 
seemingly, however, for this interest in 
reality corresponds to their worth to this 
country, both on account of their in- 
trinsic value and strategic importance. 
The attention that they have received 
has been lately increased in the United 
States owing to the recent annexation. 
Any information concerning them may, 
therefore, be especially acceptable at this 
time. 

The Sandwich or Hawaiian islands (as 
they are now known), consist of a group 
of eight islands lying about 2000 miles 
from San Francisco, and comprising an 
area of 6700 square miles. They were 
discovered by Captain Cook in 1778, who 
gave them the name of Sandwich islands, 
in honor of the Barl of Sandwich. In 
1820 missionaries from America landed 
at Honolulu, which is situated on the 
island of Oahu, and this date marks the 
beginning of an interesting period in the 
islands' history. Idolatry and cannibal- 
ism, both of which had been practiced to 
some extent, were soon discarded, and 
the majority of the inhabitants accepted 
Christianity. 

The natives are a most interesting 
people. Mr. Ellis, the famous English 
missionary, who visited the islands short- 
ly after 1820, said of them: "The inhabi- 
tants of these islands are considered, 
physically, amongst the finest races of 
the Pacific. . . . This in all proba- 
bility arises from their salubrious cli- 
mate and their chief articles of food." 

Mr. Stevens, in his book on "Pictur- 
esque Hawaii," says: "One day to the 
luxurious Kanaka is as another. The 
struggle for life does not fret his soul, 
nor fill his thoughts with 'the winter of 
its discontent' Today's comfort fills his 
horizon, and there is only one day in his 
calendar. It is the luxuriant prolificness 
of the islands that makes the native the 
happy-go-lucky fellow that he is." The 
Kanakas delight in swimming, and they 
swim with remarkable skill and ease. In 
surf-swimming, a very astonishing sport, 
"they balance themselves whilst standing 
or sitting on a board, which is carried 
landwards on the crest of a great roller." 

The chief products of the islands are 
taro, sugar cane, coffee, pineapples, rice 
and cocoanuts. The most important of these 
to the native is the taro. It forms the 



national dish, called "poi," which the na- 
tives rely upon for their sustenance. The 
taro plant is easily cultivated, and the 
yield to an acre is remarkable. It has 
been estimated that an acre of land will 
yield on an average of 28,000 pounds of 
cooked and pounded taro per annum. 
This yield would sustain 18 men for 12 
months. Mr. Stevens, in the book above 
referred to, says of taro: "It is excellent 
in case of sickness, being easily digested 
and withal very nourishing," and Mr. 
Ellis observed that the remarkable physi- 
cal condition of the Hawaiians is due to 
their food. He mentions taro as espe- 
cially effacious in producing good re- 
sults. This being true, it has long been 
a matter of wonder that such an impor- 
tant food should not be known to the 
world at large. Arrangements have at 
last been made, however, for the intro- 
duction of taro into the United States. 
It comes to us under the name of "Ta- 
roena," and is receiving a warm welcome. 
Physicians especially find in it a long- 
Tnoked-for remedy, and one writes from 
Los Angeles to this effect: 

"I have noted the wonderful qualities 
nt taro; it has been proved of the greatest 
value in all cases where a food is wanted 
that is a system builder, easily digested 
and agreeable to all patients suffering 
from dyspepsia or any chronic digestive 
trouble, while as a food for the debili- 
tated conditions following typhoid fever, 
or any of the wasting diseases, it is, in 
my opinion, superior to all other foods." 

It is said, and all trials substantiate 
the statement, that Taroena is an ideal 
food, especially for dyspeptic conditions, 
indigestion and consumption. It has 
never been known to fail as a perfect 
food for infants. The Hawaiians use it 
from the day that they are born. It is 
also believed to prevent seasickness, and 
to cure the most acute cases of vomiting. 

Mr. Stevens' book has created much 
interest in this country, but it is not so 
much for the enlightenment as regards 
the Hawaiians, as it is for the light that 
he has thrown on taro and the benefit 
to mankind which will follow therefrom, 
that we feel grateful to him. Taro, or 
Taroena, as it is called in America, and 
which is taro with nothing added or 
taken away, is a nature-made food. It 
can be obtained at present from any 
druggist, though a movement, which it is 
hoped will soon be consummated, is also 
being made by grocers to carry it in 
stock. 



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FAMILY ROOMS Telephone 235 



E. C. Goddard A. W. Goddard T. H. Fearey 

E. C. GODDARD & GO. 



Dealers in 



Fine Footwear 

FULL LINE OF 

LATEST STYLE FALL AND 
WINTER SHOES 

129 Sixth St., Portland, Ore. 

Oregonian Building 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



LADD & TILTON 

ESTABLISHED 1859 

... Transact a General Banking Business 

Special Attention Given to 
Collections 



PORTlvAlVD, OREGON 



THE PENN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE GO. 

OF PHILADELPHIA 

" The Policy Holders' Company " 

THE NEW POLICY of the Penn Mutual is absolutely non-forfeitable and incontestable, and 
contains guarantees in plain figures for each year. 

1st A Cash Surrender Value. 2d A Loan equal in amount to the Cash Value. 
3d Extended Insurance for the Full amount of Policy, without the request of the Policy-holder, or 

4th A Paid-up Policy 

SHERMAN & HARMON, General Agents, Oregon and Washington 

727, 728 & 729 Marquam Building, Portland, Oregon 



O. JT. tffoorehouse dc Co., ynoor-^oratoct 

Wait SPaper, SRoom W?ouidinffS, iPaints, 

Otis, ISarnisAes, Jifouse, O/ffrt 

and fresco ZPainting 

30S jftdcr Street, SPortfanc/j Oreyon 



Free Slnine to All Customersl 

KNIGHT & EDER 

The Medium Priced Shoe Dealers 
292 Washington Street 

Opposite Hotel Perkins PORTLAND, OKEQON 



Established 1872 

JOHN A. BECK 

Dealer in 

waicties, Diamonds, Jewelry, Silverware, 

270 Morrison St., Bet. Third and Fourth, 

Repairing a Specialty PORTLAND, OREGON 



THE J. K. GILL CO. 

Finest Stationery 

Masonic Temple, Third and Alder Sts., Portland, Ore.] 

ALL the latest books 
Prices to Meet All Competitors 



Dixon, Borgeson X Company 

R. LUTKE, Manager, Portland 

Manufacturers of £* |_ /■"» 

Every Description of ^flOW WClSCS 



Jewelers' and Druggists' Wall Cases 
and Bank Fixtures 

108-110-112-114 FRONT STREET, Cor. Washington 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Taroena * 

SEE ARTICLE IN THIS ISSUE ON 
THE HAWAIIANS 



37 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Is manufactured from the root 
of the Taro plant. It is a nat- 
ural, not an artifcial food. 

is manufactured by a speciallj 
patented process from care 
fully selected Taro. 

It contains the concentrated strength of Taro. Four 
pounds of Taro are used to make one pound of Taroena. 

IT WILL STAY DOWN when all other Foods will be rejected ; 

TAROENA is both a medicine and a food. It is the 
best baby food It is the best invalid food. It is the 
best food for dyspeptics. It is the best nerve and brain 
food. It is the easiest food to "keep down" on a weaki 
or irritable stomach. It is the lightest, least irritating 
and the safest food to introduce into the stomach on 
intestines of sufferers from acute diseases of the stom- 
ach or bowels. It is the easiest food to assimilate, and 
requires the least work on the part of the stomach or 
bowels. Endorsed by eminent Physicians. For Sale 
by All Druggists. 



ileil 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY-ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Portland Gas Co. 



\ 



SAVE MONEY, TIME AND 
LABOR 




CALX AND SEE US ABOUT THEM 



Fifth and Yamhill Streets 

-PORTLAND, OREGON 



..HATTERS AND FURNISHERS.. 



8 



Sole Ageuts for 

94 THIRD STREET 
Portland, Ore. 



...RICHET COMPANY... 

Wholesale f Retail Groceries 

112=114 Front Street, Corner Washington 
PORTLAND, OREGON 

Consumers can save money by trading with us. We are both Wholesalers and Retailers, 
and are enabled to sell to the consumer at less than the ordinary rates. 

We have a special shipping department, devoting careful attention to the Packing and 
Shipping of orders from the interior. All orders will receive careful and prompt attention. We 
shall be pleased to mail a copy of our Price List to those requesting it. 

RICHET C07VYPP[NV 



jELfcPMONE 5 




..ARE NOTED FOR QUALITY OF WORK AND PROMPT SERVICE .. 



JAMES R. EWING 

..Bookseller.. 



Miscellaneous Books 
Bibles . . . 
Northwest Views 



267 Morrison Street 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Careful Attention to Special Orders 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Buy Your Homoeopathic Medicines of 

Boericke & Runyon 

Portland, Oregon 

opp olds & king 303 Washington Street 



J. R. ROGERS 

Printer and Stationer 

323 Morrison Street 

Marquam Building PORTLAND, ORE. 



Sdwarci JVuyhes 

?£S/io/esa/e 

Jarm and TTfill T/fachinery 

/8S, /90, /92, /94 J-ront Stroat 



Povey Bros. Glass Company 

MANUFACTURERS OP 

Art Stained Glass 

rOR CHURCHES, DWELLINGS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

48 TO 54 N. SIXTH ST., PORTLAND. ORE. 



24,000 Volumes and over 200 Periodicals. 
$5.00 a Year and $1.50 a Quarter. Two 
Books Allowed on all Subscriptions. 
HOURS -From 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. Daily Except Sun- 
days and Holidays 
STARK STREET, BET. SEVENTH AND PARK 



..Odd Stogs Bronj Japan.. 

LITTLE BOOK STORE 

293 Morrison Street, Portland, Ore. 



E>. C BURNS 

147 Third Street, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Always on Hand a Full Line of 

■* FRESH GROCERIES *• 

Lowest Cash Prices 



..OPTICIAN.. 

Dr. A. A. BARR, formerly of St. Paul, has charge of 
the Optical Department for 



I. N. WRIGHT. I lift JEWELER, 

293 Morrison Street, PORTLAND, ORE. 



CONSULTATION FRF.E 



JOHN CRAN & CO. 

Specialties in 

Hosiery, Underwear, Dress 
Goods, Linens 

HANDKERCHIEFS, WHITE GOODS, 
LACES, ETC. 

256 iaiRSHINGTON STREET 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



S. M. Mears, President 



Marion Wilcox, Secretary 



IE UNITED CfillllGE CORIPIY 

Carriages and Livery 

Branch Office, Baggage and Omnibus Transfer Co., 
Fourth and Stark Streets. 

Main Office, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Taylor Streets, 
Portland, Oregon. 



Boarding and Care of Horses 
a Specialty. 




T3ALL-Bearing Type- Bar Joints and Fixed 
Type-Bar Hangers, giving Unimpairable 
Alignment. Lightest Key Action. The Most 
Rapid. Platen Rolls to Show Work. Carriage 
locks at end of line, protecting the writing. 
Compact Shift Keyboard. Numerous Handy 
Features. Address for full particulars, 



l Supplies Company... 

No. 232 Stark Street 
PORTLAND, OREGON 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



PORTLAND GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 



CARRIES A FULL LINE OF 



MOTORS from One-half Horse Power Up 

POWER for ELEVATORS and all kinds 
of Machinery. 

ARC and INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 

Electric and Bell Wiring a Specialty 



Electric Supplies 



SAMSON BATTERIES 

GENERAL OFFICES 

COR. SEVENTH AND ALDER STREETS 



TELEPHONES (Both) 385 



WHITE COLLAR LINE 

Columbia River & Puget Sound Navigation Co. 

Portland and Astoria 
Steamers Telephone or Bailey Gatzert leave foot Alder 

Street daily (except Sunday), 7 A.M. 
Leave Astoria daily (except Sunday) 7 P. M. 

TJ. B. SCOTT, President 



EAST 



AND 



SOUTHERN 

PACIFIC 

COMPANY 



LEAVE 






* 6 00 p m 



* 8 30 a ra 

Daily 

except 

Sunday 



t 7 30 a m 
t 4 50 p m 



Depot, Fifth and I Sts. 



OVERLAND EX-1 
PRESS, for Salem, 
Roseburg, Ashland, 
Sacramento, Ogden, 
San Francisco, Mo- 
jave. Los Angeles, El 
Paso, New Orleans 
and the East. 



Roseburg passenger 

(Via Woodburn for"> 
Mt. Angel, Silverton, | 
West Scio, Browns- ' 
ville, Springfield and 
Natron. 



Corvallis passenger ... 
Independence passenger 



* 9 30 a rh 



* 4 30 p m 

Daily 

except 

Sunday 



t 5 50 P «n 
X 8 25 ft ir 



♦Daily. {Daily except Sunday- 
Direct connection at San Francisco with Occi- 
dental and Oriental and Pacific Mail steamship 
lines for JAPAN AND CHINA. Sailing dates on 
application. 

Rates and tickets to Eastern points and Eu- 
rope Also JAPAN, CHINA, HONOLULU and 
AUSTRALIA. Can be obtaiued from f. B. 
KIRKLA.ND, Ticket Agent, 134 Third Street. 
Yamhill Division — Pass. Depot, foot Jefferson St. 

Leave for Oswego daily at 7:20, 9:40* a m ; 
12:30,1:55,3:25,5:15,6:25 8:05, 11:30 pm, and 9:00 
a m on Sundays only. Arrive at Portland daily 
at 6:35*, 8:30, 10:50* a m; 1:35, 3:15. 4:30, 6:20, 7:40, 
9:15 p m; 11:40 a m daily except Monday, and 
10:05 a m on Sundays only. 

Leave for Sheridan daily, except Sunday at 
4:30 p m. Arrive at Portland at 9:30 a m. 

Leave for Airlie, Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays at 8:40 a m. Arrive at Portland Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays at 3:05 p. m. 

*Except Sunday. 
R. KOEHLER, C. H. MARKHAH. 

flanaget . den. P. & P. Agt. 



ARE YOU INTERESTED? 

THE O. R. & N. Co.'s NEW BOOK on the Resources 
of Oregon, Washington and Idaho is being distributed. 
Our readers are requested to forward the addresses of 
their Eastern friends and acquaintances, and a copy of 
the work will be sent them free. This is a matter All 
should be interested in, and we would ask that every- 
one take an interest and forward such addresses to W. 
H. Hurlburt, General Passenger Agent, O. R. & N. Co., 
Portland, Oregon. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



Wakelee & Company <* ** <* 




"DRUGGISTS 
'+ "PERFUMERS 



^[HE most careful attention by 
skilled and experienced phar- 
macists given to the compound- 
ing of Physicians' Prescriptions* 
We cannot afford to give less 
than our best efforts. Our ivork 
and our goods are AL WA YS the 
best of the highest grades £• j* j* 



Corner Bush and Montgomery Streets ♦♦. 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALA. 




NEW STORE 



NEW GOODS 



NEW PRICES 



A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO SHOP 



Dress Goods, Linings, Underwear, Laces, 
Ribbons, (Moves, Etc. 

BLANKETS, FLANNELS, BED SPREADS, TABLE 
LINEN, TOWELS, ETC. 

GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS 



P. A. FINSETH, PROP 

Bet. First & Second 

'ORTUND, ORE 



230 MORRISON ST. B t 



Astoria and GoiumDia River R. R. Time Gaid 

WINTER SCHEDULE-Daily 

Train No. 22 leaves Portland at 8:00 a. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 24 leaves Portland at 7:00 p. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 11:10 p. in. 

Return 

Train No. 21 leaves Astoria at 8.00 a. m., arrives in 
Portland at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 23 leaves Astoria at 6:30 p. m. and arrives 
in Portland at 10:35 p. m. 

Train No. 22 runs through to Seaside, leaving Seaside 
on the return at 2:50 p. m. 

All trains leaving Astoria for Seaside or returning 
from Seaside run on the Flavel Branch. 

The Astoria and Columbia River R. R. Winter Sched- 
ule is now in effect. Trains leave Union Depot, Port- 
land, daily at 8:00 a. m. and 7:00 p. m., arriving at 
Astoria at 12:15 P- m and 11:10 p. m. Leaving for Sea- 
side at 12:20 p. m. 




Oil competition 



< ^pk?to*^ ; 



As regards Time and Through 
Car Service to Chicago and 
other Eastern Cities. 



JUST THINK! 

3^ days with no change to Chicago 
4}4 days and one change to New York 



THEN AGAIN: 

Trains are Illuminated by Pintsch Gas, 
run into Union Depots, and Baggage 
ts checked through to Destination. 
Lowest Rates. 



For Information pertaining to the Union Pacific, 
call on or address 



J. H. LOTHROP, 

General Agent. 



C. E. Brown, 

Dist. Pass. Agent. 



135 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 



(Volume J NOVEMBER 



Number 2 M] 




tocinc 



A MAGAZINE Of EDVCA- 
I TIQM AND PROGRESS. 

]R TEN CENTS A COPY > ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 
THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO. 
PUBLISHERS * * * j* PORTLAND, OREGON 







S5S55SS5! 



♦ ♦♦In This Number*** 



Columbia River Salmon — 

Hotlister 2>. McGuire, Oregon State Fish Commissioner 



Two Short Stories — 
A Rough Rider 
Augustus Dana's Wife 



F. /. McHenry 
Lischen M, Miller 



News From the Colleges 

Education in France — 

(Second Paper) Samuel Jacques *Brun 

And Other Interesting Articles 



w 



^*******#*****A*********<.***************4 



k***********' 



T/ffi PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 

Contents for cJ^pvember, t898. 



Page 
. 43 



Frontispiece — 

By "W. E. Rollins, and Poem by John Vance Cheney 

Columbia River Salmon — Hollister C D. McGvire, Oregon State Fish Commissioner 
Salmon Fishing on the Lower Columbia — .... C.L. Simpson 

A Roughs Ride^ (Short Story)— F.J.SMcHenry 

In Starlight ( Poem ) — Florence May Wright 61 

Education in France ( Second Paper ) — • Samuel Jacques Brun 62 

Democracy (Poem) — 3 Walt Whitman 64 

Augustus Dana's "Wife (Short Story) — • • • Lischen €M. miller 65 

Love's Remembrance ('Poem)— Lischen M. Miller 68 

"Was He Justified? "( Conclusion)— ? 69 

Our Point of View (Editorial!)— 71 

Prythee, Poet, Sweetly Sing ( Poem ) — • • 73 

The Magazines — .74 

Harper's, Century, McClure's, Scribner's, Cosmopolitan 

In Autumn ( Poem ) — Edfoard Maslin Hulme 75 

The Month— .76 

A Record of the Principal Events of the Month 

Literary Comment— • . . 78 

Looking Back ( Poem ) — Jlorence C B. Cartivright 79 

College Correspondence — 80 

LeJand Stanford Jr. University, University of California, University of Wash- 
ington and University of Oregon 

The Mermaid ( Poem ) — ....... William SMartin 82 

99999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999999 

TERMS— $1.00 A YEAR IN ADVANCE. 10 CENTS A COPY. 

All communications should be sent, and all checks or drafts made payable, to Ihe 
'Pacific SMonthly Publishing Company. Agents for The 'Pacific SMonthly are tuanted in 
every locality. Write for our exceptional terms and inducements. 



Alex Stveek, President 
J. Thorhurn Ross, Vice-President 
Geo. L. Peaslee, Secretary 
W. B. Wells, Manager 
Lischen M. Miller, Asst. Manager 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUB. COMPANY, 
Macleay; Building, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 



Copyrighted, 1898, by "William, Bittle "Wells. All|rights,reserved 

Entered at the Post'Office at Portland, Oregon, October 17, 1898, as second class matter 

"When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific .Monthly j 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



V^ll ^0\/0 rirfcllirC BY PURCHASING YOUR DRUGS, PATENT MEDICINES AND 
I ULl UaVC LVUl I cl I S TOILET ARTICLES OF WOODARD, CLARKE & CO. 

Mere words don't tell it all. Here are some prices. Remember every Patent Medicine, Toilet Article or Drug 
is sold at Cut-Rates. Our mail order business has trebled in a year, because everyone within 500 miles of Port- 
land can save money by trading with us. 

Regular Price Our Cut-Rate Price 

Allcock's Porus Plasters $0 15 $0 10 

Ayer's Sarsaparilla 1 00 69 

Carter's Pills 25 15 

Oastoria 35 25 

Scott's Emulsion 100 73 

Hood's Sarsaparilla 100 69 

Paine's Celery Compound 1 00 78 

Syrup of Figs 50 35 

We buy direct from manufacturers in large quantities, which secures the very lowest trade rates. This enables 
us to retail at wholesale prices. Our Photographic Department will interest you. Every new thing in Photo- 
graphy is in stock. 

iAiOODHRD, CLHRKE St CO. 

Fourth and Washington Streets, Portland, Oregon 



A PAIR OF GLASSES 




Do You Need Them? 



If you qeed Glasses, aqy Kind °f Glasses -will qot 
do. Trtey must be fitted Witt) great pair\s aqd 
accuracy; Wrtrj \r\o\J\edqe ar\d experience; taking 
tirqe ar)d care. " fi.r\y sort of glasses " are 'Worse 
triaq r\or(e. Our advice is reliable ar\d worth, ii|ore 
th,ari it costs. 



REED & MALCOLM 

EYE SPECIALISTS 

f33 Sixth Street, Oregonian c Building, Portland, Ore, 



J. C. AINSWORTH, President 



THOS. CONNELL, Vice President 



W. W. PHILLIPS, Cashier 



The Ainsworth National Bank 



Cor. Third and Oak Streets 



SAFE DEPOSIT 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



Avery & Co 

Hardware I 



TOOLS 
CUTLERY 



MCCAFFREY'S CELEBRATED FILES AND 
HORSE RASPS 



furniture and upholstery 
Hardware 

loggers' and lumbermen's 
supplies 

Sporting and Blasting 
Powder 

Fishing tackle 



82 Third Street, near Oak, Portland, Oregon 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



SEND TO US FOR PRICES ON 



We are Manufacturers of the 
Celebrated 

Maltese Gross Brand 
of Rubber Belt f 
Ajax Brand Cotton 
Mill Hose... 




Rubber and 

Leather 

Belting... 




87=89 FIRST STREET, PORTLAND, ORE. 



RUSSELL & CO. 



A. H. AVERILL, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




High Grade, 
Engines, Boilers, 
Saw Mills, 
Threshers... 



Estimates furnished on Stearn Plants of all Sizes and fo 
• any purpose. Write for Catalogues. 



RUSSELL & CO., = Portland, Ore 



I HE PACIFIC MONTHLY- ADVERTISING SECTION. 



..DIAMOND T IMPORTED FINE DRY GRANULATED SUGAR.. 

Polarizes 98 Per Cent. Saccharine Matter. 

THE STRONGEST, SWEETEST SUGAR ON THE MARKET. 

Prices from One-Eighth to One-Quarter Cent Per 
Pound Under Jobbers. 

W. A. MEARS, 33 Second Street, Portland, Ore. 



Rudolph Bmrth 

Successor to BARTH & SHERWOOD 

141 Post Street, near Grant Avenue, San Francisco, Gal. 

Importer and Dealer in 



SILVERWARE AND SILVER 
NOVELTIES 

Jewelry of All Descriptions Made to Order 

Watch and Jewelry Repairing 
a Specialty 



USE 



Washington's Best 

CHOICE FAMILY 
...FLOUR... 



..FOR SALE BY ALL GROCERS... 



Ttie cuas. F. Beeto Company 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION 

ship chandlers, store and 
Provision dealers 

Agents for DEARBORN & CO.'S DISPATCH LINE 

of Clipper Ships from New York 

and Philadelphia 



SURETY BONDS 

Capital and Surplus, - $2,500,000.00 

Fidelity and Deposit company 



OF MARYLAND 



Northern Assurance Company of London 
St. Paul Fire & Marine Insurance Company 



1 St 3 NORTH FIRST STREET 
PORTLAND, ORE. 



Issues guarantee bonds to employes in posi- 
tions of trust. 

Court Bonds, Federal Officers,' City, County 
and State Officials' Bonds issued promptly. 

W. R. MACKENZIE, State Agent 
208 Worcester Block, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Telephone Main 986 




Cawston & Co., 



Dealers in 



Engines and Boilers, 

Wood-Working Machinery, 
...Iron-Working Tools and Supplies... 

48 & 50 First Street 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



Blake's Single and Duplex Humps. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



How TO 
Beautiful 

IN FIVE CHAPTERS 



( CHAPTER TWO ) 



Wisdom's Robertine 

(CORRECTS all Blemishes of the Face, pro- 
tects it from Wind and Sunburn and makes 
a beautiful Complexion. 

price, Fifty Cents Per bottle 
S. HEITSHU, Agent, Portland, Oregon 

If not obtainable at your druggists, send price to Agent and 
Goods will be forwarded by mail 



...Perfect Telephone Service... 

Can be obtained only through a complete Metallic Circuit 
for each Subscriber, and 

•^ ISO PHRTY LINES^ 

The Columbia Telephone Company 

HAS THESE ADVANTAGES 

OFFICES, 606-607 0REG0NIAN BUILDING, PORTLAND, OREGON 

latest styles and first-class 
Jewelry, Diannonds, Watches and Silverware 

AT MODERATE PRICES 

■ fl. FELDENHEIMER 

Corner Third and Washington Streets 
PORTLAND, ORE. 



RFCk^S 272 Washington Street 

1— "■•— •/X« / IV. 4-7 Portland, ore. 

Up-to-Date and Exclusive Dealers in 

Ladies; Children's and infants' Wear 

Styles up to the Standard in all Lines 

infants' Wardrobes and Wedding Trousseaus 

A SPECIALTY 



Price List Sent on Application 



MERIT IS THE ONLY THING THAT COUNTS, AND WE CLAIM THAT 
ON OUR ENTIRE STOCK 



G. G. GLINE OIL & PAINT GO. 

144 FIRST STREET 
Portland, ore. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



doors, Windows, Plate and Window glass 
wkl.l pkper 

And the General Lines of BUILDING MATERIAL 

GLAZING A SPECIALTY 

Columbia Telephone 290 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 

W. H. McMONlES 

Wholesale Manufacturer of 

Harness, Horse Collars and Leather Specialties 



Jobber of SADDLERY HARDWARE, Etc. 

Ladies- & cents- Beits 74 Front Street, Portland, Ore. 

Mexican Hand Stamped Work * ^ ' ' 

Telephone Oregon Main 517 

Consolidated {Jhivefstfy - ^ 

( Portland - Paget Sound ) 

1 be Leading Jlducational Institution of lacific Northwest 

Offers Thorough and Extensive Instruction in all the 

Solid Branches of Education ... EXPENSES LOW... 

Winter Term Begins January 3, 1899 

"Write for Particulars to 
Chancellor C. R. THOBURN, S. T. D., University Park, Oregon 

Northwestern Mutual Life 

OF MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Grants more Insurance for the Same Cost or the Same Insurance 
at Lower Cost than any other Company. 

Largest Purely American Company. 
Official Reports of State Insurance Departments Represent it to be the 

Strongest and Best 



For Terms, Address 

S. T. L0CKW00D & SON, General Agents, 

Concord Building, Portland, Ore. 

BURN ROSLYN COAL ||*|| The Blue Mountain Ice and Fuel Company 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY- ADVERTISING SECTION. 



John H. Mitchell Albert H. Tanner 

MITCHELL & TANNER 

Attorneys at Law 
Commercial Block, PORTLAND, ORE. 



Russell E. Sewall, 

District Attorney 



R. R. Giltner 



GILTNER & SEWALL 

Attorneys at Law 

Offices, 508-509 Commercial Building 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



A. C. & R. W. EMMONS 

Attorneys at Law 

PORTLAND AND SEATTLE 
Chamber of Commerce 
Portland, Ore. 



SAMUEL J. BRUN 

Attorney and Counselor at Law 
sixth floor, mills building 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Practices in all the Courts 



EUGENE D WHITE &. CO- 
Real Estate 

Fire Insurance and Conveyancing; Commissioners of 

Deeds for all the States and Territories 

Notaries Public. 

COMMERCIAL BLOCK, PORTLAND, OREGON 

'Phone Oregon Main 6 
E. D. White 'Phone Oregon Black 1141 



Residence, 475 Morrison St. Res. 'Phone, Ore. Red 2721 

JOHN C. LEASURE 

Attorney at Law 
Criminal, Probate and Corporation Law Specialties 

Office Rooms 

401-2-20-21 Commercial Building, Portland, Ore. 

Office 'Phone, Oregon Main 6 



THE OCULISTS' PRESCRIPTION CO. 

JAS D. MALCOLM 

SPECTACLES AND EYEGLASSES 

OF ALL KINDS 

Repairing a Specialty 

Room 8, Washincton Bloc, 8. E. Cor. Fourth and Washington Sts. 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



MRS. L. M. ROBERTSON 

No. 202 Marquam Building, PORTLAND, OREQON 

Fashionable Suits $5 up. Latest French Styles 
Satisfaction Guaranteed 



SAMUEL JACQUES BRUN 

zAvocat Consultant et Plaidant 






ARRANGEMENTS DE FAMILLE 
ET SUCCESSIONS 



6iemk Etage, Mills Building 

SAN FRANCISCO 



Notary Publ,c Residence | ft^nt h |treet ^ „ 

GEO. HAYFORD 

ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW 

Offices, 306-308 Chamber of Commerce, Portland, Oregon 
Telephone "Black 2915" 

..CIRCULATING LIBRARY.. 

OF NEW BOOKS AND MAGAZINES 

25 Cents per Month 

•* JONES' BOOK STORE * 
291 Alder Street, Portland, Oregon 



TUB Blumaner-FnmK Drag Go. 

..WHOLESALE.. 



Fourth and Morrison Streets 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



CHARLES COOPEY 

CIVIL AND MILITARY 

Tailor... 

Rooms i, 2, 3, 12, 13, Up Stairs 

N. E. Corner Third and Stark Streets 

Entrance, 88^ Third Street 



PORTLAND AGENT FOR ALBANY ( OREGON ) 
WOOLEN MILLS 



THE BLUE MOUNTAIN 



u 




I 



T. J. GORMAN, Manager 

COAL ) f/^tiV 

No. 247 STARK STREET 

Both 'Phones PORTLAND, ORE. 



Holiday Goods! 

Japanese and Chinese Curios 

Fancy Goods, Matting, Fireworks 

Flags, Etc. 

All kinds of European and Domestic 

...TOYS... 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 

Andrew Kan & Co. 

COR. FOURTH AND 
MORRISON STS. 

Portland, Oregon 




the G* Heitkemper Co. 

Watchmakers, Jewelers and 
Silversmiths 

249 Morrison Street, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Beg to announce the arrival of a large, new and well 
selected stock of the most beautiful things in Jewelry, 
Watches, Silverware and Novelties. Your inspection is 
invited. 

Our Strong Point— SILVERWARE. 
Inquiries by mail promptly answered. 



$ Henry Failing H. W. Corbett G. E. Withinglon 
ty President Vice President Cashier 

i 



J. W. Newkirk 
Asst. Cashier 



W. C. Alvord 

2d Asst. Cashier 



t 



! 
\ 

\»/ 
f 

\»/ 
v»/ 
v!/ 
vl/ 
\»/ 
v»/ 

t 

I 

p COR. FIRST AND WASHINGTON STS. $ 

t 

i 

9 

Surplus, - ■ 650,000.00 



First 
National Bank 

OF 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Capital, 



$500,000.00 



Designated Depositary, and Financial 
Agent, United States 



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THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



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"THE "PACIFIC ^MONTHLY, 



Vol, I 



NOVEMBER, t898 



No, 2 



COLUMBIA RIVER SALMON. 



By HOLHSTER D. McGUIRE, Oregon State Fish Commissioner. 



ONCORHYNCHUS, pronounced Ong- 
ko-ring-kus, is the scientific name 
of the Pacific Coast salmon, of which there 
are five distinct species. They were first 
recognized and described by Stellar, the 
most exact of early observers. He de- 
scribed and distinguished them with per- 
fect accuracy in the year 1731. Some 60 
years later the German compiler, Johann 
Walbaum, gave scientific names to all the 
salmon and trout which travelers had de- 
scribed. After Stellar and Walbaum, Pal- 
las, in the year 1811, recognized these 
same species and gave them other names. 
Since then writers with little or no knowl- 
edge at all of the subject have done their 
worst to confuse, until no exact knowledge 
of any of the species remained. 

Until a few years ago the breeding males 
of the five species constituted a separate 
genus of many species; the females were 
placed in the genus Salmo, and the young 
in still another species of a third genus 
called Fario. This was supposed to be a 
genus of trout. 

David Starr Jordan says that not one 
of the many writers on these fishes 45 
years ago knew a single species at sight 
or used knowingly in their description a 
single character by which species are 
really distinguished. Many of those en- 
gaged in the salmon industry on the Co- 
lumbia, as well as others, have fallen into 
a great error concerning the number of 
species of salmon running in that stream. 
Some 15 years ago W. A. Jones, major of 
engineers, U. S. A., in a report to congress 
(Ex. Doc. No. 123, 50th Congress, first ses- 



sion, page 16) gave a list of 12 species of 
salmon "that run in the Columbia." This 
popular error, in regard to the number of 
species, is in great part due no doubt to 
the extraordinary variability in appear- 
ance of the different species of salmon, 
largely attributable to the conditions in- 
cident to the development of the repro- 
ductive organs. 

At the present time ichthyologists are a 
unit in the opinion that there are only 
five distinct species of salmon in the Pa- 
cic, viz., (1) the Chinook, or quinnat sal- 
mon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ; (2) 
the blueback salmon, or red fish (Onco- 
rhynchus nerka) ; (3) the silver salmon 
(Oncorhynchus kisutch) ; (4) the dog sal- 
mon (Oncorhynchus keta), and (5) the 
humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbus- 
cha) ; these scientific names being those 
given them by Walbaum nearly 100 years 
ago. 

The Columbia river is the only stream in 
which four of the five species of the Onco- 
rhynchus are found in abundance, the 
humpback (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) be- 
ing the only species not entering that 
stream in large numbers, and individuals 
of that species have also been taken oc- 
casionally. 

The spring run of Chinook (Oncorhyn- 
chus tschawytscha) is by far the largest, 
most important and valuable of the sal- 
mon family. Its flesh has an oiliness and 
richness of flavor that makes it far su- 
perior to the other species as an article 
of food. It is the standard of excellency, 
and when packed in hermetically sealed 



4 6 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



cans (four-fifths of it being thus pre- 
pared for export) brings a higher price 
than does the other species. The Chinook 
(spring run) is found in great abundance 
when at its best only in the Columbia, 
the quantity taken in that stream last 
year aggregating 33,000,000 pounds, as 
against 2,500,000 pounds taken in the Sac- 
ramento river and 1,000,000 pounds taken 
in Rogue river, these streams being the 
only ones that any considerable number 
of these fish enter during the spring 
months, rarely running in other coast 



spawning of the fish only 5 per cent, sur- 
vive on account of the freshets that carry 
away the eggs, and the predaceous fishes 
that prey upon the young. 

In the spring the body of the salmon, 
when it enters the Columbia, is a beau- 
tiful silvery color, the dorsal and caudal 
fins being marked with round black spots 
and the sides of the head having a tin- 
colored, metallic lustre. As they near the 
spawning period marked deterioration 
takes place. This deterioration is due en- 
tirely to the development of the repro 




Hollister D. McGuire 



streams until marked deterioration has 
taken place, greatly impairing its whole- 
someness and value as food. 

The eggs of this species, as of all the 
salmonidae, are much larger than in 
fishes generally and the ovaries are with- 
out special duct, the eggs falling into the 
cavity of the abdomen before they are ex- 
cluded. The large size of the eggs, the 
fact that they do not stick together, and 
the ease with which they may be im- 
pregnated, make artificial culture of these 
fish a work of wonderful possibilities. By 
this means 95 per cent, of the eggs are 
successfully hatched, while in the natural 



ductive organs. As the spawning period 
approaches the male fish grows thin, his 
head flattens, the upper jaw curves like a 
hook over the lower, the eyes become 
sunken, large, powerful, dog-like teeth ap- 
pear on both jaws, and the fish acquires 
a gaunt and savage look. This is not due 
to the change from salt to fresh water 
environment, as some suppose, but is en- 
tirely attributable to the development of 
the milt. This is demonstrated by the 
fact that the Chinook salmon, which en- 
ter the Columbia river in February and 
March and ascend to the headwaters of 
the Clackamas to spawn, are identical in 



COLUMBIA RIVER SALMON. 



47 



appearance and condition in the month of 
August with many of the same species 
that do not leave the ocean and enter the 
river until that month. 

Chinook salmon do not feed after en- 
tering fresh water; their . stomachs and 
throats become entirely incapacitated for 
receiving food, and the desire and ability 
to feed leave them entirely. The great re- 
serve of flesh and blood acquired on the 
rich feeding grounds of their ocean home 
enables them to keep the vital organs ac- 
tive until their mission up the fresh- 



are frayed and torn and shortly after 
spawning they die from exhaustion. This 
is the fate, I think, of 90 per cent, of the 
Chinook that enter the Columbia. There 
are possibly 10 per cent, of this species 
that enter the river only a short time be- 
fore their spawning period that do not get 
far above tidewater; these probably sur- 
vive and return to the ocean. 

The spawning period for the Chinook on 
the Columbia extends from July 15 to No- 
vember 15. There is a popular belief 
among the cannerymen and fishermen on 




Interior of the Clackamas Salmon Hatchery 



water streams is accomplished. Chinook^ 
salmon that ascend 150 miles from the 
ocean to spawn do not return to it again, 
but die on their spawning grounds. This 
has been disputed but it is undoubtedly 
true. After spawning the deterioration is 
very rapid, the flesh grows pale and they 
become foul, diseased and very much ema- 
ciated; their scales are wholly absorbed 
in the skin, which is now of a dark olive 
or black hue; and their heads and bodies 
are covered with fungus; the skin is worn 
off in places, and their bodies are bruised 
from buffeting with the current among 
the rocks and boulders; their tails and fins 



the Columbia that only the early spawning 
fish are of commercial value; that the 
fish which spawn in September and Oc- 
tober produce a run that does not enter 
the river until after the lawful fishing 
season. In other words, they claim that 
the operation of the hatchery during the 
months of September and October is pro- 
ducing a fall run of fish of no practical 
value. This theory has been proven an 
error through the experimental studies 
with the marked salmon hereafter re- 
ferred to. The eggs from whicn these 
marked fry were hatched were taken late 
in the month of September, 1895, and all 



48 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



the marked fish captured this year (nearly 
400 in number) were taken before the 
1st of August. 

A few days before it is ready to spawn 
the female hollows out a small nest in the 
gravel in the bed of the stream, and here 
the eggs and milt are deposited. The 
eggs drift into the crevices of the gravel 
and remain in that protected position dur- 
ing incubation; here also the young re- 
main until the umbilical sac is absorbed. 
The eggs hatch in from 45 to 60 days, 
according to the temperature of the water, 
and the umbilical sac is absorbed in about 
six weeks thereafter; it will make its home 
in fresh water for about 10 months, and 
then go to the ocean, where it remains for 
two years, when the development of the 
reproductive organs causes it to seek fresh 
water in which to spawn, and in all prob- 
ability it will return to its native river. 
Absolutely nothing is known of the habits 
of salmon after they leave fresh water as 
yearlings; how far they wander from the 
mouth of the parent stream and what 
they feed upon is a matter of conjecture, 
and until the past year the time they re- 
main in the ocean, after leaving the river, 
before returning to spawn, was purely a 
guess, no scientific experiment prior to 
that having ever been made with a view 
of accurately determining this important 
question. 

With a view of ascertaining, if possible, 
the age at which a Chinook salmon re- 
turned to spawn, the writer requested Mr. 
Hubbard, the superintendent of the United 
States hatchery on the Clackamas, to mark 
a number of Chinook fry. This he did 
by cutting off the adipose fin of 5,000 of 
them. This marking was done in May, 
1896, and the fry were held for about 10 
days to note the result of the amputation, 
which did not seem to affect them in 
the least, and they were released. On the 
23d of May of the present year the first 
of these marked fish was captured and 
sent to the writer, and between that date 
and the 1st of August nearly 400 were re- 
ported, varying in size from 10 to 57 
pounds in weight, and averaging at least 
25 pounds. I think this experiment has 
clearly demonstrated that the ocean life 
of the Chinook is less than two years. It 
is believed by many observers that the 
Chinook while in the ocean feed upon the 



smelt and sardines that usually run in the 
Columbia. This theory is based upon the 
fact that the stomachs of Chinook salmon 
taken just as they were entering the river 
have occasionally been found to contain 
these fish. The return of the marked 
fish is corroborative of the theory that 
salmon return to their native waters to 
spawn. 

I receive many letters from persons who 
are unable to distinguish the young of the 
salmon from the various forms or species 
of trout found in the waters of this state. 
This is a matter easily determined. Any 
one who will take the trouble to learn 
which is the anal fin, the one on the lower 
side nearest the caudal fin, can distinguish 
young salmon from any species of trout. 
All the species of Oncorhynchus have from 
14 to 20 rays or ribs in this fin, exclusive 
of the stubs or rudiments in front of the 
first ray. None of the various species of 
trout in the waters of this state have 
more than 11 rays or ribs in this fin. The 
Chinook or quinnat (Oncorhynchus tsch- 
awytscha) in the Columbia has an aver- 
age weight of 25 pounds, but individuals 
have been found occasionally that weighed 
as much as 85 pounds. David Starr Jor- 
dan says that they are occasionally taken 
weighing 100 pounds. My experience and 
observation leads me to believe that 85 
pounds is the maximum weight of the 
royal Chinook; 60 and 65-pound individ- 
uals are quite common. One of the mark- 
ed fish heretofore referred to was taken 
by the Pillar Rock Packing Company on 
the 13th of July, 1898, which was only 
two years, seven and one-half months old 
and weighed 57 pounds. The smallest of 
the marked fish taken weighed only 10 
pounds, while the rest varied from 20 to 
40 pounds. This demonstrates positively 
that there is great variability in the 
weight and size of this species at the same 
age, and therefore disproves the theory ad- 
vanced by some that the great variability 
in size of individuals is caused by the 
difference in age. 

The blueback salmon (Oncorhynchus 
nerka) is next to the Chinook the most im- 
portant and valuable of the five species for 
canning purposes. Taking the entire coast, 
it is probably more numerous than all the 
other species combined. It is known on 
the different coast streams by local names 



COLUMBIA RIVER SALMON. 



49 



— blueback on the Columbia, sock-eye or 
saw-qui on Puget Sound and Fraser river, 
and red fish or red salmon in Alaska. 
With the exception of the humpback, it is 
the smallest of the five species, the largest 
individuals rarely exceeding 10 pounds in 
the Columbia, and the average weight is 
about iy 2 pounds. In various inland lakes 
it is much smaller, and weighs about y 2 
pound when mature, and is then called the 
little red fish. 

It closely follows the Chinook run in 
the Columbia river in the spring. The 
Chinook enter the river in small numbers 
in January, the blueback following in 
March. It ascends only those streams 
which rise in cold snow-fed lakes. Its 
favorite spawning ground in the Colum- 
bia river basin is Wallowa lake, in North- 
eastern Oregon. Its spawning period is 
from August 1st to October 1st. 

Until the breeding season the blueback 
is a bright blue on the top, shading grad- 
ually to the middle, where it becomes a 
bright silver in color. It is very symmet- 
rical in shape. Its flesh, prior to the 
breeding season, is a bright red, which 
color is retained in cooking and which 
makes it, next to the Chinook, the most 
valuable for canning purposes. At the 
spawning period the male fish develops 
an extravagantly hooked jaw, the color 
changes to a blood red on the back and 
to a dark red on the sides. Unlike the 
Chinook, they do not run in abundance 
every year, the large runs coming every 
four years and a lesser run every two 
years. Ten years ago the species were 
much more abundant in the Columbia 
than at present. The year 1894 witnessed 
the largest run of these fish in that 
/stream ever known since the inception 
of the salmon canning industry. Since that 
year there has been a marked decline in 
the run of these fish, and many who have 
studied this question believe that the 
blueback is threatened with extinction on 
the Columbia river. This would seem to 
be the inevitable result of the neglect of 
the state to take the most ordinary pre- 
caution for the protection of this fish. The 
blueback formerly spawned in large num- 
bers in Wallowa lake, and the young pass- 
ed down Wallowa river to the sea. Farm- 
ers and ranchers for years have connected 
their irrigating ditches with the stream 



and have failed to erect suitable screens, 
which has resulted in thousands upon 
thousands of young fish being carried out 
upon the open fields to perish. This drain 
upon the fountain head of supply has 
nearly exterminated the blueback run of 
the Columbia river. All irrigating ditch- 
owners along the Wallowa river should 
be required to put in and maintain suit- 
able screens to prevent the small fish 
from passing out upon the fields. The 
general fisheries bill recently passed re- 
quires such screens to be erected. The 
blueback averages about 1,000 eggs to the 
fish. 

The humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus 
gorbuscha) is the smallest of the Oncor- 
hynchus, averaging less than five pounds, 
and seldom weighing as much as nine 
pounds. It rarely enters the Columbia 
river, but is found in great abundance in 
Alaska. The flesh is of fine flavor, but is 
neglected by canners because of its lack 
of color. It is probable, however, that it 
will eventually be utilized for canning 
purposes by Alaskan cannerymen. 

When this salmon first enters fresh 
water it greatly resembles a small Chi- 
nook, but as it approaches the spawning 
period it develops a large and prominent 
hump on its back, hence the name "hump- 
back." This, with the distortion of the 
jaws, the sloughing of the skin and flesh, 
which is incident to spawning, result in 
the death of all the fish on the spawning 
grounds. There are only a few hundred 
eggs to each fish, they being smaller than 
those of the Chinook but larger than those 
of the blueback, and paler in color than 
the eggs of either of those species. 

Silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutsch), 
also called silversides, skowitz, kisutsch, 
hoopid salmon, and coho salmon. It is one 
of the handsomest of the salmon family, 
being symmetrical in form and of a beau- 
tiful silver color. It is inferior for can- 
ning purposes to the Chinook and blue- 
back, for the reason that it will not retain 
its color in cooking. Large numbers of 
this species, however, are utilized on the 
Columbia river. Its average size in that 
stream is about eleven pounds. It enters 
the river in Septembei and continues to 
run until November; it does not go to the 
headwaters like the Chinook and blue- 
back, but spawns in the lower river. The 



5° 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



silverside averages 2,000 eggs to the fish. 

The dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) 
reaches an average weight of 12 pounds. It 
is the least valuable of the five species. In 
the spring it is of a dirty silvery color, or 
sprinkled with small back specks; the fins 
dusky. In the fall the male is of a 
blackish color, and its jaws greatly dis- 
torted, giving the fish a very repulsive 
look. Just after entering fresh water from 
the ocean the flesh has a beautiful red 
color, but deteriorates rapidly, and is then 
inferior to the other species as an article 



spawning season is from February to May, 
In appearance it greatly differs from any 
of the regular salmon. It is moie slender 
than the Chinook, and its flesh is light 
colored. The average weight of the steel- 
head in the Columbia is about 10 pounds; 
individuals, however, are sometimes taken 
weighing as much as 30 pounds. 

The steelhead is found in the Columbia 
during the entire year, and under the pro- 
visions of the law in force during the last 
eight years has been subject to the ope- 
rations of the fishermen for 10 months of 




Milting Sal 

of food. They ascend the rivers but a 
short distance before spawning. Formerly 
none of this species was canned on the 
Columbia, but owing to the scarcity of 
other species a few packers of late years 
have canned these fish, but have carefully 
avoided labeling them "dog salmon." 

The steelhead salmon (Salmo gairdneri) 
is also known as Gairdner's trout, so called 
in honor of Dr. Gairdner, who first rec- 
ognized and classified it. It is also known 
as hardhead, winter salmon, square-tailed 
trout and salmon trout. It is, strictly 
speaking, a trout, but under the laws of 
Oregon is protected as a salmon. Its 



mon Eggs 

the year. Under this continued drain 
there has been a steady and constant de- 
cline in the abundance of this fish running 
in the Columbia. I have repeatedly called 
attention to the necessity of providing a 
winter close season, if this valuable fish is 
to be preserved from extinction. 

The Astoria Progressive Commercial 
Association, realizing the importance ot 
doing something for the preservation of 
these fish, undertook, in the early part of 
the present year, to operate a hatchery 
for their artificial propagation, the funds 
for carrying on the work being raised 
through private subscription. This was 



COLUMBIA RIVER SALMON. 



5i 



the first effort ever made in the North- 
west to artificially propagate these fish, 
and was in every way successful. The eggs 
are smaller than those of the Chinook and 
average about 3,500 to the fish, and can 
be as successfully handled as those of 
the former, although it is more difficult to 
hold the spawning fish owing to freshets 
incident to the season in which they 
spawn, which are liable to carry away 
the racks and release the parent fish. 

The steelhead is in its prime in the 
fall of the year, and deteriorates slowly 
until the spawning time (between Febru- 
ary and May). It differs materially from 
the Oncorhynchus, in that it survives the 
reproductive act and returns to the ocean, 
while the former perish after performing 
this function. They ascend as far up the 
headwaters and tributaries of the Colum- 
bia as it is possible for a fish to make its 
way. 

For canning purposes, when in their 
prime they are only inferior to the Chi- 
nook and blueback. For shipping they 
are preferred to the Chinook. The won- 
derful increase in the fresh-fish trade in- 
dustry during the past six years, result- 
ing in an increased demand for steel- 
heads, has had the effect of raising the 
value of these fish, until at certain sexsons 
of the year the fishermen receive a higher 
price for them than for the Chinook. 

This brief and hastily written descrip- 
tion of the Columbia river salmon would 
be incomplete and unsatisfactory should I 
close without referring to the great indus- 
try that has grown and prospered upon it 
for more than a third of a century, and 
the methods of reaping the great harvest 
that annually bless that mighty river. 

The apparatus employed consists of gill- 
nets, pound nets, fish wheels, seines, set- 
nets and dipnets. Of these, gillnet fishing 
is by far the most important, 3,184 men 
being thus engaged in taking salmon, 
using 1,632 gillnets valued at $379,220, and 
1,589 boats valued at $219,000. From 60 
to 65 per cent of the annual catch is taken 
by this method. One thousand and ten 
men are engaged in fishing with wheels, 
poundnets, seines, setnets, etc., the aggre- 
gate value of which amounts to $560,000, 
in all making an industrial army of 4,194 
persons engaged in the salmon fishery of 
the Columbia river. In addition to these 



there are 2,227 persons employed in the 
canneries and as shoresmen. The value 
of shore property, buildings, machinery 
and cold-storage plants amounts to $1,000,- 
000. The cash capital employed amounts 
to $950,000, thus making a grand total of 
6,421 persons employed, and $3,108,220 in- 
vested in this greatest and most important 
river fishery in the world. This harvest 
of the waters has produced a wealth ten 
times exceeding that of the famous Klon- 
dike, and has annually yielded up its 
treasures for more than a generation. It 
has been a marvelous mine of wealth with- 
out the rigors of an Arctic winter, con- 
tributing largely to the prosperity and 
welfare of our state. 

The total ouput of the Columbia river 
salmon fishery since the enterprise 
was inaugurated as a commercial factor 
aggregates 850,000,000 pounds, worth 
$75,000,000. If all these salmon could be 
loaded on freight cars it would require 
42,500 cars to hold them, making a solid 
train of over 280 miles long. No other 
river or like area of water anywhere on 
earth has ever yielded such vast wealth 
in the same period of time. If the com- 
prehensive law recently enacted by the 
Oregon legislature is also passed by the 
Washington law-makers, and then strictly 
enforced, this great industry will con- 
tinue to yield its treasures to the Pacific 
Northwest. At present the output ap- 
proximates $3,000,000 per annum, one-half 
of which goes into the hands of the in- 
dustrial army that gathers and prepares 
the product for the markets of the world. 

For a number of years there has been a 
gradual diminution in the abundance of 
salmon in the Columbia river, but during 
the past season the falling off was so pro- 
nounced as to alarm many who have here- 
tofore been indifferent. They at last seem 
to realize that we cannot continue to reap 
bountiful harvests indefinitely without 
sowing. 

The future prosperity, and, in my opin- 
ion, the preservation of this great indus- 
try depends upon artificial propagation 
and a strict enforcement of the laws, 
which I believe has been made possible 
under the act drafted by the Astoria 
Progressive Commercial Association, and 
which was enacted into a law at the re- 
cent session of the Oregon legislature. 



SALMON FISHING ON THE LOWER COLUMBIA. 



<5y C. L. SIMPSON, 



THE life of a fisherman on the Lower 
Columbia, particularly if he be a 
gillnetter, is full of interest and ex- 
citement, and not without an element of 
danger. And though the season is brief 
the harvest is sure, and more than ordi- 
nary wages can be made by the indus- 
trious laborer. It is true there are some- 
times heavy losses incurred. For instance, 
it is not infrequently necessary for a bar 
fisherman to cut away half or the whole 
of his net in order to save his boat or 
even his life. 

Of the several methods of capturing 
fish on the Columbia, the gillnet is most 
in favor on the lower river. The large 
canneries situated at Astoria are supplied 
almost wholly with fish taken by this 
means. On the Washington side, from 
McGowan's cannery at Chinook beach to 
Seaborg's, at Ilwaco, the numerous traps 
are the dependency. The Fishermen's 
Union, with headquarters at Astoria, has 
a membership of about 5,000, all of whom 
are gillnetters. Their boats all bear, 
plainly stamped upon the bow in the form 
of a circle, the initial letters, C. R. F. P. 
U., and it is well for non-union men to re- 
spect this of the organization. The Co- 
lumbia River Fishermen's Protective 
Union is a power on the river, and bold 
indeed is he and reckless of consequences 
who dares to disregard or oppose it. 

So necessary are the gillnet fishermen 
to the Astoria canneries that should they 
refuse to fish during the season the busi- 
ness of the packing houses would come to 
a standstill, as happened in the case of the 
great strike three years ago. 

Of the 5,000 union men the majority are 
Russian Finns; Italians come next, and are 
increasing in numbers from year to year. 
Very few of either nationality are nat- 
uralized. 

Most of the gillnet fishing is done be- 
low Astoria, the boats venturing to the 
very mouth of the river and even out 
upon the bar. 



Down beneath the beetling brow of 
Cape Disappointment, stretching over a 
mile parallel to the "channel," is the 
dreaded and dangerous Peacock spit. 
When fair weather prevails there is at 
high tide scarcely a break in the gently 
undulating swells that heave in from the 
sea, and lazily wash the beach and the 
base of the precipitous Washington prom- 
ontory. An ordinary rowboat in the 
hands of a skillful oarsman might cross 
the treacherous shoals with perfect 
safety. How delusive is this seeming 
calm! Peacock spit is the terror of the 
fisherman, and woe to him who finds him- 
self in its immediate vicinity in time of 
storm! It is then, or when, on account of 
recent bad weather far off at sea, white- 
crested combers springing up suddenly 
from unknown depths unexpectedly rush 
in, perpendicular walls of water rise and 
burst in a thousand cataracts, and the 
roar of the angry surf is deafening. The 
"wild white horses" madly charge and 
trample to nothingness the unlucky mortal 
who is caught upon their middle ground. 
Opposite the westernmost point of Sand 
island Peacock spit gradually disappears, 
and a considerable reach of deeper water 
smothers the "break" for a time, or until 
the wreck of the "Great Republic" shows 
where the treacherous sands again seek 
the upper world. To the southward, 
across the ship channel, commencing some 
distance beyond the seaward end of the 
government breakwater, and extending 
nearly its entire length, a bar has formed 
since the construction of the jetty. At 
low tide all three of these spits are plainly 
visible. To them is due a yearly loss 
of life and property among the fishermen 
of the lower river. Owing to the un- 
common action of the tides, the first- 
named of these shoals is most to be 
feared and avoided. But it is just here in 
the narrow channel bounded by these 
three white squadrons that millions of 
salmon crowd in, athirst for the fresh 



54 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



waters of the Rockies and the Cascades, 
and eager to ascend to the spawning 
grounds, from whence, it is claimed, they 
never return. And who can blame the 
fisherman, if he takes his life in his hand 
and sails out to meet his fate upon the 
bar? Once inside the wide mouth of the 
river the fish scatter, and are not so 
easily taken in large numbers. 

Another lure to danger in this connec- 
tion is the fact that salmon delight to 
sport in the breakers. It is positively 
known that, if it were possible for a 300- 
fathom net to fish on Peacock spit at cer- 
tain times when the tide is full, a boat- 
load of salmon could be caught as rapidly 
as the net could be hauled in. Men with 
more daring than discretion have made 
the attempt and lost their lives in conse- 
quence. 

Gillnet fishing is carried on by night 
as well as by day, but usually, when 
night work is profitable, it is not prac- 
ticable to fish on the day tides. Generally 
speaking, the heaviest catches are made 
between sunrise and sunset from the open- 
ing of the season up to June or July; the 
remaining months the opposite is the 
case. The reason for this lies in the 
fact that salmon can only be caught in 
the meshes of a gillnet when the condi- 
tion of the water conceals the snare. Dur- 
ing the first months of the open season 
the river is always in flood and the muddy 
current obscures the net into which the 
fish in his eager progress bolts unaware. 
But when the current clears, as it does in 
July, or sometimes earlier, day-fishing is a 
profitless task. The stream has been 
known to be literally alive with salmon, 
and yet scarcely one could be taken while 
daylight lasted. By the time the night 
fishing begins, the warm summer season 
has arrived, and danger from storms is 
ordinarily past. If, however, the freshet 
is light, the day tides have to be aban- 
doned much earlier, and the persistent in- 
tervals of bad weather peculiar to this re- 
gion makes drifting about in the night 
anything but a pleasant occupation. 

Gillnetters who sell their catches to 
the Astoria canneries do practically all 
their fishing on or near the bar, in close 
proximity to the jetty sands, Great Re- 
public and Peacock spits. In the fore part 
of the season, hundreds of boats may be 



seen from the station at Fort Canby, rock- 
ing idly in the rolling swell, apparently in 
the very edge of the break. The object of 
the fisherman is to approach as near the 
outer break as possible, without actually 
getting into it. And right here is where 
nets are lost and lives are sacrificed. 

The tide and tide-table often disagree. 
Local disturbances effect these changes. 
An apparently insignificant disparity of 
time and tide, the occasion of which is fre- 
quent and unavoidable, is to blame for 
many a fatality. 

The two stages of tide known as "low- 
water slack" and "high-water slack" are 
most favorable for fishing. It is the fresh 
water of the Columbia that the Chinook 
salmon is seeking, and he is not to be 
turned from his quest. All other streams 
in that vicinity he ignores. Willapa har- 
bor is not more than twenty-five miles 
from the mouth of the Columbia, and yet 
a genuine red-meated Chinook has never 
been caught in its waters. The same is 
true of Gray's harbor and Puget sound. 
The course of the vast schools on entering 
the river is directly against the current. 
When the tide ebbs the salmon all ascend, 
and with the flood, when the current sets 
in strongly from the sea, they turn about 
and swim back toward the harbor bar. 
There is always a period of from forty 
minutes to an hour at high and low-water 
slack, respectively, when the water is at 
a standstill, or nearly so, and what makes 
these stages best for fishing is that then, 
and only then, salmon dart about in every 
direction, searching persistently for the 
source of the fresh water. The absence of 
any current so bewilders them that a gill- 
net laid out in any position has the double 
chance of catching fish that happen to be 
on either side. 

Gillnetters who fish on the bar, after 
delivering their catch at Astoria, calculate 
to leave port at a stage of tide that will 
enable them, when their nets are cast out 
anywhere below, to drift to the bar by 
low water. To accomplish this is simple 
enough, providing the net is laid out right- 
ly, and the tide-table and your timepiece 
are correct. The tide-table is to the bar 
fisherman what the compass is to the 
mariner. A trustworthy timepiece he 
must have. It is customary to lay the net 
out at Astoria about half-tide, in order to 



SALMON FISHING ON THE LOWER COLUMBIA. 



55 



make the drift so as to catch the bar at 
low slack. The nets are heavily leaded, 
usually 300 fathoms in length, and deep 
enough to drag on the bottom. This drag- 
ging retards the progress of the drift, but 
a shallower net would permit the salmon 
to pass underneath. The meshes are of 
two general sizes, 9% inches and 11 inches. 
The former are intended for the average 
fish, the latter for the large ones. 

The nets are put out at right angles to 
the current, and as far apart as the limited 
space will permit. Frequently the boats 
are so numerous that they may be seen 
drifting not over 150 yards distant from 
each other. 

A good fisherman figures on the position 
of the nets about him, and lays his own 
so that he will not be in the rear of any. 
The flood-tide drift is not considered as 
good, though it is utilized because it is on 
the way home. 

Fishermen have no regular sleeping 
time. When two tides a day are worked, 
only three or four hours are left for sleep. 

A ton of fish is not an infrequent result 
for one boat's work. Sixty or eighty dol- 
lars is a fair return for seven or eight 
hours of toil and exposure. The desire to 
be "high" boat is responsible for the per- 
nicious habit of "corking," which is to de- 
liberately steal another's legitimate posi- 
tion, thus shutting him out entirely. This 
is done stealthily at night time, and be- 
fore day dawns the robber has taken in 
his net and moved away unobserved. 

It is ordinarily safe to lie with a good 
portion of the net out close to Peacock 
spit, at slack water. The net is station- 
ary, and in fair weather there is only a 
heavy swell from the breakers, probably 
not 300 feet away. Before the first of the 
flood, the net must be well into the boat. 
The moment the tide turns the "break" 
becomes heavier, and a strong current sets 
in directly over the spit. If the net is 
caught in the eddy, there is only one of 
two things to do — cut it loose and save 
yourself, or stay with it and take the 
breakers. Many have chosen the latter 
course and escaped with their lives after a 



terrible ordeal. The life-saving crews 
have rescued hundreds who had strength 
enough left to cling to some part of the 
boat, but countless others have been swept 
into eternity. An upturned boat when the 
morning breaks, or a twisted net cast 
ashore, tells the story of doom. 

During an unexpected storm some ten 
years ago, it was estimated that over 300 
lives were lost in a single night. The sud- 
denness of the gale prevented the fishing 
fleet from escaping to shelter behind Sand 
island, the usual refuge of the bar fisher- 
man in wild weather. 

There are several things for a fisherman 
to take into consideration while plying his 
vocation. He must keep his gear in first- 
class order, know the exact stages of the 
tides, observing how they are affected by 
storms or heavy winds; must be perfectly 
familiar with the shoals and channels; and 
must have located each snag in order to 
avoid it; he must be enough of a weather 
prophet to ordinarily predict and so escape 
an approaching storm; know where the 
best fishing grounds are, and precisely 
when and in what manner to lay out his 
net; and understand the handling of a 
boat in rough weather. These are the nec- 
essary qualifications of a successful Co- 
lumbia river fisherman. A lack in any of 
these things is likely to result in disaster. 

The actual mortality attendant upon 
this work will probably never be dis- 
closed. It is the policy of the Fishermen's 
Union to be non-communicative concern- 
ing any and all affairs relating to the or- 
ganization. Whenever a body is recov- 
ered and identified, it is conveyed to Asto- 
ria and given a plain burial. When 
drowned fishermen are unidentified, the 
Union does not bury them. That act is 
performed in the county where the body is 
found, and, since there is no provision 
made for such burial by either state or 
county, these victims of the treacherous 
sea are laid to rest in the sands of the 
shore above the reach of the tide. Un- 
wept and nameless, they sleep in unmarked 
graves, and the ceaseless moan of the 
waves is their requiem. 



A ROUGH RIDER. 



<By F. J. McHENRY. 




D 



C i r\ IDN'T know Jake Hodge, stran- 
ger?" 
There was an unspeakable 
contempt in the speaker's voice, evidently 
caused by my lack of knowledge of Osage 
country's greatest celebrity. Said lack 
was 'excused only after I had explained 
that I was recently from the East. Owing 
to my rough dress, it is fair to presume 
that I had been taken for one indigenous 
to the plains. A consummation I had de- 
voutly wished for, owing to the remem- 
brance of a startling incident on a pre- 
vious visit four years before, on which 
occasion I had heard the crack of a pistol 
and a bullet whizzing past my head, which 
proved to be an emphatic, if not a very 
pleasant, way of a coterie of cowboys of 
reminding me that the denizens of the 
plains drew the line at silk tiles. So, at 
least, the fat Jew had explained, who im- 
mediately after the shot yanked me bodily 
into his store hard by, and sold me for 
six dollars and four bits a slouch hat that 
would not have sold for the four-bit por- 
tion of that sum in the effete East. 



It was on that first trip that I had met 
Jake Hodge, ex-cowboy, and at that period 
the proud handler of the ribbons over four 
spanking horses that took the tri-weekly 
stage bowling out of D. City to Cotton- 
wood, fifty miles south, on the Cimmaron. 

Jake was a character in his way, for 
while, as a matter of course, he was of 
that rough exterior naturally engendered 
by his surroundings, nevertheless he was 
at heart a pretty good fellow, and that, 
too, notwithstanding that he had been, in 
the parlance of the plains, "a tin-horn 
gambler." The most formidable oath he 
was ever known to use, when angered by 
one of the male persuasion, was, "You dog- 
goned dadbusted son of a sea cook." After 
having delivered himself thus, he acted 
as if the person addressed had been placed 
in the lowest category imaginable, and 
never, even though he stood six feet one 
in his stockings, with a proportionately 
Herculean frame, was he ever looked upon 
as having, in plains parlance, "a big plenty 
of fight in him." He used to say himself, 
"I'd ruther eat three square meals a day 



A ROUGH RIDER. 



57 



than be the dadbusted bulliest hero that 
ever died with his boots on." 

However, my acquaintance with him 
does not warrant my telling his story. But 
I will give it as told to me by a local 
character who was christened Roper 
Smith, but commonly called Rope. It 
was he who had made the above reply 
that opens this true story. The name of 
Jake Hodge seemed to be in everybody's 
mouth, and I was curious to know if I 
could connect it with my quondam ac- 
quaintance of the stage. So, after Rope 
had "liquored up" at my expense, we set- 
tled ourselves on a rough bench in front 
of the Coyote saloon, and he gave me the 
following facts regarding Jake Hodge 
since I had known him. 

"Well, pardner, ez you're a sure-enough 
stranger on this range, I'll be plum pleased 
to tell you about Jake Hodge. 

"Let's see; it was three years ago last 

fall round-up, that I war up at D City 

with Jake, an' we had loaded on all ther 
express and war pullin' past ther hotel 
when ther galoot that is called ther lan'- 
lord sung out an' allowed that thar was 
two passengers who wanted to occupy ther 
hurricane deck of that ar stage as far as 
Cottonwood. Jake just yapped back, 
'Well, trot ther durned galoots out an' git 
'em abroad.' Right thar, pard, I happened 
to look at Jake's face, an' I saw his eyes 
bug out ez big ez a lassoed cow. An' no 
wonder, pard, fer trottin' down them ar 
hotel steps to git on ther stage was ther 
purtiest dadburned leetle bunch of petti- 
coats that these old blinkers of mine ever 
blinked at. She war callin' out in a voice 
as sweet as a durned lark, 'Hurry up, papa, 
an' help me in.' But quicker'n you could 
snap a quirt, Jake war on ther groun' an', 
throwin' me ther ribbons, he went to 'sist- 
in' her like she'd been the queen of Tim- 
buctoo. Just 'bout that time, pard, ther 
parient— a little, sawed-off, broad-ez-long 
Dutchman — came down to ther stage, a- 
puffin' like a wind-broke broncho, an' 
dumb in too. 

"Supposin' that Jake war goin' to git in 
'longside er me, I started to hand him ther 
ribbons, when I saw him give a disgusted 
look at his togs, an' then, pard, he says to 
me, 'Rope, I have a leetle business to at- 
tend to that I'd 'most furgot. You jist 



keep ther ribbons an' sashay along at a 
moderate gait out on ther road an' I'll 
catch up with you on a broncho, 'fore you 
reach Twelve-Mile creek.' 

"You see that big cattleman's outflttin' 
store acrost 'tother corner, pard? Well, 
it war on ther way out to Twelve-Mile that 
I first diskivered that our Dutch passen- 
ger, old Van Dorn, was ther father-in-law 
to Jim Clark, that is ther boss of that ar 
outfit, Jim havin' married ther oldest sis- 
ter of that there pretty bunch of petti- 
coats. Old Van Dorn had got rich late in 
life, an' had edicated ther 'foresaid gal 
finer'n a sky pilot, an' was a-takin' her 
on a visit to her sister in Cottonwood. 

"It war sure easy enough to see that 
ther old man thought her about ez fine a 
critter ez ever pranced over ther range, 
an' not by his consent would any ordinary 
galoot ever have ther chance to put ther 
cinch on her. 

"We war a-nearin' of Twelve-Mile when 
I heard a clatter of hoofs behind us, an' 
up tore Jake on ther back of a sweatin' 
broncho. Changed? Well, some, pard, 
some. He'd blowed hisself for a whole 
durned outfit, from a pair of high-heeled 
puncher's boots up to a Stetson sombrero, 
with a leaf ez wide ez ther horns of a 
Texas steer. Ez sure ez shootin', pard, he 
did look skookum in them ar store clothes, 
topped off by er red necktie big enough 
to set all ther bulls on ther range a- 
fightin'. 

"Pardner, I'll allow that I'm usually dull 
ez a suckin' calf in a blizzard, but I could 
see that ther glance that Gretchen — ez old 
Van Dorn called her — gave Jake when git- 
tin' on ther stage, had done for him an' 
thrown him at her feet quicker'n if he'd 
stuck his foot in a durned coyote hole on 
ther dead run. So I didn't surprise much 
when Jake came lopin' up all togged out. 
But the gal, Lord bless her purty eyes, 
flushed up a pink that 'ud have put a 
prairie rose to shame, 'cause she knowed 
at once Jake had done it in honor of her. 

"Purty soon, pardner, we rolled up to 
ther sod house at Twelve-Mile, an' while 
Van Dorn and Gretchen rested in ther 
shade of ther house, me an' Jake watered 
ther stock an' hatched ther plot that arter- 
wards made Jake act like a doggoned lo- 
coed idiot. 



58 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



"You see, pardner, he war dead gone on 
that ar gal, an' believin' that all's fair in 
love an' war, he asked me if I would strad- 
dle his broncho an' ride on about six miles 
ahead to ther Cross Bar ranch, which was 
located in a canyon a half-mile off ther 
trail, an' couldn't be seen, an' tell ther 
boys there that he had a Dutchman aboard 
that war afraid of bein' held up by road 
agents, which war true enough. He told 
me to tell the boys that he wanted to play 
a joke on ther Dutchman by havin' them 
come tearin' after ther stage out of ther 
canyon on their bronchos, an' to have 
them keep up a stiff yell an' use their 
forty-fivers some liberal, but to be dad- 
busted careful to shoot high, as he war 
goin' to git out an' pertend to defend ther 
stage. In this way, by purtendin' to fight 
ther robbers to a standstill, Jake hoped to 
gain ther undyin' gratitood of Gretchen 
an' have her love him hard for a dad- 
busted hero. 

"So, pardner, makin' believe to ther old 
man that I wanted to limber up a leetle 
on horseback, I started out for Cross Bar 
ranch, while Jake held them a half hour 
at Twelve-Mile, makin' 'em think he had 
to fix ther harness, so's to give me time to 
fix things with ther boys. I didn't have 
any trouble with 'em on that score, pard, 
for they hadn't had such a pizen big layout 
of fun in a coon's age. So I had plenty of 
time to git back to ther stage 'fore it war 
within two miles of where ther punchers 
war to help Jake make a dadbusted hero 
of hisself. 

"Ther outfit they used for a stage was a 
long box spring-wagon with curtains on 
ther sides, with room for three seats, but 
ther bein' only four aboard we used only 
two, leavin' quite a space back for mail 
sacks and packages. On purtence of her 
bein' able to see ther kentry better, Jake 
had got ther gal in the front seat with 
him, while ther dad meditatively smoked 
his pipe in ther back seat. 

"It war that way I found 'em when I 
met 'em on ther trail, an' Jake tipped me 
ther wink to get in ther back seat with 
ther old man. So, after tyin' ther bronk 
at ther back, I dumb in 'longside of ther 
old fellow, an' fell to tellin' wild yarns 
about ther cowpunchers an' road agents. 
It war about time for ther boys to show 
up, an' I had commenced to think they 



had fluked me, when all ter once I seed 
a half dozen of 'em cum scootin' out of 
ther canyon an' yellin' like a pack er 
durned Comanches. 

"Say, pard, you ought ter have seen that 
Dutchman's face as ther boys commenced 
ter shoot. Talk about skeer; he war 
worse skeered than any durned tenderfoot 
that ever danced before a drunken cow- 
boy's forty-five. 

"He yelled, 'Mine Got in Himmel, is dose 
der road agents?' 'Yes,' says Jake, 'an' 
Dick Bummell's gang at that, ther worst 
in ther southwest.' At that Jake com- 
menced to lash ther horses, an' we went 
whirlin' over ther prairie, slikerty ker- 
sloot, faster than ther devil after a sinner, 
while the leetle gal war all ther time cry- 
in' out, 'O! my poor papa, he'll be killed!' 
An' Jake war tryin' to curry her down 
with soft words. 

"Purty soon he saw ther horses war 
sweatin' like a nigger at election, an' git- 
tin' blowed bad, while ther bronk at ther 
back war tearin' round like mad, tryin' to 
git loose. Jake saw something had ter be 
done, so turnin' to me he says, 'Climb over 
here an' take these ar reins an' slow up a 
leetle.' Then he drew his shootin' iron 
an' looked at ther loads, borrowed mine, 
an' commenced to crawl back an' untie 
ther broncho. 

"Pardner, it war mean, but Gretchen, 
thinkin' it was all real stuff, called out to 
him in tones of terror, 'O Mr. Hodge, 
what are you goin' ter do?' 'Goin' ter save 
you, or leave my carcass for ther coyotes 
to feed upon,' sung back Jake as he 
jumped to ther ground. 

"At that he sprung inter ther saddle, an' 
yelled ter me ter drive faster. I had noth- 
in' to do but ter obey orders, so I gave 
ther horses such a cut as drove them 
sockdoleger inter ther collars, givin' ther 
stage such a jerk forward that it loosened 
ther old Dutchman's seat, dumpin' him 
backards among ther mail sacks, where 
with his fat legs wavin' in ther air he lay 
on ther broad of his back bellerin' louder'n 
a drove of stampeded cattle in a storm. 

"Jake by this time, watched by Gretchen, 
war ridin' helter skelter back at ther sup- 
posed robbers. All at once he pulled up 
an' went ter gittin' out his guns. Ther 
gal cried, 'He's goin' ter shoot 'em.' She 
was so excited *hat she didn't notice me 



A ROUGH RIDER. 



59 



slowin' up, an' I looked roun' .lust in time 
ter see Jake fire, an' at each shot one of 
ther boys tumble to ther groun' 'cordin' 
ter instructions. Finally, there war but 
two left, an' they turned tail an' scam- 
pered off, leavin' Jake to cum back ter 
ther stage a conquerin' hero, while ther 
boys that war supposed to be shot were 
flounderin' around like chickens with their 
heads cut off, an' ther gal a-pityin' of 
them 'cause they war in ther death throes ; 
but I knowed blamed well they war just 
bustin' their sides with laugh at ther old 
Dutchman's heels in ther air. 

"Arter Jake got back in ther stage, an' 
we made it penetrate ther old man's mind 
that Jake war not one of ther robbers, we 
got him right side up with care once more. 
He an' Gretchen put up a song of praise 
of Jake's bravery that kept him in a con- 
tinooal blush, but it warn't all from pleas- 
ure, but a good deal of shame was runnin* 
over ther range of his feelin's. But ter 
ther gal he was a real hero, an' durin' 
ther rest of ther drive her purty blue eyes 
skasely ever left his face. 

"A leetle after sund or ^i we pulled inter 
Cottonwod, an' after supper me an' Jake 
an' a lot of ther boys war standin' round 
in front of this ar saloon swappin' lies, 
when up cums ther old Dutchman. Takin' 
Jake by ther arm, he invited us all in ter 
take suthin'. When we-all uns had named 
our pizen, an' war about ter say 'Here's to 
you,' the old fellow says, 'Poys, I vish ter 
introduce to you der biggest hero of der 
centuary,' an' Jake nor I couldn't stop him 
till he'd told ther whole blamed story of 
ther hold-up. That was a part of ther 
shootin' match that we'd never considered, 
an' we'd both have given a slicker to never 
have held that hold-up. The town at that 
time, pard, war on ther boom, and we had 
a good many more women here than now, 
an' ther gal had rounded up all those fe- 
male critters an' given Jake a bigger send- 
off 'n ther old man had in ther Coyote 
saloon. 

"To make a long story short, pard, noth- 
in' would do but the citzens of this camp 
must hire a substitute for Jake and give 
him a lay-off of a whole week, an' a blow- 
out, for they believed ther story all ther 
more, for ther had been a genuine hold-up 
forty miles north of D — — City ther week 
before. 



"For about four days Jake an' ther gal 
owned ther town, an' enyone with half 
an eye could see that they were orful 
spooney on each other. Jake'd take her 
out walkin' every evenin' down to that 
lone cottonwood tree thar, an' there they'd 
sit an' eye each other like a couple of 
durned matin' burds. Happy? They war 
that, for a fact. 

"The fall round-up was on south of here, 
an' Jake took Gretchen out ter see ther 
sight. My! How peart proud she was 
when Jake cut out a frisky 3-year-old out 
of a herd that a puncher had been tryin' 
to get for half an hour. This was the 
fourth day of Jake's lay-off, pard, an' 
while he was out at ther round-up a couple 
of ther Cross Bar boys came down to take 
a hand, and while in ther Coyote saloon, 
an' not knowin' they war doin' of Jake 
any harm, who they liked harder than a 
mule can kick, blatted out the true story 
of how ther blamed hold-up happened ter 
come off. 

"Well, ther cat was outen ther bag, an' 
old Van Dorn, from bein' full of gratitood, 
had turned hotter against Jake than a 
cattleman ever was agin a tenderfoot that 
was homesteadin' in part of his range. 

"When Jake an' Gretchen got back, rid- 
in' in ter town ez happy ez two bufflers in 
a waller, the folks seed 'em comin' an' ez 
ther two rode up commenced to guy Jake 
onmarcifully. 'Nough war said to let 
Gretchen catch on that ther hold-up was 
a hoax. Turnin' pale like, she says to 
Jake, with her sweet lips quiverin', 'Jacob, 
is this true?' Tears welled up in her purty 
blue eyes ez Jake replied, all choked like, 
'Yes, Gretchen, I'm a bigger sneak than a 
cattle rustler.' Then she slid from her 
broncho an' with a simple 'Good-bye, 
Jake,' staggered inter her sister's house. 

"Pardner, I've seen men strung up, shot 
full of holes an' cross over ther great di- 
vide by bein' trampled to death by herds 
of wild steers, but I never saw such pain 
an' agony in a human critter's face ez 
war in Jake's ez he watched her ter ther 
door. Then while ther crowd jeered he 
turned his broncho's head toward the 
Texas Panhandle on a wild, mad ride. 

"I'd rid the line, pardner, too long with 
Jake an' knew him ter be all man, ter let 
him go off alone like that. Straddlin' my 
bronk I put spurs and quirt ter him an' 



6o 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



started likerty skit, an' overhauled Jake 
'bout two miles down in No Man's Land 
He tried to speak, but ther war a hitch in 
his talkin' apparatus. I said to him. 
'.Take, old pard, wherever your range is, 
I'm goin' with you.' When he found he 
wasn't entirely forsaken, he stuck out his 
hand an' tried once more to speak, but it 
broke him all up, an' purty soon we war 
both blubberin' like a couple of kids with 
ther lollypops. 

"I got him ter stay over at Lone Tree 
ranch while I went back to Cottonwood 
an' next morn I war back with a purty 
fair outfit for two for ther range. I'd also 
larned in town that Van Dorn and Gretch- 
en were about to start for their home in 
B., Missoury. 

"I won't spin out this yarn too long, 
pard, by tellin' you of how we lived for 
the next two years, but git down ter ther 
meat of ther thing by tellin' you that Jake 
writ Gretchen a letter a tellin' her how 
he come to play that trick, an' addin' 
that, if God would let him live, he would 
yet prove hisself all ther man she had 
thought him. Not a line ever came back 
in answer, but he kept a workin' like a 
man on ther range, an' all ther time 
studyin' jogerpher, readin', writin' an' 
grammur, till, by an' by, his lingo became 
so darned high-falutin' that half ther time 
I didn't know what he war talkin' about, 
but all ther time he remained ther same 
quiet good feller. 

"We'd been down in ther Panhandle, 
pard, about two years, when one day ther 
foreman of ther Circle ranch, where we 
war workin', sent both of us to Budgeville 
for supplies. When about six miles from 
ther town, near the heel of ther evenin', 
one of them Texas northers came up, an' 
it warn't long 'fore we war lost in ther 
worst blizzard I ever seed. Say, pardner, 
it war a frozen hell of fury let loose. We 
war lopin' along, headin' northeast almost 
in ther teeth of ther storm. All ter once 
Jake's broncho refused to face it longer, 
an' mine, seein' him turn, follered suit. 
The devil seemed ter be in 'em, an' spur 
nor quirt wouldn't make 'em go any other 
way. There warn't a town fifty miles of 
us in that direction, so if we hoped to 
reach shelter, there war only one thing 
for us ter do, an' that war, hoof it. We 
tried to lead ther bronks, but they would- 



n't face that storm an' we had ter let 
them go. I shame some ter tell it, pard, 
but 'fore long I slumped over in ther skur- 
ryin' snow dead beat. An' I never knowed 
any more till I woke up 'fore a roarin' 
fire, an' I all wropped up in blankets. 
Jake war layin' long side of me. but hadn't 
cum to yit, an' ther folks war a pourin' 
whisky down him ter git ther cirkelation 
started. 

"I larned that we war in Budgetown 
an' ther folks a half hour ago had heard 
a faint cry, an', goin' out, they had found 
me all wropped up in Jake's coat an' 
slicker, while the poor devil hisself lay 
on ther groun' in his shirt sleeves, dead 
beat, after havin' carried me all that way 
through that blizzard. All I want ter say 
pardner, ez, if that isn't ther kind of stuff 
heroes are made of, you can shoot me for 
a goldurned sneakin' coyote. 

"Next day the weekly stage got in ter 
Budgeville about twelve hours late, but 
ther news in ther papers it brought set 
us all afire. Bein' no less than that Uncle 
Sam had declared war on ther Spanish an' 
that Teddy Roosevelt, who every puncher 
knew as ther bulliest dude that ever left 
N. Y. to ride ther Western ranges, had 
called for volunteers, for a rigiment of 
rough riders. 

"Enough is said, pard, when I tell you 
that Jake's name an' mine war not ther 
last on ther roll of enlistment. When ther 
rigiment finally came tergather, we found 
that they warn't all cowboys, but a purty 
good sprinklin' of New York dudes. But 
by ther time we got ter Cuba, we had 
found them a larapin good set of fellers, 
ever patient on guard or in ther trenches, 
an' as brave as ther best of us under fire. 
They took a special shine ter Jake, par- 
ticularly one young sargent named Jim 
Hamilton. 

"We'd hardly made a landin', fore we 
war ordered to ther front. You've read 
of ther first fight of the rough riders, 
pard, an' how we war ambushed by them 
cussed Dagos, so there's no use of me 
trailin' over that, only to say at ther first 
fusillade several of our boys dropped fore 
we thought we war in ten miles of ther 
cut-throat Spanish. Cheerin' ther boys 
on' young Hamilton war in the lead a bit, 
out in a leetle clearin', open to ther rain 
of Mauser bullets, when all ter once he 



A ROUGH RIDER. 



61 



sunk ter ther groun' an' I heard some one 
yell, 'Save him!' but not a man of us 
dared to face that storm of shot, but 
stuck to ther palm trunks, till just then 
I seed Jake Hodge come tearin' through 
ther palms an' mesquite brush an' dasb 
out in the clearin' with his Krag-Jorgesen 
on his left arm. He grabbed up young 
Hamilton on his right as if he'd been a 
baby, an' was turnin' to run back, when 
it seemed as if ther whole dadburned 
Spanish army war taken a shot at him. 
He staggered, an' I saw young Hamilton 
fall from his grasp. Then I closed my 
eyes, an' my heart came up in my throat, 
for I couldn't bear to see my old chum go 
down. Then all ter once the wildest, sky- 
splittin' cheerin'est cheer that mortal ears 
ever heard rent ther air, an' I opened my 
eyes to see Jake rushin' back with Hamil- 
ton on his left arm. Jake's poor right, 
when he'd dropped him, had been shat- 
tered by a Mauser bullet, but ther brave 
deed warn't no use, for young Hamilton 
was dead. 

"Then came ther final charge, an' we 
druv ther Spaniards back upon their 
works. That, pardner, war whar Jake 
won his stripes ez first sargent. 

******* 

"Pardner, it war a real relief one morn, 
when in those trenches filled with mud 
an' slime, that we heard, after a scatterin' 
fire, ther sharp, quick order to take ther 
San Juan hill by storm. At it we went 
with a yell. Half way up I saw a fiyin' 
figure, with his arm in a sling, come tear- 
in' arter us. 'Twar Jake, gaunt an' pale, 
but bound ter have a hand in that ar 
scrimmage, havin' escaped from ther hos- 



pital for that purpose. The rush war fear- 
ful, but the leaden hail storm that ther 
Spaniards poured upon us made our part 
of ther line waver an' I believe we would 
have fallen back, but just then Jake tore 
through from ther rear to ther front, an' 
yelled out, 'Come on boys!' an' come they 
did as they saw Jake leap up on ther 
redoubt. 

"Ez you know, pard, ther fort was taken 
with a dash, but arter it war all over, pooi' 
Jake war found outside ther redoubt, 
bleedin' like a stuck yearlin' from ther 
mouth, havin' been shot in ther right lung. 
Ther company surgeon said he war ez 
good ez dead, but we toted him with lovin* 
care to ther field hospital. 

******* 

"How'd Gretchen git thar? Why, pard- 
ner, she war already thar. You see even 
if her dad war a Dutchman, he'd brought 
her up to be a good American, an' you 
can bet yer sweet life she war a true blue 
leetle American, too, with a big A. For 
as soon as ther war had broken out she 
had jined ther Red Cross Society an' went 
ter ther front to nuss ther wounded. 

"Jake war a long time gittin' well, but 
most of us thought he war playin' 'possum, 
cause Gretchen war his nuss. 

"When ther rigiment war mustered out, 
I came back here to ther range country, 
but Gretchen — who is now Mrs. Leftenant 
Hodge — an' Jake, settled down back In 
Missoury, where he's studyin' law, ther 
meanest thing he ever done. Gretchen is 
very proud of Jake's record as a rough 
rider, an', now that he's proven hisself, 
she often tells, with a quizz in her eye, of 
ther wonderful fight he put up standin' off 
road agents in her defense." 



IN STARLIGHT. 

Upon the river, where sometime the 
showers 
Of summer moonlight make a path 
across, 
A single star shines thro' the lonely hours. 
And brings a subtle sense of pain and 
loss; 

As, while we tread the narrow path of 
duty, 
The memory of a joy that fled away 
Comes back to us, and darkens with its 
beauty 
The dull, unchanging ways we walk to- 
day, —Florence May Wright. 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



<By SAMUEL JACQUES BRUN. 



Second 

SCATTERED all over France, located 
mainly at the county-seats, are the 
lycees, or government schools, which 
include the primary and intermediate 
grades as well as college courses. They 
are public, though not free, institutions of 
learning, collectively constituting the 
French University, attended by the well- 
to-do and by the few who can obtain gov- 
ernment scholarships. 

The name is an old one, dating from 
the palmy days of Athens, when Aristotle 
taught his philosophy to eager disciples 
and followers in covered alleys to the 
east of the town near tne river Ilissus, 
and called the place the Lyceum. As this 
was also a place for athletic culture, so it 
was that Napoleon First, who organized 
the French University on the lines since 
followed with little deviation, created 
these lycees, that they might give mental 
and physical training to the children of 
his marshals and generals, and those of 
the middle classes. Napoleon gave to 
these schools a strong military bent, and 
aimed as much at keeping alive the mar- 
tial spirit as imparting a liberal educa- 
tion to the young scholars. 

Victor Hugo expresses the original 
spirit of the institutions in the following 
noble lines: 

"Vous etes les enfants des belliqueuux 
lycees ! 

La vous applaudissez nos victolres pas- 
sees." 

The students to this day wear uniforms, 
live in huge barrack-like buildings, an- 
swer to a strict military discipline, and 
from early morn until bed-time they must 
come and go to the beating of a big drum. 
A martial spirit still pervades the lycees, 
and the ghost of monasticism, as well, 
hovers over them; for the buildings them- 
selves, once monasteries of the Church of 
Rome, were a part of the vast holdings 
confiscated in 1793 by the French govern- 
ment, turned over to the French Univer- 
sity and assigned to young collegians. 



Paper. 

Lately, money has been spent on new 
buildings more in keeping with modern 
ideas of college architecture, but fifteen 
or twenty years ago the approach to these 
colleges was forbidding, the halls were 
anything but cheerful, the corridors long, 
dark and dismal, the rooms cheerless, 
cold and bare, the windows small and 
iron-barred, and the yards, where all phys- 
ical exercise took place and the recesses 
were spent, were sunless and treeless 
courts entombed by high walls. To escape 
from these prisons to the street and min- 
gle with the live, active world, a couple 
of doors had to be unlocked and the gaunt- 
let run past an ever-watchful doorkeeper, 
whom the boys appropriately named 
"Cerberus." 

The Lycee Henri IV, for instance, is an 
ancient abblaye of Genovefains, and the 
main staircase, the cloister of the court, 
named after Victor Duruy, the great min- 
ister and historian, most of the dormito- 
ries, some of the study-rooms, the very 
college chapel, vividly recall former times 
and scenes enacted in the old convent. 

The administration proper of the lycee 
is carried out by four men, all very dig- 
nified and distant. The president, to 
whom all respectfully bow, has a general 
supervision over everything about the col- 
lege premises, from the kitchen to the 
drawing-room, and is the inspector of 
classes. The censeur, or vice-president, 
confines himself more to the discipline of 
the school, and is aided by the head usher, 
a man more feared than loved by the 
boys, who goes by the title of "surveillant 
general." That individual never sleeps 
nor grows weary, is ubiquitous and always 
at your heels. Avoid him as you will, he 
runs across you; hide yourself as you will, 
he ferrets you out; seclude yourself as 
much as you please, he will scent you be- 
fore your cigarette is half consumed. 

The fourth figure in the administration 
wears an official title that does not rec- 
ommend him to the students, 1'econome, 



EDUCATION IN FRANCE. 



63 



or treasurer — literally the one who saves 
-and certainly that official has his art to 
perfection. The students of the lycee are 
kept on fixed rations— so many ounces of 
meat, so many pieces of bread per capita, 
a bottle of wine for six at dinner, etc. 
They never eat all they want, and the 
supposition is that "l'econome" is often 
responsible for short allowances. 

The boys call him "M. Riz-pain-sel," for 
the cheap articles of diet everlastingly 
served upon the college tables. Once in 
a while the boys rebel against M. Riz- 
pain-sel's fare, break the plates and hoot 
his minions. The ringleaders are pun- 
ished, but the fare improves for a few 
days, until the episode is forgotten on 
both sides. Next to the administration 
stand the gown-professors, who reside out- 
side, and the ushers, who are always with 
the boys. 

A witty Frenchman has said: "If life 
is short, the days are long." The say- 
ing proves true in a French lycee, with a 
day beginning at 5:30 A. M. in fall and 
spring, and at 6 o'clock in winter, there 
is ample time to study one's lessons and 
to get into mischief. 

The untiring vigilance of the ushers 
grows irksome, their eyes always on one 
from rising till bedtime, never a moment 
of relaxation. Distrust and dislike nat- 
urally grow out of so much suppression, 
and once in a while this bieaks out in 
open rebellion, but oftener it is manifest 
in small tricks which tease and worry the 
life out of an unpopular usher. 

The great novelist Alphonse Daudet, 
who was in his youth usher in one of the 
lycees, has described most pathetically 
the agonies he underwent, in his book, 
"Le Petit Chose." 

French boys are not worse than Ameri- 
can boys. Both are inclined to mischief 
if too much restrained, and a life of re- 
pression develops their ingenuity for 
tricks and pranks, some of which are very 
laughable, though reprehensible. 

On one occasion, an usher who was 
known to be very timid and easily scared, 
but fond of exercising his petty authority, 
was chosen by the boys of his room as 
the victim of a practical joke. 

It was a rainy day, and the boys were 
kept in the study-room during play hours. 
A boy had in his desk a large alarm clock 



which was capable 01 waking a sleeping 
regiment when wound up to its full capac- 
ity. All the boys of the room were se- 
cretly informed of the expected event, and 
warned to keep as still as possible during 
study hour that evening. Accordingly, 
just before 7, the silence of thirty or forty 
boys was as deep and solemn as a church 
on week-days. Not a pin-fall nor a turn- 
ing leaf could be heard, and yet nothing 
on the boys' faces could warn the usher 
of the storm to come. The silence 
was, however, ominous, and the usher 
stroked his beard, looked up from the 
book he was reading and was wondering 
what it all meant, when — B-r-r-r! b-r-r-r! 
off went the alarm, with a clatter loud and 
long. The usher bounded from his seat 
as if impelled by a secret spring. The 
students sprang from their desks uttering 
exclamations of surprise. In the twink- 
ling of an eye the scene changed from the 
most orderly solemnity to the wildest con- 
fusion. Usher and students were gestic- 
ulating and speaking at the same time. 
While the former, pale and frightened, 
pounced upon a tall, long-haired lad of 
eighteen and openly accused him of being 
the prime mover in the mischief, the 
boy protested his innocence and was sus- 
tained by his comrades, while the con- 
fusion continued. 

"Silence!" roared the usher. "Silence! 
You are the guilty party. I know it and 
I will report you to the censeur." 

"I guilty? I guilty, sir?" roared the 
youth, shaking his wild mane. Then, 
lowering his voice with mock solemnity, 
his eyes fixed upon the ceiling, his hand 
upon his heart: "I guilty, I guilty, sir? 
The sky is no purer than the depth of my 
heart!" 

Applause and laughter greeted this tragic 
utterance, but the noise had brought to 
the doorsill both censeur and surveillant 
general, and the poet was drawn from his 
ecstacy, handed over to the drummer and 
locked in the college prison. 

There for two days on a bread-and- 
water diet he copied hundreds of lines 
from the Latin poets, and for the rest of 
the semester he lost the privilege of the 
monthly outing in town with parents or 
friends. On the other hand, he became a 
hero among his fellows, and, upon emerg- 
ing from his third-story prison, was 



6 4 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



treated to such ovations as might have 
honored a victorious general. 

It would be a mistake to suppose that 
all ushers are liable to receive such treat- 
ment, or to imagine that French boys 
lack sentiments of courtesy and kindness. 
The fault is with the system and not with 
the boys, for often they delight to honor 
a respected teacher. Costly presents in 
the way of books are sometimes given to 
a favorite instructor at Christmas or New 
Year's, and presented with very pretty 
ceremony, offered by a spokesman in the 
presence of the roomful of students. 

The professors are feared for the ex- 
aminations which they give once a week, 
the result of which is announced every 
Monday morning in the presence of the 
president and vice-president; they are also 
respected for their great learning and for 
their impartiality towards the students. 
Most of the men who have taught in the 
French lycees belong to the learned aris- 
tocracy of the country, and some of them 
have been leaders of French thought in 
their day. The great Guizot, historian; 
Taine, author of "The History of English 
Literature;" Bdmond About, novelist; 
Jules Simon, scholar and statesman; Gas- 
ton Boissier, the Latinist; Victor Duruy, 
historian; Lavisse, of the French Acad- 
emy; Francisque Sarcey, great journalist 
and critic, of Paris; M. Hanotaux, late 
minister of foreign affairs — these have all 
been lycee professors. Such eminent edu- 
cators have turned out eminent pupils in 
all the walks and avocations of life. Poets 
such as Cassimir Delavinne and Alfred 
de Musset; playwrights, such as Augier 
and Sardou; great engineers, like Ferdi- 
nand de Lesseps; academicians and jour- 
nalists, physicists and scientists, and 
scores of eminent men, in art, science and 
literature. 

French college boys lack neiihe pat.iot- 
ism nor honor. They were as ready to 
quit the halls of learning and fly to their 
country's aid in 1870 as were the Ameri- 



can college students in 1861 and 1898, and 
those who were too young for the field 
nobly did their duty in a way not less 
acceptable. For, after the great and 
bloody struggle with Prussia, France was 
left in a dilemma — two provinces gone and 
five billions of francs to be paid before 
the German troops would withdraw from 
her territory. At this juncture Thiers ap- 
pealed to France for a loan, and Franc* 
responded nobly. The youth were not 
asked— they volunteered their aid. 

We college boys refused to accept the 
prizes which are annually distributed 
before vacation-time, and begged that the 
amount to be given be turned over to 
the government. We did more; out of 
our little monthly allowances we pledged 
a certain amount until the war indem- 
nity should be fully satisfied. About hall 
the pocket-money we secured from home 
for self-gratification we turned over 
monthly to our appointed treasurer — we 
pledged to him our honor to be prompt 
in remitting; and I do not recall a single 
instance where the pledge-money was not 
promptly paid in. It was an impressive 
sight when the treasurer went his monthly 
round in the classroom, collecting the 
dues of professors and students. The si- 
lence was deep — all were intently think- 
ing of our misfortunes and how we might 
retrieve what was lost. Self-abnegation 
rose to a high pitch. We were being 
schooled in self-mastery. May I not say- 
it has borne its fruits and that they are 
visible to the eye of any student of con 
temporary France? A joyous day it was 
when we read in the papers that the last 
penny had been paid and the last German 
soldier had gone home. The share of the 
debt that the college boys assumed was 
voluntary — no forced collection of it could 
have been made — it was a debt of honor. 

French college boys have their failings, 
but whatever their faults may be, they 
are not lacking in sense of honor. 
(To be continued.) 



DEMOCRACY. 

Come, I will make the continent indis- 
soluble, 

I will make the most splendid race thy sun 
ever shone upon, 

I will make divine magnetic lands, 

With the love of comrades, 

With the life-long love of comrades. 

—Walt Whitman. 



AUGUSTUS DANA'S WIFE. 



By LISCHEN M. MILLER. 



IT WAS a surprise and something of a 
shock to us all when it was made 
known that the beautiful and brilliant 
Miss Sargent was going to be married to 
Augustus Dana. 

Miss Sargent was far and away the 
brightest girl in our set. She came of an 
old Southern family whose blood was of 
the bluest, and had a modest fortune in 
her own right. She danced and sang and 
dressed to perfection, and rode as only a 
Southern woman can. 

We were all in love with her, from big 
McArthurs, who was worth a million or 
so, and who owned a cattle ranch out in 
the Yellowstone country and a gold mine 
in Alaska, to little Tom Tresset, who did 
not have a cent to his name — but who, 
nevertheless, commanded respect on ac- 
count of the marvelous things he could 
do with his brush. He was regarded as 
a coming man, a rising genius. 

She might have had her choice of half 
a score of men with money or brains, or 
both, and she took — Augustus Dana. 

She loved him. None of us doubted 
that. She was not the sort of a girl to 
marry without love — but the mystery of it 
was: Why? Why, or how, any woman 
with an ounce of gray matter could tol- 
erate much less love such a blank idiot 
as Augustus Dana was something wholly 
beyond our comprehension. Of all the 
dumb fools that ever cumbered the earth 
he was the worst. True, he had a hand- 
some enough face, barring its lack of ex- 
pression, and a fairly good figure, and he 
managed to dress decently, thanks to a 
generous income and a treasure of a valet, 
but if he had a grain of sense or an atom 
of intellect not one of his friends or ac- 
quaintances ever found It out. "As dull 
as Dana," was a stock phrase among us. 

How he got through college nobody 
knew, but get through he did, and drifted 
into society, where he became a fixture of 
just about as much force and influence as 
the brass knobs on a chandelier. One 
thing, however, he could do, and only one. 



He could draw with all the skill and cor- 
rectness of an Andrea Delsarto, and he 
had a sort of gift for mixing colors. But 
he had no originality, and was absolutely 
ignorant of the first principles of art. 
His work was utterly lifeless and as cor- 
rectly dull as himself. His studio — heaven 
save the mark — was crammed with fault- 
less copies. But Miss Sargent believed in 
him. She said he had genius — that the 
world would awaken to a knowledge of 
this fact some day. 

She was devoted to art. Not that she 
ever did anything in that line herself, you 
understand. She couldn't draw a cat so 
you could tell it from a cow, but she had 
the artistic temperament, and a finely edu- 
cated taste. She knew a good thing when 
she saw it. That was why everybody was 
stricken breathless with amazement when 
she fell in love with Augustus Dana. 

"She must be very far gone, indeed," 
Fisk remarked, when the news was talked 
over in the club, "if she can discover the 
earmarks of genius in those dead things 
Augustus Dana calls his pictures." 

"If she wanted to marry an artist," 
gloomily meditated Tresset, "why didn't 
she take — " 

"Tommy Tresset," Colton interrupted. 
"My dear boy, it's Dana himself she is in 
love with. She looks at his painting 
through love's magic glasses. Art doesn't 
stand the ghost of a chance when Cupid's 
in the field." 

The engagement was brief. They were 
married quietly and went abroad for a 
year. "She'll be sick enough of his 'gen- 
ius' by the time they get home," Fisk pre- 
dicted. But presently rumors began to 
reach us concerning the remarkable suc- 
cess of an American artist in Rome. Then 
it was Paris, and the rumor took a more 
definite form, and came to read, "Dana, 
the American," who was agitating art cir- 
cles in the Old World by reason of his 
wonderful paintings, which were said to 
rival in power and originality of concep- 
tion the best works of the old masters. 



66 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



"Dana — A. Dana," mused Pisk. "Can't 
be Augustus." 

"Do you know," put in little Tresset, 
"I fancy it is." 

"Yes," added Colton, disgustedly. "The 
foreigners are doubtless fascinated by his 
unique and monumental stupidity. They 
probably regard him as an art-freak and 
pay tribute to his dullness." 

"They're a lot of blank fools over there, 
anyway," Fisk rejoined. 

But when toward the end of the twelve- 
month McArthurs, who had been over, re- 
turned from Paris, he struck us all dumb 
by announcing that A. Dana was not only 
our Augustus but that he justly deserved 
his rapidly growing fame. 

"You know," said Tresset, who was the 
first to find his tongue after this amazing 
piece of information had been imparted 
to us, "he always could draw, and his 
handling of color was not bad." 

"Well," resumed McArthurs, "he has 
somehow caught the soul of the thing, as 
they say over there, and the results are 
simply marvelous. I'm not given to rhap- 
sodizing, as you perhaps know, and I 
don't go in for art as a rule, but his picture 
of the young mother dreaming of her 
child's future while she rocks the cradle 
is a thing I cannot get out of my mind." 

Fisk regarded him meditatively. "Who 
sat for the mother in that picture?" he 
asked, and everybody save McArtnurs 
smiled. McArthurs pretended not to hear. 
Fisk went on. 

"His wife was right after all. Love is 
not always blind, it seems. Eh, Colton? 
Discerning the latent spark with the eye 
of true affection, she has fanned it to a 
flame." 

In the course of time the young couple 
returned to us, and Augustus set up a 
studio in the elegant little place they took 
possession of on B— street. 

If Mrs. Dana had been charming as 
Miss Sargent, she was irresistible now. 
It was perfectly plain to everybody that 
she adored her handsome, stupid husband. 
There was something absurdly touching 
in her devotion and in her silent insist- 
ence upon his being recognized as a genius. 
Fisk declared that she would breathe for 
him if it were possible. As for Gus, he 
appeared to take her tender worship as a 
matter of course. He was no doubt fond 



of her in his dull fashion. He had not im- 
proved, so far as any of us were able to 
discern. His success in art had not bright- 
ened his mental faculties to any noticeable 
extent. He was the same well-dressed 
blockhead that we had known and ridi- 
culed in his bachelor days, before he had 
acquired greatness. 

"Do you know," said Tom Tresset, 'if 
it wasn't quite out of the question, I'd 
be inclined to suspect his wife of painting 
his pictures herself." 

"It is quite out of the question," growled 
McArthurs, glaring savagely. "It's well 
you put in that saving clause." 

"Certainly, certainly," said Fisk, hasten- 
ing to pour oil on the troubled waters. 
"Mrs. Dana is beyond suspicion. But he 
draws his inspiration from her. Nobody 
who knows them doubts that." 

"Nobody wants to," grumbled McAr- 
thurs, and departed gloomily. Mac was 
daily growing less companionable. He 
had almost entirely dropped out of our 
little circle. He said "gossip" bored him. 
As if we gossiped! It was our custom to 
meet in a retired corner and discuss mat- 
ters in general — but gossip? never! 

The truth is, McArthurs had been hard 
hit, and he did not get over it. He al- 
lowed his disappointment to sour him. 

However, we all understood the situa- 
tion and sympathized in a way. But we 
agreed tacitly that Mrs. Dana was not the 
woman to heal the wounds which she had 
unconsciously inflicted as Miss Sargent. 
And we did homage to the colossal pow- 
ers of inspiration that could put life into 
the work of that inanimate clod, Augustus 
Dana. We were dumb with admiration 
before his beautiful canvases, where the 
figures seemed to live and breath, and 
the color was a dream. 

It was apparent to every one that Mrs. 
Dana had lost much of the splendid phys- 
ical vitality that had been one of the 
charms of her girlhood, but she had gained 
in spirituality and in that subtle some- 
thing about which the poets rave. She 
was almost frail in figure, but full of an 
intense fire that seemed to burn more 
clearly day by day. 

They had been married about three 
years, maybe longer, when Dana began 
work upon what, it speedily became noised 
about, was to be his masterpiece. Nobody 



AUGUSTUS DANA'S WIFE. 



67 



knew just what the subject was, but it 
was pretty generally conceded to be some- 
thing quite out of tbe common. His wife 
was brimming with enthusiasm about the 
new picture. It obtruded itself in her 
conversation at every tarn. She seemed 
unable to talk of anything else. If she 
had been a less beautiful and attractive 
woman, this weakness would have been 
a bore. As it was, we all caught the in- 
fection, and Dana's new picture was the 
theme for general discussion everywhere 
and at all seasons. It came up at teas, 
dinners, receptions, in the clubroom and 
on the street. Whenever you saw two or 
more people earnestly engaged in con- 
versation, you might be sure they were 
talking about the picture. 

As it neared completion the interest in- 
tensified. Along about this time Mrs. 
Dana's health began to fail. Colton was 
called in. His father has been the Dana's 
family physician before either he or Gus 
came into the world, and he naturally 
took the place left vacant by the old doc- 
tor's death. 

Now Colton was always something of a 
mystic, had all sorts of notions about oc- 
cult influences, etc. Perhaps this had 
something to do with his diagnosis of 
Mrs. Dana's case. She had been gradually 
losing ground for several months. It was 
early in May when she took to her bed. 
Colton was deeply interested. He spent 
as much time at the house as he could 
possibly spare, but, in spite of all his ef- 
forts, she made no progress toward recov- 
ery. 

She did not suffer, at least she never 
complained of either pain or discomfort, 
but it was evident to all that she grew 
daily weaker. She would lie for hours in 
her darkened room without speaking or 
moving, but with an intent, eager look 
upon her face. 

The great picture was nearly finished 
now. Dana spent most of his time in the 
studio. He came in to see his wife every 
evening. She would put her arms, grown 
pitifully thin, up around his neck, and 
hold his face close against her own as if 
she could never let him go. But she al- 
ways sent him away early. He must have 
rest after his hard day's work, and noth- 
ing must be suffered to interfere with 
progress of the picture. 



The atmosphere of the sickroom was 
apt to prove depressing,, she said, and re- 
fused to allow him to sit with her more 
than a brief half hour. 

Love! I tell you there's nothing in all 
this world as tender and strong and true 
as the love of woman. It reaches as high 
as heaven and down to the depths of hell. 
It is the miracle-maker of the universe. 

One evening toward the last of the 
month Fisk and I were strolling down 
the street on which the Danas lived, when 
we saw Colton's brougham dash up to 
their door and stop. Colton himself 
sprang out and ran up the steps. He had 
evidently been sent for in haste, for the 
door was opened before he had time to 
ring. 

"She must be worse," remarked Fisk. 
Yet none of us at that time dreamed that 
she was in any immediate danger. 

We went on to the club, where we were 
to dine together. Tom Tresset was stand- 
ing on the clubhouse steps. 

"Hello! heard the news?" he cried. We 
had not heard any news and said so. 

"The picture is finished." 

"At last?" 

"At last! Saw Dana this afternoon. 
He was just putting in the final touches." 

"Did you see it?" 

"No, but he's asked the lot of us for 
tomorrow. Said it was his wife's idea — 
keeping it dark this way. She hasn't seen 
it herself — hasn't been inside his studio 
since he began work on it. Funny, isn't 
it, when she's so wrapped up in him and 
his pictures?" 

"She is sick, you know." 

"Yes, that's true. Well, Gus wants us 
to come up tomorrow morning and look at 
the thing — says his wife wants us to 
come." 

"By the way," said Fisk, "I'm afraid 
Mrs. Dana's not so well today. We saw 
Colton rushingin there as we came along." 

"That so? Wonder why Colton don't 
brace her up with his tonics and stuff, 
and get her out again. It's deucedly dull 
without her." 

The hour had grown late. None of us 
realized that it was after midnight till 
McArthurs came in. He looked pale and 
disturbed. 

"What's up, Mac? You look as if you 
had just come from an interview with a 
ghost?" cried Fisk. 



68 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



"I met Colton outside. He was on his 
way home from Dana's house. Mrs. Dana 
died this evening," and McArthurs turned 
and left us before we had recovered from 
the shock of this sad news sufficiently to 
put a single question. 

But we got the particulars later from 
Colton. They had sent for him at the 
first apprehension of danger. Mrs. Dana, 
the nurse said, had rested well all day. 
Somewhere near 5 o'clock in the afternoon 
she turned upon her pillow, clasped her 
hands under her pale cheek and sighed 
softly. The nurse leaned over and spoke 
to her, but she only smiled contentedly 
and did not answer. 

Shortly after this, Dana entered the 
room. She had made him promise to 
come to her the moment the picture was 
finished. He went close to the low couch 
upon which she was lying. "Is she 
asleep?" he asked the nurse. "No, I think 
not," was the reply, and he called her 
gently two or three times by name. She 
did not make any response; did not even 
seem to hear, only lay there with half- 
shut eyes, smiling sweetly. They tried 
in vain to rouse her, and, at length, be- 
coming alarmed, sent hurriedly for Colton, 
who could do nothing when he arrived. 

The end came with the twilight. Ex- 
hausted vitality, Colton said it was, but 
he had a theory as to the cause which he 
did not announce to the public, the truth 
of which, strange and incredible as it 
seemed to us then — he told McArthurs and 
me only, I believe — was seemingly proven 
by subsequent events. 

Dana never painted another picture. 
That one whose completion was marked 



by the close of a noble life, was his last. 
I don't mean by this that he shut up shop. 
It would have been better for his repu- 
tation as a genius if he had. On the con- 
trary, he continued to paint as industri- 
ously as ever, but his work was dead and 
dull as ditchwater. 

He had lost his inspiration, but he never 
seemed to realize it. 1 think he missed 
his wife and mourned for her as deeply 
as a man of his sort could, but he married 
again in the course of a couple of years, 
and was quite as content with the frivol- 
ous fashion-plate who became the second 
Mrs. Dana as he had been with the rare 
creature whose love had inspired him to 
the point of greatness. 

That was Colton's theory — that inspira- 
tion business. He held that through her 
abiding faith and affection she had uncon- 
sciously influenced him to paint the beau- 
tiful conceptions of her own artistic soul. 
That all the living loveliness his skilled 
brush transferred to canvas had birth and 
being in her fertile brain and fervid heart. 
"Love's unconscious telepathy," he called 
it. He claimed that Dana, being a mere 
negative, without force or originality, had 
readily acted as a medium through which 
her wonderful visions found form and ex- 
pression. Her love was of a nature so 
deep and tender and unselfish — so full of 
faith in him — as to impel, to irresistibly 
impel, him to become for the time the 
artist she believed him to be. 

But the delicate cords of life had snapped 
under the strain of such exalted spiritual 
pressure. She died and never knew that 
she had sacrificed herself for — Augustus 
Dana. 



LOVE'S REMEMBRANCE. 
I. 

Sometimes across the written page, 

Whereon the ink is wet, 
A message flashes, and I know 

That love cannot forget. 



II. 



III. 



Sometimes in silence of the night 
Dear eyes respond to mine, 

And all the darkness slips away, 
And — I am only thine. 



Nor time nor space nor circumstance 

Can faithful hearts divide — 
Though half the world should lie between 

"Love's ever at love's side." 

— Lischen M. Miller. 



" WAS HE JUSTIFIED?" 



CHAPTER III. 

HARRIET, returned to the bosom of 
her family after two years of 
Europe, was no* so very different 
from the Harriet who went away. 

At first sight of the stylish figure of 
the young traveler Billy Spencer had been 
overwhelmed and awed, but by the time 
the twelve miles between the village and 
the homestead were covered his awe was 
swallowed up in admiration. Harriet had 
always been a handsome girl, and her ex- 
perience abroad had added a certain charm 
to her hitherto somewhat brusque manner. 
They were gathered about the fire that 
evening in the big, low-ceiled room that 
served as dining-room, parlor and work- 
room — and which was capable, on occa- 
sion, of being transformed into a very 
presentable hall. It was, by reason of its 
capacious hearthstone, the favorite ren- 
dezvous of the family. 

"It is good to be at home again," said 
Harriet, leaning back in the big leather- 
covered chair that had cradled in turn 
every one of the Dalgren babies from 
Virginia down— and was by long associa- 
tion always the coveted seat in the family 
circle. "Yes, it is good to be at home. 
And what a beauty Kitty is growing to 
be. If you do not get me off your hands, 
mother dear, before she dawns upon the 
masculine world, your chances for hav- 
ing one old maid in the family will be 
pretty fair. It's a shame that Virginia 
should be twice married before I've had a 
single offer." 

"What! Not one?" cried Kitty, in 
shocked amazement. She had pictured 
Harriet as literally walking upon the 
hearts of willing suitors. 

"Well, no," returned Harriet, "not one 
that would do to count." 

"And the ducal coronet?" queried her 
brother. 
"Failed to materialize." 
"There was an alternative, was there 
not?" mused Bob. "Seems to me if I 
were you I'd take the alternative." 

"You advice is excellent, Bob, my boy, 
but I think I'll wait till I'm asked." 



"Billy Spencer is worth the whole Brit- 
ish peerage, with a dozen French counts 
and Italian princes thrown in," com- 
mented Bob; "I'm glad you came home—" 
"Fiee, single and disengaged? So am 
I, when it comes to that. I think I'll leave 
it to you to select the brother-in-law I 
am expected to provide you with." Har- 
riet rose and stood leaning upon the back 
of her brother's chair, her strong young 
figure, in all its grace and suppleness, sil- 
houetted against the dancing firelight 
Through the open doorway the solitary 
lounger upon the veranda looked in from 
the outer darkness. It may have been 
the power of his silent wish that drew 
her to the door, or it may have been her 
own happy restlessness. But whatever ii 
was, Harriet drifted away from the group 
at the hearthstone, and, after wandering 
aimlessly about the wide, shadowy room, 
paused on the outer threshold. 

"Harriet!" came a well-known voice 
from the darkness. 

"Oh!" she exclaimed, half under her 
breath; "are you out here alone? Come 
in, won't you?" 

"Won't you come out, Harriet? I — I — 
want to tell you something." 

The girl stepped out into the warm, 
sweet, autumn night. 
"What is it?" she said, softly. 
She felt a strong hand clasp her own. 
"Only this, dear; I love you, Harriet. 
Harriet, will you accept the alternative?" 
"Oh!" cried Harriet. "You've been 
eavesdropping." 

"And, contrary to the old saying, have 
heard nothing I did not wish to hear. 
But you haven't answered my question 
yet — Is it yes or no?" 

"Well," replied Harriet, thoughtfully, "I 
suppose it must be yes. The family seem 
to expect it, and — and, to tell you the 
truth, I've always half-way expected it 
myself." 

"I know that I have always meant to 
marry you. But Bob's confidences con- 
cerning your designs upon the helpless 
British peerage have made life a torment 
since you went away." 



7o 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



"Harriet," called her mother from the 
doorway. "You will take cold out there 
without anything around you. Come in." 

Harriet obeyed, and when she emerged 
from the outer darkness into the dim 
light of the dining-room they could all see 
that her mother's fears for her health 
were unnecessary and unfounded. She 
did have something around her. It was 
Billy Spencer's coat-sleeve, and it was 
ample protection under the circumstances 
against any amount of night air. 

"Mrs. Dalgren," said Billy, "I have just 
asked Harriet to be my wife, and I now 
ask you to give her to me." 

And Mrs. Dalgren gladly, albeit some- 
what tearfully, consented, whereat there 
was great rejoicing among the younger 
members of the family, for Billy Spencer 
was a hero in their eyes, and much be- 
loved. 

Later that night, in the seclusion of her 
own room, where she was joined by her 
mother and Kitty, Harriet related so far 
as she knew it, the history of Virginia's 
sudden marriage. 

"It was an attack of 'love at first sight' 
if ever there was one," she said. "When 
we went aboard the steamer at Liverpool 
this man was the first person we met. 
And it was a clear case of 'spoons' from 
that moment. Father Roquet happened to 
know him and introduced him on the 
spot. By the time we reached New York 
the whole thing was settled. He had to 
go South, on important business, but when 
we reached San Francisco he was there 
before us, and insisted upon the marriage 
taking place then and there. Of course, 
I felt it my duty to interpose objections. 
We were so near home, why not come on 
and be married here? But I might as 
well have talked to the wind. Virginia 
had no ears for any one but her fiance, 
and so Father Roquet, who was, as usual, 
conveniently at hand, tied the knot, and 
I came home alone." 

"And do you think, Harriet, that she 
will be happy?" sighed the mother, half- 
regretfully. 

"No doubt of it," replied Harriet. "WHy 
shouldn't they be? He's as handsome as 
heart could desire, dark and reserved, and 
all that, you know — and as rich as Croesus. 



He's some sort of a relative of Father 
Roquet, I fancy — that is, if priests have 
relations. Anyway, they're married and 
coming to Oregon to live, Virginia says. 
And, mother dear, it strikes me you're a 
rather lucky woman to get your two oldest 
daughters off your hands with so little 
worry." 

Harriet's version of the affair was the 
true one as far as it went, but Harriet 
little dreamed how much she left untold. 

When Virginia, slightly in advance of 
her party, stepped upon the deck of the 
homeward-bound Atlantic liner, the man 
in the case was leaning against the rail. 
Their eyes met, and in that glance Vir- 
ginia recognized her fate. But it was not 
till long afterward that she learned the 
full significance of that meeting, and heard 
the story of a love transcendent in self- 
sacrifice and in patience. At that moment 
she was ignorant of the seven long years 
of waiting, during which she had been the 
day-star of this man's existence, ignorant 
of the fact that day in her early girlhood 
when he first beheld her under the apple- 
tree in the old orchard, he had thought of 
her, toiled for her, planned for happiness 
and guarded her life from even the shad- 
ow of care. And now, at last, he had his 
reward, for Virginia gave her whole heart 
and was happy in the giving. 

After a few months among the orange 
groves of Santa Barbara, they came to 
Oregon, and in Oregon they are living to 
this day. Very few people remember Vir- 
ginia as the stolen bride, whose sudden 
disappearance caused a nine days' sensa- 
tion. And, though maybe now and then 
in talking of the past some one will men- 
tion the almost forgotten hero of the turf, 
Jeff Le Febre, no one associates the dark 
and handsome man who is regarded as 
a potent factor of the commonwealth with 
that one-time dreaded character. It is not 
often the lot of man and woman to possess 
a happiness so complete as theirs. And in 
their beautiful home on the "Heavenly 
Heights" of Portland, with their children 
growing up about them, we will leave 
them, and leave it to the reader to decide 
whether or not he was justified in the 
theft of another's bride. 

(The End.) 




OUR POINT OF VIEW. 




After a year's planning and striving, in 
sunshine and gloom, amid discourage- 
ments and cheer, our magazine has at last 
been launched, and has received its bap- 
tism of criticism. The kindness with 
which it has been received has surpassed 
our expectations. We feel greatly en- 
couraged over the fact that the public has 
stood in line, as it were, to welcome the 
advent of such an enterprise. This atti- 
tude inspires us to further effort to bring 
the public to a more thorough realization 
of its needs along this line, to show the 
vast resources of this wonderful region, 
and to bring out the fact that here is a 
land full of poetry, romance and the 
majesty of Nature — things that appeal not 
merely to the material side of life, but 
which uplift and ennoble men and make 
life brighter and more endurable. We 
did not expect half the encouragement 
that we have received. We had rather 
expected, and do yet expect, to fight our 
way up the hill to success and into the 
confidence and good will of our public. It 
is our desire to interest our readers in a 
vital way in the prosperity of The Pacific 
Monthly. For, as we conceive it, the pub- 
lication of a magazine or a newspaper 
is not a private enterprise. It goes be- 
yond that and becomes the people's own. 
The magazine especially is a representa- 
tive of the literary life and activity of the 
section from which it comes, and is, of 
necessity, the expression of the best 
thought and sentiment of the community 
that gives it birth. The people, therefore, 
should be, and are, more vitally interested 
than individuals in an enterprise of this 
nature. The publishers are merely the 
instruments necessary to carry out the 
will of the people, to give them what 
they want, to be, in short, their repre- 
sentatives. This being true, it is not so 
much from commendation of the maga- 
zine as from criticism of its faults, and 
suggestions as to its improvement, that 
we will be enabled to attain our object. 
We have welcomed the suggestions that 
have come to us and have gratefully re- 
ceived any criticisms. We hope that in 
the future our readers will not hesitate 
to enlighten us as to any plans they may 
have in mind for the improvement of the 
magazine. The Pacific Monthly is in an 
embryonic state. It will be molded by its 
readers, and inasmuch as many have felt 
the need of a magazine here, each must 
also have had in mind some idea of what 
the character of such a publication should 



be. Perhaps it is well to remind our read- 
ers, what others have so often pointed 
out, that it is impossible to please every- 
body. We shall come much nearer reach- 
ing this goal, however, if the public will 
enter into the spirit of the occasion with 
us, and bear and forbear these first few 
months. 



Arrangements have been perfected for 
handling The Pacific Monthly in the East 
by the American News Company, of New 
York. The San Francisco News Com- 
pany will take charge of this coast. These 
two concerns, with their numerous 
branches, will insure a careful and sys- 
tematic distribution of the magazine 
throughout the country, and this will ef- 
fectually bring our region to the notice 
of the most desirable classes. The maga- 
zine will, thereioi e, be unquestionably the 
best advertisement that our part of the 
country has ever received. This will be- 
come more and more true as time goes on, 
since the demand for the magazine is on 
the increase, owing to the desire in the 
East for accurate information concerning 
this coast. Our edition last month was 
not sufficient to supply the demand, and 
this month it promises to be larger still, 
so that we are forced to materially in- 
crease the number of copies printed. "A 
word to the wise is sufficient." 

Professor Norton, of Harvard, in his 
recent address on "The New American," 
takes a gloomy view of the situation not 
warranted by the facts. His attitude is 
rather that of an alarmist than that of a 
calm, judicial mind, carefully weighing 
both sides of the question. It is true that 
we must face new conditions, but it does 
not necessarily follow that in so doing we 
must become a "military nation." This 
is but a repetition of the old cry that was 
raised at the close of the civil war, when 
it was held by many that a large stand- 
ing army would be required to control 
4,000,000 freed slaves and to keep down 
rebellion. And even before this date, and 
with less apparent cause, the alarmists 
declared against our extension of terri- 
tory on similar grounds, when it was a 
question of whether or not Oregon and all 
it represented should be held by the 
United States. Neither does it follow that 
"all brutal tendencies will be encouraged 
by the recognition of force as a last ap- 



72 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



peal by the central government." Eng- 
land and English institutions are living 
and sufficient refutations of this state- 
ment. And brutality is not engendered 
by such campaigns as the one just closed. 
On the other hand, the recent war has 
done more to awaken and stimulate the 
best and noblest instincts of the people 
than a century of peace. It has produced 
a generation of heroes. It has given our 
young men an opportunity to prove to 
the world that the fire of patriotism burns 
as brightly now as it did in those far 
days when its fierce glow warmed the 
snows of Valley Forge beneath the bare 
feet of the soldier of- a new-born nation. 
"No leaders," is the protest of a child 
afraid of the dark, and is as without ex- 
cuse or reason, since in every age, in 
every land, whenever and wherever the 
need has arisen, has also arisen the man 
to meet it. Unquestionably, there are 
many tendencies in American politics that 
point to a gloomy future, if we continue 
along the lines they indicate, but there 
are many brighter and more promising 
tendencies that predict for us a splendid 
consummation of the dreams of our coun- 
try's founders. 



knowledge, however reluctantly, an ad- 
miration of our splendid victories by land 
and sea, and to admit that humanitarian- 
ism may to some extent have actuated us 
in the recent war. But humanitarianism, 
they cry, is a new development in Ameri- 
can character, a result of the war, not 
the cause of it, when, in fact, the reverse 
is true. For it was a war of the people 
for the relief of a sister country, for the 
amelioration of conditions that could no 
longer be suffered to exist on this hemi- 
sphere, where the rights of man are re 
spected and upheld from purely human- 
itarian motives. From the beginning, all 
through our colonial history, in every act. 
and in every event in our national life, 
this great principle can be clearly traced. 
Indeed, the one thing more than any 
other that has attracted the attention of 
the masses of Europe and has made our 
land a refuge for the oppressed, has been 
a feeling among them that America is a 
humanitarian nation, whose very name : s. 
and has always been, a synonym for re- 
lief from oppression. In view of this 
fact, it seems inconceivable that our mo- 
tives in the late war should have been 
so misinterpreted. 



Except among the highest and best- 
educated classes in England, Germany 
and France, and indeed to some extent 
among even these, there exists a popular 
misconception of America and American 
ideals. This was exemplified to a start- 
ling degree shortly before the outbreak of 
hostilities between the United States and 
Spain. Editors of magazines and news- 
papers who were supposed to know better 
made the most inexcusable blunders con- 
cerning the geography of this country, and 
displayed the greatest ignorance of Amer- 
ican institutions and of the motives 
which were likely to move the masses 
here. The reception which President Mc- 
Kinley's war message met with in France 
and Germany opened the eyes of the 
American public to the attitude of Con- 
tinental Europe, revealing as it did the 
light in which these nations viewed our 
country and our actions. The humanita- 
rian principle which, in its inner con- 
sciousness, the whole nation recognized as 
the leading one — a settled conviction in 
the hearts and minds of the people that 
the time had come foi- armed interven- 
tion in behalf of oppressed and suffering 
Cuba — was ridiculed by nearly every jour- 
nal on the Continent. The few that gave 
us credit for acting from some other mo- 
tive than selfishness were so weak in 
their defense, if defense it might be called, 
that the effect of what they said was lost 
in the almost unanimous condemnation of 
the United States. The war has, in some 
degree, modified this expression of un- 
friendly feeling, and forced Europe to ac- 



Of the many lines of progress that have 
characterized this century, probably none 
have been more important in contributing 
to the comfort and convenience of man- 
kind than the advances that have been 
made in the production of light, and yet 
none has received so little attention from 
the press. As a consequence, the people 
have considered each advance as a matter 
of course. They have taken up each new 
device and passed on to the next with 
little or no thought. If by some sudden 
calamity we were to be deprived of the 
brilliant lights that make our crowded 
thoroughfares almost day, if the soft glow 
of the modern globed electric light could 
be taken from our reading tables and 
desks and we were brought back to fifty 
years ago, something of the advantages 
of our day in the way of light could be 
fully realized. For, strange as it may 
seem, all of the advances that have been 
made in the production of light have taken 
place in the last fifty years, and, if we 
leave out of consideration kerosene, we 
may even limit the time to the last twen- 
ty-five years. So that we ourselves have 
seen the remarkable changes that have 
taken place, and our fathers can recall 
the time when night meant a flickering 
candle that sputtered its unsteady light 
over the pages and ruined eyes, or else it 
meant the dangerous explosive camphine 
or "burning fluid," that gave as sickly and 
unsatisfactory a light. Kerosene came 
like a God-send, and with it commenced 
two remarkable evolutions along dis- 
tinct lines. First, an evolution along 



OUR POINT OF VIEW. 



73 



light itself— a steady and marvelous im- 
provement in the means of production; 
and, second, through this, a deep change 
took place in the habits and customs of 
the people — an evolution that has been 
more far-reaching in its effects than we 
may at present realize. Society and busi- 
ness of many and varied lines have been 
almost totally changed by the advances 
that have been made in the production of 
light, so that at the present time "night" 
in our large cities means a very different 
thing from what it did twenty years ago. 
Today we have five distinct means for 
the production of light — kerosene, coal 
gas, gasolene, acetylene gas, and elec- 
tricity. Of these, the most advanced are 
acetylene gas and the florescent electric 
globe. While there mast always be a 
place for kerosene, coal gas is rapidly 
being relegated to a thing of the past, 
and it is a relief to know that the day 
of the obnoxious smell of gas from leak- 
ing pipes, jumping met r es and consequent 
excessive cost, danger of death from 
"blowing out the gas" and the day of 
countless other evils that coal gas has 
made us heir to, is rapidly passing away. 
If there ever was any poetry in the flick- 
ering, unsteady light, we wish it gone — 
and in its stead we look forward to the 
many wonderful productions of our day 
that mark the nineteenth century as one 
of unparalleled progress. The twentieth 
century will soon be here, and it will wit- 
ness many improvements for man's com- 
fort and convenience, but on the question 
of light, when we keep in mind the recent 
innovations, it is difficult to see that there 
is "more beyond." 

The world is overrun with beautiful 
theories as a meadow in latter May is 
overrun with flowers. You look at the 
blossoming field, where the color riots in 
the yellow sunshine, under the bending 



blue, and you wonder if there will be 
aught for the scythe at mowing time. Bui 
all the while, down beneath the glory ot 
purple and scarlet and gold, the young, 
strong grass is growing. When the May- 
time passes, the flowers pass, too, and the 
grass, grown suddenly tall, remains, an 
emerald field over which the wind sweeps 
in soft, undulating ripples. And the 
world is richer for the beauty that has 
been — for the blossoms that have blown, 
just as it is a pleasanter abiding-place 
because of the dreams men dream and 
the visions they behold when they turn 
from the things that are to the things 
that might be. For theories are the silver 
threads that a man's soul spins out of the 
inner, the artistic cravings of his own 
spiritual, or intellectual, nature — moon 
beams that gild the commonplace and 
make the real seem ideal. But when the 
spinner calls his beautiful theory a relig- 
ion, a thing to live by, to die for, why, h« 
deludes himself and countless others. For 
he has mistaken the moonlight for the 
warm, strong light of day. 
* 
One of the strongest indications that 
prosperity is not coming, but has already 
arrived, is to be found in the heavy in- 
crease of travel which all the railroad 
companies report. The business far ex- 
ceeds that of any past year, and one com- 
pany has, owing to the pressure of rapidly 
growing traffic, been compelled to borrow 
five hundred cars from the East. Even 
with this addition to its rolling stock it 
has been unable to handle all its business. 
The experience of one transcontinental 
line is the experience of all, and the tide 
of travel sets steadily and strongly West- 
ward. The North Pacific coast is begin- 
ning to be known and recognized as one 
of the richest sections of the Union. Its 
natural resources, as yet almost un- 
touched, are beyond question unequalled 
on this or any other continent. 



PRYTHEE, POET, SWEETLY SING. 



Prythee, Poet, sweetly sing, 
Budding beauties of the spring, 
Summer's wealth of golden grain, 
Orchards dotting hill and plain, 
Autumn's vintage, winter's cheer, 
With the yule-log blazing clear. 



Be a seer to the blind; 
Be a prophet to thy kind; 
Sing of golden hours today; 
Sing of well-springs by the way. 
Brimming o'er with love and truth, 
Fond desire and gentle ruth; 
Sing of noble deeds again; 
Sing a noble race of men, 
Such as God would have us be, 
Children of Eternity! 



Prythee, Poet, sing, oh sing, 
Beauty, joy in everything, 
Till the sun shall shine amain 
Through grief's bitter, blinding rain. 

— C. 




THE MAGAZINES. 




Frederic Remington is always an enter- 
taining writer, and he keeps up his repu- 
tation in the November number of Har- 
per's in his delightful and quaintly-told 
dialect story, "Sun-Down's Higher Self." 
The illustrations that accompany it are 
excellent, and add much to the charm of 
an already charming sketch. "Old Ches- 
ter Tales," by Margaret Deland, continue 
to hold the interest of the reader. "Sally" 
is, perhaps, the most admirable character, 
with the exception of Dr. Lavender, that 
has yet appeared upon the scene of life 
in this quiet New England village. And 
even Sally owed the happy ending of her 
long-drawn-out love story to the decisive 
interference of Dr. Lavender. The 
"Angel in a Web" at last has been 
extricated by means of spiritual inter- 
vention, and the timely appearance of the 
hero, kept altogether in the background 
until the last moment. The villain, as all 
villains should, truly repents and is for- 
given — by the "angel" — and the reader 
is left to suppose that everybody loves 
and lives happily to the end of the chap- 
ter. 



The Century's "Short Essays on Social 
Subjects" bid fair to be one of that ex- 
cellent magazine's most popular and at- 
tractive features. Margaret Sutton Bris- 
coe has something to say about "Club 
Women" that should be read by every 
member of her sex, whether in touch with 
club life or not. Marion Crawford's new 
story, "Via Crusis," begins in this number 
of the Century, and, though the opening 
chapters promise well, yet it remains to be 
seen what this very clever novelist will 
do with an English subject after having 
so long and so successfully dealt with 
Roman types and characters. Paul Lau- 
rence Dunbar pays a high tribute to Har- 
riet Beecher Stowe, in the following lines: 

"She told the story and the whole world 

wept 
At wrongs and cruelties it had not known 
But for this fearless woman's voice alone. 
She spoke to consciences that long had 

slept: 
Her message, Freedom's clear reveille, 

swept 
From heedless hovel to complacent throne. 
Command and prophecy were in the tone, 
And from its sheath the sword of justice 

leapt. 
Around two peoples swelled a fiery wave, 
But both came forth transfigured from the 

flame. 



Blest be the hand that dared be strong 

to save; 
And blest be she who in our weakness 

came — 
Prophet and priestess! At one stroke she 

gave 
A race to freedom, and herself to fame." 

It is fitting that this should come from 
one of the race whose freedom her elo- 
quent pen helped to win. Dr. S. Weir 
Mitchell's poem, "Guidarello," takes one 
back to those old, sweet days when knights 
were brave and maids were true and love 
meant all that courage left unsaid. "Mark 
Twain in California" is the subject of an 
interesting sketch by Noah Brooks, and 
there is also a story by the great Amer- 
ican, who is a humorist and something 
more. 



McClure's for November contains some 
statistics concerning the "World's Bill of 
Fare." The result of a comparison of the 
amounts of food consumed by the different 
nations is rather surprising and alto 
gether interesting. For instance, who 
would have suspected Great Britain of 
taking the lion's share of the sweets, or 
the United States of being the great car- 
nivore among nations? It must be some- 
what disappointing to the vegetarians to 
be compelled to regard Uncle Sam as the 
world's butcher, but if Mr. George B. 
Waldron is correct in his estimates such 
is the case. France leads the world in the 
consumption of wheat, but the reader is 
left in the dark as to whether her bread 
is buttered accordingly. The United King- 
dom drinks more beer than Germany, and 
the inhabitants of America are compara- 
tively temperate in their indulgence in 
liquids stronger than tea and coffee. The 
"turbaned Turk" — who would have 
dreamed it? — is smothered in smoke from 
the ever-present pipe of the Belgian. The 
best thing between the covers of McClure's 
this month, however, is the character 
sketch of the "hero of Santiago." Theo- 
dore Roosevelt is, to my mind, the typical 
American, the true representative of that 
democracy which Walt Whitman so fond- 
ly chanted in his rude and vigorous verse. 
He takes life and its responsibilites se- 
riously, earnestly and optimistically, as 
men of the better sort are inclined to do. 
And, above all, he believes firmly in the 
"value of the warlike qualities of a na- 
tion." He is a brave man. Even a coward 
reverences courage, and it is his courage 
more than any other attribute that en 



THE MAGAZINES. 



75 



dears him to the people. Mountain climb- 
ing in South America, as experienced by 
E. A. FitzGerald, is an occupation attended 
by more fatigue and danger than amuse- 
ment, and is in striking contrast to the 
account which precedes it by a few pages 
of the ascent of Vesuvius. 



Zangwill has a story of the Ghetto in 
the November Cosmopolitan that is far 
and away the best thing that has appeared 
from his pen for a long time. There is a 
sweetness in the ending, in spite of all the 
pain and disappointment, that goes to the 
heart and strengthens one's belief in hu- 
man nature. Frank Stockton is making 
capital out of the late unpleasantness with 
Spain. His story of "The Skipper and El 
Capitan" is told in his usual happy man- 
ner, and brings to mind certain difficulties 
confronting the United States peace com- 
mission now in session in Paris. But the 
"skipper" gets the steamer, and, after all, 
that is the main thing. The fact that he 
might have gotten it without going to war 
simply serves to emphasize the short- 
sightedness of men — and nations. In read- 
ing a certain article in this number of the 
Cosmopolitan, I came upon the following 
sentence: "No one, no matter what his 
cleverness, can generalize with any safety 
from a limited experience; and no one 
can establish standards of judgment until 
his enthusiasms have been corrected by 
the profound, discriminating knowledge 
that is so dearly taught in the school of 
disillusion." "Mr. Hooley and His Guinea 



Pigs" is a story with a moral. H. G. Wells 
writes delightfully of the "sunburnt man," 
who had the extraordinary experience of 
being a god. "Gloria Mundi," Harold 
Frederic's serial, is at last ended, or, more 
properly speaking, it has stopped. The 
author evidently grew tired of his char- 
acters and dropped them unceremoniously 
in the first convenient place he came to. 



"The reason," remarks Richard Harding 
Davis in his altogether delightful account 
of the Porto Rican campaign in the No- 
vember Scribner's, "the reason the Span- 
ish bull gored our men in Cuba and failed 
to do so in Porto Rico was entirely due to 
the fact that Miles was an expert matador 
and Shaf ter was not." Mr. Davis also tells 
an entertaining story about Ensign Curtan, 
"the middy who demanded and obtained 
a surrender by telephone." We are indebt- 
ed to the Spanish trouble for many things, 
among others these same war papers of 
Richard Harding Davis, which are so far 
as pleasant reading goes by far the best 
that have been published. The name of 
this good-looking war correspondent in- 
variably brings up that of Gibson, and Gib- 
son's New York girl, with familiar figure 
and elevated chin, is present in Scribner's 
as usual. There is also a good newspaper 
story by Jesse Lynch Williams, and a 
poem by Charlotte Perkins Stetson that is 
rather finer than anything she has written 
since her sea-song. The title, "Closed 
Doors," is suggestive. Scribner's has en- 
larged its "Point of View." 



IN AUTUMN. 



Why sigh because the summer lies in 
ruin? 
Hath Time not hoard of many sun-lit 
days? 
Fair were the fields the summer flowers 
grew in, 
Yet shall next year make fair those leaf- 
less ways. 



In this dim hour of dreams that hath beset 
thee, 
With leafless boughs and with the griev- 
ing wind, 
Think not the days of passion will forget 
thee, 
And having proven fair will prove un- 
kind. 



In that fair season of the spring en- Ah, love, ere 'tis too late, be wise; re- 
chanted, member 
When May was thine, and all the woods Time spills each year but once from his 
were green, dim urn; 
'Mid all the roses that the summer planted All seasons have their secret, and De- 
Was this autumnal morrow unforeseen? cember 

Holds one as fair as May for which we 
yearn. 



Although the leaves forsake the withered 
clover, 
And one by one the brown leaves slowly 
fall, 
Still is my heart the world's unwearied 
lover, 
Finding the glamour sweet, and sweet 
the thrall. 

— Edward Maslin Hulme». 




THE MONTH. 




October 1. — 

The Canadian Pacific announced that it 
would establish anotner trans-Pacific 
steamship line to ply between Vancouver 
and Vladivostock. 

In Paris the American and Spanish 
peace commissioners met for the first busi- 
ness session. 

In Washington, D. C, Admiral Walker 
received the report of the civil engineers 
on the Nicaragua canal. 
October 2 — 

The coasts of Georgia and South Caro- 
lina were swept by storm and flood. 

In Paris disorders growing out of the 
Dreyfus affair caused strangers to leave 
the city in alarm. 

October 3. — 

Schools in Manila, kept closed since the 
surrender, were reopened by American or- 
ders. 

The war department issued orders di- 
recting the Sixth regiment, U. S. volun- 
teers, immunes, stationed at Camp Thom- 
as, to report at New York at once to em- 
bark for Porto Rico. 
October 4. — 

In Peking, China, foreigners were men- 
aced by angry mobs. The foreign minis- 
ters sent a collective letter to the govern- 
ment asking for suppression of the out- 
rages and the punishment of the leaders. 
Trey forbid foreign residents going to 
Peking. 

At La Grande, Or., the first sugar-beet 
factory in the Northwest was successfully 
opened. 

At Newport News the Illinois, the larg- 
est battle-ship in the U. S. navy, was 
launched. 

October 5. — 

In Minnesota an Indian battle occurred 
on the shore of Leech lake. General 
Bacon in command of U. S. troops. 

In Paris, a formal application for the 
revision of the Dreyfus case was entered 
on the docket of the court of cassation. 
October 6. — 

Additional U. S. troops were forwarded 
to Leech lake, Minn. Indians reported to 
be gathering in force at that point. 
October 8. — 

German opposition to American annex- 
ation of the Philippines was reliably re- 
ported to have been withdrawn. 



At Leech lake the Indian war situation 
was becoming more serious. 
October 9. — 

Spanish forces evacuated Manzanillo. 

France decided not to press her claims 
to Fashoda. 
October 11. — 

The Spanish government announced its 
intention to maintain a strong force of 
troops in Cuba until the treaty of peace 
with the United States was signed. 
October 12.— 

At Virden, 111., a desperate fight with 
strikers occurred. Imported negro miners 
the cause of the disturbance. Governor 
Tanner charged Virden operators with 
murder. President Loucks retaliated with 
threats to hold the governor of Illinois re- 
sponsible for the seriousness of the 
trouble. 
October 13 — 

At Havana 1073 Spanish soldiers em- 
bark for Spain. 

At Omaha the sudden death of Mrs. T. 
T. Geer, wife of the governor-elect of Ore- 
gon, occurred. 

Emperor William and the empress, en 
route for Palestine, met the king and queen 
of Italy at Venice. 
October 14. — 

A military plot against the French gov- 
ernment was discovered, in which several 
prominent men were involved. 

October 15. — 

The Atlantic steamer Mohegan was 
wrecked off the Lizard, England, with 
great loss of life. 

Gomez refused to disband the Cuban 
army. 

The special session of the Oregon legis 
lature ended. 
October 16 — 

The Forty-seventh New York regiment 
entered San Juan, Porto Rico. 

In Chicago the national peace jubilee 
was inaugurated with a thanksgiving serv- 
ice at the Auditorium. President McKin- 
ley attended. 

The pope's decree, excommunicating 
Rev. Stephen Kaminski, bishop of the in- 
dependent Polish Catholic church of Buf- 
falo, N. Y., was read in all the Catholic 
churches of that city. 
October 17. — 

In Washington, D. C, the first formal 



THE MONTH. 



77 



meeting of the Industrial Commission was 
held. 

In Paris, Judge Day, of the U. S. peace 
commission, made positive demands on 
Spain. 

Forty thousand Russian soldiers were 
reported as having been concentrated at 
Port Arthur in readiness for any emer- 
gency at Peking. 
October 18 — 

The Stars and Stripes were raised at 
noon today over San Juan. 

The emperor and empress of Germany 
arrived at Constantinople, and were re- 
ceived by the sultan. 
October 19 — 

A naval engagement was reported to 
have occurred at Manila between Admiral 
Dewey and the insurgents. 

Advices were received from Washington 
to the effect that the United States would 
assume Cuban municipal debts. 
October 20 — 

It was reported in Paris that Captain 
Dreyfus was in that city, confined in the 
fortress at Moulralerin, to which he was 
secretly brought. 

The crisis in Chile reported to be passed, 
all the ministers but one having with- 
drawn their resignations. 
October 21 — 

It was cabled to London from Paris that 
the Spanish peace commissioners were on 
the point of yielding to the demands of the 
United States. 
October 22.— 

The excitement in Vienna, consequent 
upon the appearance in that city of the 
bubonic plague, was somewhat allayed by 
the extraordinary precautions taken by 
the authorities to prevent an epidemic. 

General Whitten, collector of customs at 
Manila, was ordered to proceed to Paris 
for the purpose of testifying before the 
United States peace commission. 
October 23 — 

Two battles were reported to have oc- 
curred on the island of Formosa between 
the natives and the Japanese, in which the 
latter were victorious. 
October 24 — 

General Ortega and the last of the Span- 
ish soldiers sailed from Porto Rico. 

The commanders of all the warships of 
the British North American squadron re- 
ceived orders to mobilize at Halifax. 
October 25 — 

In Paris the Brisson ministry was forced 
by the chamber of deputies to resign. 



In London, Lord Salisbury's attitude in 
the Fashoda matter elicited general com- 
mendation. 

The United States gives the Spanish 
prisoners sick in Manila permission to 
leave Manila for Spain. 
October 26 — 

In Paris general excitement and disor- 
der prevailed, consequent upon the over- 
throw of the French ministry- 
October 27 — 

The Dreyfus matter comes up in Paris 
on an appeal for revision. 

The Cuban question reported as having 
been settled by the peace commission in 
Paris. 

General Kitchener left Paris for Lon- 
don. He has spoken with praise of the 
French and of his reception at Fashoda 
by Major Marchand. 

At Omaha in the Woman's National 
Council, Susan B. Anthony sarcastically 
criticised the administration for its 
treatment of soldiers in the war with 
Spain. Mrs. Ellen Foster, of Washington, 
replied to Miss Anthony and logically de- 
fended the government. 
October 28 — 

Prince Louis Napoleon, who was sup- 
posed to have joined his regiment in Rus- 
sia, was discovered in Geneva, where he 
is strongly suspected of plotting for the 
overthrow of the French government and 
the establishment of a monarchy with 
himself upon the throne. 

It was reported in London that a settle- 
ment of the Fashoda question had been 
reached. 

Emperor Nicholas of Russia becomes an 
advocate of Dreyfus revision. 
October 29 — 

In Atlanta, Allan D. Chandler was in- 
augurated governor of Georgia. 

The emperor and empress of Germany 
entered Jerusalem. 

In Paris the court of cassation decided 
to grant a revision of the Dreyfus case. 
October 30.— 

From San Francisco the transport Zea- 
landia, with the First and Second battal- 
ions of the First Tennessee regiment, 
sailed for Manila. 
October 31 — 

It was announced in Paris, on reliable 
authority, that Marchand would be re- 
called and the Fashoda question settled 
favorably to Great Britain. 

The United States peace commission de- 
manded the cession from Spain of the 
Philippine islands entire. 




LITERARY COMMENT. 




"Victor Serenus" is the title of a book 
by Henry Wood, recently published by 
Lee & Shepard of Boston. It is mainly 
interesting in its religious exposition, for 
it is in every sense a religious novel, 
though the novel part of it might have 
been advantageously dispensed with. The 
threads of romance that run through its 
pages in the usual tangle are a drawback 
to the work. The author has such a 
wealth of material at hand, and has made 
such awkward use of it, that one is con- 
strained to wish he had left it untouched, 
and confined himself strictly to the teach- 
ing of the beautiful "New Faith," which is 
but the old, old faith the world has 
neglected, or refused to understand, since 
the beginning of time. Henry Wood, with 
commendable earnestness, strives to strip 
the truth of the cumbersome disguises 
men have sought to obscure its loveliness 
in, and to every one, man or woman, who 
lifts a hand or speaks a word to this end, 
is due full measure of human gratitude. 

H. G. Wells delights in speculative fan- 
cies, in extravagances of the imagination, 
as all who have read or even glanced at 
his "War of the Worlds" can testify. His 
story of "The Time-Machine" is as hope- 
lessly pessimistic and as horribly weird as 
anything the human mind can conceive of. 
The subject is worthy of an Edgar Allan 
Poe. But Mr. Wells handles it in a man- 
ner in some respects equal to that great 
master of the horrible and the weird. It 
is the element of possibility in the picture 
which he paints of the ultimate social 
conditions of the race that gives it such a 
gruesome fascination for the impression- 
able reader. The "time-traveler's" expe- 
rience with the Morlocks is not in itself 
the thing that thrills the reader. It is that 
possible, no matter bow improbable, dif- 
ferentiation of the human species. 

In his latest "Geographical Reader," 
Frank G. Carpenter has thoroughly ex- 
plored the North American continent, 
from the Arctic circle to the Isthmus of 
Panama, and from Cape Blanco to Cape 
Cod. He has touched upon every subject, 
every industry and natural resource em- 
braced in this vast extent of territory, and 
has written so entertainingly of all these 
things that one reads with ever-increasing 
interest to the end of the volume. This 
book is designed for use in the public 
schools, and is the second of a series by 
the same author, brought out by the Amer- 
ican Book Company, and the fortunate 



pupil into whose hands it will fall will 
gain a very general and comprehensive 
knowledge of the country in which he 
lives. 

Gillett Burgess gives it as his opinion 
that authors like George Meredith and I. 
Zangwill should be publicly rewarded for 
having written, and that "Corelli, Hall 
Caine and Co. should be paid not to write." 

The most charming feature about Lew 
Wallace's last published volume, "The 
Wooinsr of Malkatoon." is the work of the 
illustrator, Frank DuMond. It was unde- 
niably a "labor of love" on the part of the 
artist, for the face of the heroine is the 
face of his beautiful young wife, Helen 
Savier DuMond, who is herself an artist, 
and one of Oregon's daughters. Mr. Du 
Mond is at present engaged upon a series 
of illustrations for the Christmas number 
of Harper's for 1898. 

Harold Frederic, whose book, "Illumina- 
tion," or "Damnation of Theron Ware," 
was so variously criticised a year or so 
since, and then relegated to the top shelf 
along with Du Maurier's "Trilby," and 
numerous other volumes, that were the 
sensation of a day, has gone over to the 
land beyond the Styx, and will write no 
more for mortal scanning. There is in all 
that he has left on record in the realm of 
fiction an unexpressed yet none the less 
apparent contempt, a tolerant contempt, 
for the characters of his own creation that 
always impresses the reader with a sense 
of discomfort. It is so disquieting to feel 
that an author has very slight faith in his 
own heroes and heroines. Bitter cynicism 
is better than a good-natured, contemptu- 
ous half faith. 

Professor W. H. Hudson, of Stanford 
university, the author of the "Idle Hours 
in a Library" series, and who is now in 
London, has just produced a new book en- 
titled "The Study of English Literature." 
The publishers are the Cro wells, a well- 
known London firm. 

In one of the new books of the year 
occurs the following statement, which is 
remarkable solely for its incorrectness: 
"When two people are alone in a room, 
they draw together as naturally as bubble 
to bubble in spinning water." This might 
be true of two people who are fond of each 
other, but otherwise the reverse is always 
the case. 






LITERARY COMMENT. 



79 



"I have recently read," writes the beau- 
tiful lover of beautiful books, "Bourget's 
'Tragic Idyl,' and while it is beautifully 
written it is unclean, but is by no means 
so vile as 'Intruder.' Don't you be polluted 
by coming in contact with or having even 
a bowing acquaintance with either of these 
books. Immorality is in them idealized, 
but it is still a festering, suffering spot, 
and as the stirring of a sewer causes fever 
such novels as these work untold evil. . 
. . A charming little volume by William 
Sherfs, called 'Wives in Exile,' came my 
way the other day. It is not new, but it 
is light and pure, with gems of strength 
strewn through it, frothy but moonshiny. 
'In Touch With the Infinite,' by Ralph 
Waldo Trine, is more Emersonian than 
anything I've read in years. Trine is more 
satisfying than Hudson, and just as con- 
vincing." 

The following exquisite bit of Moorish 
verse contains quite as much truth as 
poetry: 



"Tyrant of man, imperious Fate, 
I bow before thy dread decree, 

Nor hope in this uncertain state 
To find a seat secure from thee. 

"Think not the stream will backward flow 
Or cease its onward course to keep; 

As soon the blazing star shall glow 
Beneath the surface of the deep." 

A book that contains "218 pages and 
only one dull one, and that the blank fly- 
leaf," is the verdict of The Bookman con- 
cerning Joseph Conrad's "Children of the 
Sea." 

"Our War With Spain," by Edwin Em- 
erson, Jr., and "Life at Camp Wikoff," by 
R. H. Titherington, are the leading fea- 
tures of Munsey's for November. Max 
Pemberton's new story, "The Garden of 
Swords," makes a promising beginning, 
but the cream of the number is contained 
in "Literary Chat," in the stories of Je- 
rome K. Jerome, Benson, and the oft-re- 
peated tale of Kipling and the elephant. 



LOOKING BACK. 

We two walking at early morn, 
We two walking the brook beside; 

Was it the lark's song, up from the corn, 
That rose and echoed, and ere it died 
Filled all the waste of the meadow wide 

With a long, heart-thrilling, enchanting 



Ah, 



layi 



though the years in their flight di- 
vide, 
I hear but the sound of thy voice today. 



Time was sweet to us, both lovelorn, 
While came no breath from the world to 
chide; 
Red was the red rose, without a thorn, 
You gave me then, when in first love's 

pride 
We dreamed life holy, earth glorified, 
And thought the Maytime would last for 
aye — 
Ah! though the years in their flight di- 
vide, 
I hear but the sound of thy voice today. 



What though we think now with weary 
scorn 
Of the old love gone with the old year's 
tide! 
We by the world's woes worn and torn, 
Older-grown, too, and sadder-eyed, 
With thought made clearer by time's 
swift stride, 
We calmly acknowledge our idols clay — 
Ah! though the years in their flight di- 
vide, 
I hear but the sound of thy voice today. 



Adrift on the ocean without a guide, 
Fate, does thy sad star light the way? 

Ah! though the years in their flight divide, 
I hear but the sound of thy voice today. 
— Florence B. Cartwright. 




COLLEGE CORRESPONDENCE. 




LELAND STANFORD JR. UNIVER- 
SITY, CALIFORNIA. 

Interest for the month has centered in the 
beginning of a movement which promises 
to be novel in the history of education in 
the United States, as well as inestimable 
in value to Stanford university — the or- 
ganization of the students and alumni into 
an association for the exemption of the 
university from taxation. At a mass 
meeting two weeks ago, the Stanford Uni- 
versity Tax-Exemption Club was organized 
and officers elected who are now busily en- 
gaged in devising plans for the work. 
Two prominent graduates, attorneys ol 
San Francisco, have been sent out, one to 
the northern and the other to the south- 
ern part of the state, to interest candi- 
dates for the state legislature in the con- 
stitutional amendment which will be sub- 
mitted at the next session. If passed by 
a two-thirds vote, the amendment will go 
to the people for ratification in 1900. Cir- 
culars are being sent out to the press and 
friends of the university, the Press Club 
is furnishing articles and letters for news- 
papers, while every student and alumnus 
is exerting every possible influence in this 
two years' campaign of education. Ac- 
cording to President Jordan, "Either the 
university will be freed from the burden 
of taxation, or we will be forced to charge 
a tuition fee of $150, as the Eastern col- 
leges do, although they are free from state 
taxation." 

President Jordan, during the month, de- 
livered an address before the Congress of 
Religions of the Trans-Mississippi Expo- 
sition on "Imperial Democracy," at Oma- 
ha, which embodies his views on the is- 
sues of the war. It will be published soon 
in pamphlet form. He has lately defined 
anew his position in regard to colonial 
expansion, and says: "We must take the 
Antilles, not because we want them, but 
because we have no friends that would 
hold them and give us no trouble. There 
is no other nation which can handle their 
problems as well as we, and they are near 
enough to lead public opinion to protect 
them from the grosser forms of tyranny, 
neglect and corruption." "But the Philip- 
pines," he urges, "are unsuited for free 
institutions, are distant, scattered, and in- 
habited by an un-American people. If we 
take Manila, it will be to her advantage 
as a commercial center, but at a great cost 
to us. More army and navy we need be- 
yond question, but for America to become 
a 'military and naval power' is for her to 



invite disintegration and degeneration. 
We have no machinery for the good gov- 
ernment of dependent provinces, nor do 
we want any. The only righteous thing 
to do would be to recognize the independ- 
ence of the Philippines under American 
protection, and to lend them our army and 
navy and our wisest counselors, not poli- 
ticians, but Dewey and Merritt, with jur- 
ists, foresters, mining engineers, civil en- 
gineers, and experts in science and manu- 
facture. If, after they have had a fair 
chance, the experiment of self-government 
fails, then we should turn them over to the 
paternalism of peace-loving Holland or 
peace-compelling Great Britain. We should 
not get our money back, but we should 
save our honor." 

Student interest in football remains un- 
abated, especially since the arrival of 
Coach Cross, who was somewhat disap- 
pointed in the material, especially the lack 
of experienced men in the line. Captain 
Fisher and Murphy, the Oregon players, 
continue the stars of the team, and so far 
their play has been the only encourage- 
ment Stanford has had toward hoping for 
victory. The team this year will be strong 
on the offensive, but when the other side 
has the ball Stanford will hold her breath. 
For the next month every effort will be 
made to strengthen the defense of the 
team, and upon the solution of this prob- 
lem depends the color of the banner which 
will be floating over San Francisco 
Thanksgiving evening, whether it shall be 
cardinal or blue and gold. 

Following are the 'varsity scores thus 
far: 

September 30— Stanford, 22; Washing- 
ton volunteers, 0. 

October 5 — Stanford, 10; Kansas volun- 
teers, 0. 

October 8— Stanford, 23; Olympics, 0. 

October 15 — Stanford, 15; Kansas vol- 
unteers, 11. 

October 20 — Stanford, 0; Iowa volun- 
teers, 6. 

October 22— Stanford, 5; Olympics, 0. 

Berkeley has defeated this season the 
Olympics, 17-0 and 16-0; Kansas volun- 
teers, 33-0, and the Washington volun- 
teers, 44-0. 

It has been decided by the authorities 
to utilize in the future the Stanford resi- 
dence in San Francisco as the home of a 
school of history, economics and social 
science. 

Mrs. Francis E. Spencer, widow of the 
late Judge Spencer, president of the board 
of trustees of the university, has presented 



COLLEGE CORRESPONDENCE. 



81 



to the university the law library of her 
distinguished husband, which will form a 
valuable addition to the library of the law 
department. 

The musical clubs contemplate taking a 
trip as far east as Denver or north to Port- 
land and the Sound cities, during Christ- 
mas vacation. 

— O. C. Leiter. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA. 

Every Berkeley man is thinking of foot- 
ball just now. The outlook grows brighter 
as Thanksgiving day approaches. Every- 
body is asking, Are you going to win? We 
think we are. And our hopes of victory 
seem better grounded this year than be- 
fore, and not the least reason for this hope 
is the outcome of two recent "big" games. 

October 29, the Berkeley freshmen played 
the freshmen from Stanford, and October 
31 the California 'varsity lined up against 
the Iowa team from the Fifty-first regi- 
ment, Iowa volunteers. The result was 
most satisfactory to us. Our freshmen de- 
feated their red-sweatered rivals with the 
score of 21-0. Our 'varsity showed up well 
against Iowa, and, although neither side 
scored, there was little question as to the 
stronger team. But we draw our compari- 
sons from the fact that in a game played 
at Palo Alto, two weeks ago, Iowa defeated 
Stanford with a score of 6-0. Thus we 
await Thanksgiving, and, should the un- 
expected happen — why, San Francisco re- 
ally couldn't hold us. 

About the Greater University of Cali- 
fornia: The subject is so immense and 
the plans so vast and comprehensive that 
a volume would be more appropriate than 
a paragraph. The preliminary competi- 
tion closed at Antwerp a month ago, and 
the successful architects are expected in 
Berkeley before very long to study in de- 
tail the site on which the great architec- 
tural monument is to be raised. We look 
forward in the near future to the ultimate 
realization of this magnificent scheme, but 
there is much uncertainty over it yet. The 
name of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst will always 
be associated with this movement toward 
expansion. The inspiration came from 
her, and should the plan prove successful 
our Greater University will be a lasting 
monument to her bountiful generosity. 
Another name will also go down in our 
college history as one of the university's 
benefactors — that of Mrs. Flood, of San 
Francisco. She has lately given us prop- 
erty valued at over $2,000,000, which is to 
be devoted to our new college of com- 
merce. 

The resignation of President Martin J. 
Kellogg will take effect next October. The 
question of a successor is being discussed, 
but, as yet, nothing whatever has been 



done. Many names are mentioned for the 
position, among them that of Benjamin 
Andrews, late president of Brown univer- 
sity, and President Hyde, of Bowdoin col- 
lege. Probably no action will be taken for 
a year or so yet. 

Tomorrow the board of regents will 
make an official acceptance of the affiliated 
colleges buildings in San Francisco. The 
buildings include the colleges of medicine, 
dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary sci- 
ence. 

— Charles E. Fryer. 



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 

Enthusiasm and progress have never 
been so apparent in the affairs of the 
University of Washington as at the pres- 
ent. The strife and contention that un- 
fortunately prevailed for nearly two years 
have now disappeared entirely, and every 
student as well as every member of the 
faculty is imbued with the same spirit of 
united advancement. 

President Frank Pierrepont Graves, Ph. 
D., LL. D., has already demonstrated the 
fact that he can bring an abundant suc- 
cess to the institution. His inauguration 
is to be celebrated. iD a formal way on 
November 30th. at which time a pro- 
gramme of exercises will be presented, 
including an address by President David 
Starr Jordan, of Stanford University, and 
an address by Hon. John R. Rogers, gov- 
ernor of Washington. 

One of the features established by Presi- 
dent Graves is the weekly assemblies of 
the institution. Prominent men are on 
these occasions given opportunities of ad- 
dressing the students and the faculty. One 
plan in this connection is to have a series 
of short addresses by successful men in 
the different professions and occupations, 
to give out of their experiences some sug- 
gestions that may prove helpful to young 
men and women in their life work. The 
first in this series was given on Friday, 
October 28th, by Frank J. Barnard, super- 
intendent of the Seattle public schools. 

Last year the university closed with 
164 students. This year there are already 
220 regular students, and the free Satur- 
day courses for teachers have a registra- 
tion of 112 students. 

Lafayette day, October 19th, was cele- 
brated with a programme including three 
short addresses, as follows: "Boyhood of 
Lafayette," by Professor A. B. Coffey; 
"Lafayette and Washington," by Professor 
E. J. Hamilton; "Lafayette's Later Visits 
to America," by Professor Edmond S. 
Meany. 

EDMOND S. MEANY. 



82 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



UNIVERSITY OF OREGON, 
EUGENE, OREGON. 

The year's work is well under way and 
there is a healthy activity in all depart- 
ments. As is the case in nearly every 
college of note at this season of the year, 
football is the all-absorbing topic outside 
of the classroom — and the important in- 
tercollegiate game is to be played with the 
Oregon Agricultural College team. On 
Saturday, the 13th, the U. of O. will meet 
the Indians from Chemawa, who will come 
to Eugene in the full determination to 
"win or die." They are working under 
the direction of a coach from the Carlyle 
Indian school. Simpson, the coach for 
the university team, is a strict disciplin- 



arian. The men, under his systematic 
training, are doing better work than has 
ever characterized the football team of 
the U. of O. The captain, Dick Smith, is 
a veteran of two years' standing. His 
work is second only to that of Shattuck, 
of '95. He plays the position of right 
tackle, and Jakeway, who formerly played 
on the Portland Athletic Club and Van- 
couver elevens, will play the other tackle. 



Persons in need of paint, oil or glass 
will do well to go to the old and reliable 
pioneer house of F. E. Beach & Co., corner 
First and Alder streets, where satisfacti n 
always has and always will be given. 



THE MERMAID. 

Oh, once there was a pretty maid 

Stood pining by the sea; 
And all the waves broke down in grief 

That she should weeping be; 
And wide they spread the silver sand, 
Whereon her weary feet did stand, 

With cold and briny tears; 
But sympathy seemed not enough 

To drive away her fears. 



Said she: '"My lover's fled and gone. 

And left me all alone." 
Whereat these waves did every one 

Set up a tender moan, 
And gentle sorrow filled the air 
All round about this pretty fair, 

And dwelt upon her ear; 
But mourning never did relieve 

The heavy weight of care. 

Said she: "I know not any one, 

For all bereft am I; 
I know not in the world whereon 

My lonely head to lie. 
These sorrowing waves they pity me. 
Oh, I would e'er contented be 

Within their fond embrace; 
Their ever-murmuring voices would 

My sorrows all erase." 



Whereat this maiden sought the tide, 

Her tears fell fast and warm, 
And all the wavelets rushed to kiss 

Her sweet and fairy form. 
Said they: "To die she is too rare. 
We'll deck her long and shining hair 

With pearls and coral spray; 
And she shall be a mermaid fair, 

Singing and blithe and gay." 

And now, when parting day has sung 

The world his elegy. 
And o'er the earth the moon has spread 

Her silver canopy, 
And high above Orion's hill 
Some wandering star against the world 

His eye is opening, 
Go, walk beside the murmuring sea, 

And you shall hear her sing. 

—William Martin. 



BorquList <5t Raffling 

Higla Class Tailoring 



S&31' WasHirigtoin. Street 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



The Kilham Stationery Co* 

OFFICE OUTFITTERS 

SUCCESSORS TO STUART & THOMPSON CO. 



■ 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 

I 267 Morrison Street 

Blank Books and Office Necessities 

Hurlbut's fine Stationery 

Fine Leather Goods for .the Holidays. Counting House and Pocket Diaries for 1899 



NO HUMBUG NO SHAMS 

S* W* Aldrich Pharmacy 

.... Corner Sixth and Washington Streets, Portland, Oregon .... 

Carries a Complete Assortment of High- Grade Drugs 
and Chemicals. By constant and careful attention the 
stock is kept fresh and up-to-date 

Direct Importer of French and English Perfumes, Soaps, Powders, Toilet Waters and 
Novelties. Particular Attention Given to Prescriptions and Mail Orders. Prices 
Lowest in the City on Same Class of Goods 



APPROPRIATE FRAMING A SPECIALTY 




307 WASHINGTON STREET 
Bet. Fifth and Sixth, PORTLAND, OREGON 



Muirhead & Murhard 

Contractors for 

FINE PLUMBING 

Steam and Hot Water Heating 
Apparatus 

..343 Washington Street- 
Portland, ORE. 



. . . We SMake a Specialty of the Printing of High-Class Publications . . . £ 

Peaslee brothers Co* 



PRINTERS and 
PUBLISHERS 



Sherlock Building, Cor. Third and Oak Streets, Portland, Ore. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 






L. Mayer & Co. 



Wholesale 



and Retail KJtocers 



Depot for GERMAN, ENGLISH AND EAST INDIAN TABLE LUXURIES 
FINE HOUSEHOLD ARTICLES AND BASKETS 



IMPORTERS OF 



FINE GROCERIES, WINES, TEAS AND TABLE LUXURIES 

268 Morrison Street, Portland, Oregon 



Oregon Telephone Main 432 Columbia Telephone 432 



THE WHITE STAMP & SEAL GO. 



Manufacturers of 



Air Cushion" Rubber Stamps 



NOTARY, LODGE 
AND CORPORA 



tion otALo 



2*5)^ Washington St., Portland, Oregon 

JESSE WADDELL 



SUCCESSOR TO BERGER 



SIGN SSSSSr PAINTER 

211 OAK STREET, NEAR FIRST 
Oregon 'Phone Red 1Q32 PORTLAND, OREGON 



AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN PLAN 

RATES 



European Plan 

$1.00, $1.50, $2.00 



American Plan 

$2.00, $2.50, $3.00 



THE 



Imperial Hotel 

Seventh and Washington Sts. 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



THOS. GUINEAN 
Proprietor 



United Modern Vigilantes 

MAIN OFFICES 
Room 60 & 61, Washington Bldg., Portland, Or. 

...Fraternal Protection That Protects... 

A Death Benefit Order For, 

By and Of the People 

The Cheapest Order in Existence Compatible with Safety 

Only One Payment a Month, therefor you are not guess- 
ing as to the final cost per year 
Good Organizers Wanted ( Ladies or Gentlemen ) 

Address, F. J. McHENRY, Chief Leader, as above 



Established 1882 



Open Day and Night 



E* House's Cafe 



128 Third Street, Portland, Ore. 

CLAMS AND OYSTERS 
HOME-MADE PIES AND CAKES 

Cream and Milk from our own Ranch. The Best Cup ofj 
Coffee and Chocolate in the City 



I; We Make Maps... 



*# 



Any kind for anybody. See that your stationer shows you the 
new Map of Oregon, published by Punnett Bros., 625 Mission 
Street, San Francisco, Cal. Mounted on good cloth with roller 
for wall use, $1.00. Folded in neat cover, 50 cents. Send to us 
for any information on Maps of any description. 



: £ ++ + + + + + + + + + ♦»♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ HHHHH T 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



A. B. STEHMBRCH & Co. 



POPULAR PRICE 



Cor. Fi**st 
and Morrison 
Streets 




i m 




PORTLAND, ORE. 



Devers' Blend Coffee \ 1 WOM'S 

TO INSURE GETTING THE GENUINE, BUY IN 
SEALED PACKAGES ONLY 

j CLOSSET & DEVERS 

Coffee Roasters... PORTLAND, OREGON 

..The Barnes Market Company.. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Oysters, Game, Poultry and Fish 

OREGON, CALIFORNIA AND DOMESTIC 
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

Manufacturers of 



Telephone 371... 



105, 107, 1074 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 



AGENCY FOR MAILLARD'S CANDIES 

Henry G. Brakes 

SUCCESSOR TO BAUM & BRANDES 

... HEADQUARTERS FOR ... 



jOYSTERS AND ICE CREAM 

145 First Street and 
228 Alder Street 



"AMILY ROOMS 



PORTLRND, ORE. 



Telephone 235 



E. C. Goddard A. W. Goddard T. H. Fearey 

E. G. GODDARD & GO. 



Dealers in 



Fine Footwear 

FULL, LINE OF 

LATEST STYLE FALL AND 
WINTER SHOES 

129 Sixth St., Portland, Ore. 

Oregonian Building 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



LADD & TILTON 

ESTABLISHED 1859 

..Transact a General Banking Business... 

Special Attention Given to 
Collections 

F»ore'ri^v:LVi>, OREGON 



THE PENN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE CO. 

OF PHILADELPHIA 

" The Policy Holders' Company " 

THE NEW POLICY of the Penn Mutual is absolutely non-forfeitable and incontestable, and 
contains guarantees in plain figures for each year. 

1st A Cash Surrender Value. 2d A Loan equal in amount to the Cash Yalue. 
M Extended Insurance for the Full amount of Policy, without the request^of the Policy-holder, or 

4th A Paid-up Policy 

SHERMAN & HARMON, General Agents, Oregon and Washington 

727, 728 & 729 Marquam Building, Portland, Oregon 



O. «7r. v/foorehouse dc Co.j y»cor/?orateit 

Wait SPapor, &oom 97?outdtnffs, IPaints, 

Otis, 2Sar7iisAos, Jfousc, Otffn 

and fresco SPainiing 

30S jftder Street, SPortiand, Oregon 

Cte/G/i/ione .^&ed 54/ 



Free Sriine to All Customers 

KNIGHT & EDER 

The Medium Priced Shoe Dealers 
292 Washington Street 

Opposite Hotel Perkins PORTLAND, OREGON 



Established 1872 



JOHN A. BECK 



Dealer in 



Watts, Diamonds, Jewelry, Silverware, 

270 Morrison St., Bet. Third and Fourth, 

Repairing a Specialty PORTLAND. OREGON 



THE J. K. GILL CO. 

Finest Stationery 

Masonic Temple, Third and Alder Sts., Portland, Ore. 

ALL THE LATEST BOOKS 

Prices to Meet All Competitors 



Dixon, Borgeson & Company 

R. LUTKE, Manager, Portland 

o. Show Cases 



Portland brush Factory 



The Only One in the Northwest 



Manufacturers of 
Every Description 

Jewelers' and Druggists' Wall Cases 
and Bank Fixtures 

108-110-112-114 FRONT STREET, Cor. Washington 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



s 



Importers and Manufacturers of 

All Kinds of Brushe 

No. 70 THIRD STREET 

Worcester Building, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Machine Brushes Made to Order 



37 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



SPECIAL ATTENTION TO RUSH WOR1 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY-ADVERTISING SECTION 



F. E. BEACH & CO. 

Pioneer. PAINT COMPANY 

Pure Paints, Oils and General 
Building Material 

13^ FIRST STREET 

N. W. Cor. Alder 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



..HATTERS AND FURNISHERS.. 



8 



Sole Agents for 

94 THIRD STREET 

Portland, Ore. 



...RICHET COMPANY... 

Wholesale f Retail Groceries 

112-114 Front Street, Corner Washington 
PORTLAND, OREGON 

Consumers can save money by trading with us. We are both Wholesalers and Retailers, 
and are enabled to sell to the consumer at less than the ordinary rates. 

We have a special shipping department, devoting careful attention to the Packing and 
Shipping of orders from the interior. All orders will receive careful and prompt attention. We 
shall be pleased to mail a copy of our Price Iyist to those requesting it. 

RICHET COMPANY 



Telephone 5Q| 




ARE NOTED FOR QUALITY OF WORK AND PROMPT SERVICE . 

JAMES R. EWING 

..Bookseller.. 



Miscellaneous Books 
Bibles . . . 
Northwest Views 



267 Morrison Street 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Careful Attention, to Special Orders 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Buy Your Homoeopathic Medicines of 

Boericke & Runyon 

Portland, Oregon 

opp. olds & king 303 Washington Street 



Wm. $. T>iers 

Society 'Penman 
418 The Ttekum Portland, Oregon 



WAlXfAPER... 

We want your Trade if Low Prices 
and Good Material will get it 

MILLER'S WALL PAPER STORE 

Second and Taylor Sts., 'Portland, Ore. 



Povey Bros. Glass Company 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Art Stained Glass 

FOR CHURCHIS, DWELLINGS. PUBLIC BUILDINGS 

48 TO 54 N. SIXTH ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 



24,000 Volumes and over 200 Periodicals. 
$5.00 a Year and $1.50 a Quarter. Two 
Books Allowed on all Subscriptions. 
HOURS-From 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. Daily Except Sun- 
days and Holidays 
STARK STREET, BET. SEVENTH AND PARK 



..Odd ©togs Bron] Japan.. 

LITTLE BOOK STORE 

293 Morrison Street, Portland, Ore. 



DR. P. EASTON, PALMIST, OCCULTIST AND 
HEALER, examines the palm of your hand and 
tells you the story of your life, as told by the lan- 
guage of the hands; he tells you what to do, what 
can be done and what should be done. His readings 
will turn ill fortune to success, discontent and mis- 
ery to happiness disease and ill health to strength, 
vigorous manhood and womanhood. Office hours, 
q A. M. to 8 P. M.. rooms 26 and 27, Raleigh Build- 
ing. 323^ Washington Street, corner Sixth. Terms 
within the reach of all. 



..OPTICIAN.. 

Dr. A. A. BARR, formerly of St. Paul, has charge of 
the Optical Department for 

. N. WRIGHT, THE IOWA JEWELER, 

293 Morrison Street, PORTLAND, ORE. 

CONSULTATION FREE 



JOHN CRAN & CO. 

Specialties in 

Hosiery, Underwear, Dress 
Goods, Linens 

HANDKERCHIEFS, WHITE GOODS, 
LACES, ETC. 

256 illiRSHINGTON STREET 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



S. M. Mears, President Marion Wilcox, Secretary 

THE UNITED GflRBlHGE GOPIPHNY 

Carriages and Livery 

Branch Office, Baggage and Omnibus Transfer Co., 
Fourth and Stark Streets. 

Main Office, S. W. Cor. Seventh and Taylor Streets 
Portland, Oregon. 



Boarding and Care of Horses 
a Specialty. 




T3ALL-Bearing Type- Bar Joints and Fixec 
Type-Bar Hangers, giving Unimpairable 
Alignment. Lightest Key Action. The Mos 
Rapid. Platen Rolls to Show Work. Carriage 
locks at end of line, protecting the writing 
Compact Shift Keyboard. Numerous Handy 
Features. Address for full particulars, 

'piiier I Supplies Company.. 

No. 232 Stark Street 
PORTLHND, OREGON 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 

PORTLAND GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 



CARRIES A FULL LINE OF 



MOTORS from One-half Horse Power Up 

POWER for ELEVATORS and all kinds 
of Machinery. 

ARC and INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 

Electric and Bell Wiring a Specialty. 



Electric Supplies 



SAMSON BATTERIES 

GENERAL OFFICES 

COR. SEVENTH AND ALDER STREETS 



TELEPHONES (Both) 385 



WHITE COLLAR LINE 
Columbia River & Puget Sound Navigation Go. 

Portland and Astoria 
Steamers Telephone or Bailey Gatzert leave foot Alder 

Street daily (except Sunday;, 7A.M. 
Leave Astoria daily (except Sunday) 7 P. M. 

U. B. SCOTT, President 



EAST ) = SOUTHERN 
VIA PACIFIC 
COMPANY 




LEAVE 



* 6 00 p m 



* 8 30 a m 

Daily 

except 

Sunday 

t 7 30 a m 
t 4 50 p m 



Depot. Fifth and I Sts. 



OVERLAND EX- 
PRESS, for Salem, 
Roseburg, Ashland, 
Sacramento, Ogden, 
San Francisco, Mo- 
jave, Los Angeles, El 
Paso, New Orleans 
and the East. 

Roseburg passenger ... 

(Via Woodburn fort 
Mt. Angel, Silverton, 
West Scio, Browns- 
ville, Springfield and 
Natron. 



ARRIVE 



* 9 30 a in 



* 4 30 pm 

Daily 

except 

Sunday 



Corvallis passenger { 5 50 p m 

Independence passenger | 8 25 a m 





♦Daily. JDaily except Sunday. 

Direct connection at San Francisco with Occi- 
dental and Oriental and Pacific Mail steamship 
lines for JAPAN AND CHINA. Sailing dates on 
application. 

Rates and tickets to Eastern points and Eu- 
rope Also JAPAN, CHINA, HONOLULU and 
AUSTRALIA. Can be obtaiued from r. B. 
KIRKL\ND, Ticket Agent, 134 Third Street. 
Yamhill Division— Pass. Depot, foot Jefferson St. 

Leave for Oswego daily at 7:20, 9:40* a m ; 
12:30, 1:55, 3:25, 5:15, 6:25 8:05, 11:30 p m, and 9:00 
a m on Sundays only. Arrive at Portland daily 
at 6:35*, 8:30, 10:50* a m; 1:35, 3=i5- 4:30, 6:20, 7:40, 
9:15 p m: 11:40 a m daily except Monday, and 
10:05 a m on Sundays only. 

Leave for Sheridan daily, except Sunday at 
4:30 P m. Arrive at Portland at 9:30 a m. 

Leave for Airlie, Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays at 8:40 a m. Arrive at Portland Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays at 3:05 p. m. 

♦Except Sunday. 
R. KOEHLER, C. H. MARKHAH. 

nanagei . (Jen. P. & P. Agt. 



ARE YOU INTERESTED? 

THE O. R. & N. Co.'s NEW BOOK on the Resources 
of Oregon, Washington and Idaho is being distributed. 
Our readers are requested to forward the addresses of 
their Eastern friends and acquaintances, and a copy of 
the work will be sent them free. This is a matter All 
should be interested in, and we would ask that every- 
one take an interest and forward such addresses to W. 

|H. Hurlburt, General Passenger Agent, O. R. & N. Co., 

IPortland, Oregon. 



0.R.8R 



Depart 


TIME SCHEDULES. 

FROM PORTLAND. 

Salt Lake, Denver. Ft. 
Worth, Omaha, Kan- 
sas City, St. Louis, 
Chicago and East. 

Walla Walla, Spokane, 
M i n n e a p olis, St. 
Paul, Duluth, Mil- 
waukee, Chicago & 
East. 

Ocean Steamships. 

All sailing dates sub- 
ject to change. 
For San Francisco- 
Sail November 1, 4, 
7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 

Columbia River 
Steamers. 

To Astoria and Way- 
Landings. 


Arrived 


Fast 

Mail 

8 p. m. 


Fast 

Mail 

7:20 a. m. 


Spokane 

Flyer 
2:20 p. m. 


Spokane 

Flyer 

10:15 a. m. 


Sp. m. 


4 p. m 


8 p. m. 

Ex. Sunday 

Saturday 

10 p. m. 


4 p. m. 
Ex. Sunday 


6 a. m. 
Ex. Sunday 


Willamette River. 

Oregon City, Newberg 
Salem & Way-Land'gs. 
Willamette and Yam- 
hill Rivers. 
Oregon City, Dayton, 
and Way-Land'gs. 
Willamette River. 
Portland to Corvallis 
and Way Landings. 

Snake River. 

Riparia to Lewiston. 


4:30 p.m. 
Ex. Sunday 


7 a. as. 

Tues, Thur. 

and Sat. 


3:30 p.m. 

Mon., Wed. 

and Fri. 


6 a. m. 
Tues. Thur 

and Sat. 

Lv Riparia 

1:45 a. m. 

Daily 
Ex. Sat. 


4:30 i> m. 
Tues, Thur. 

and Sat. 
Lv. Lewis- 
ton 
5:45 a. m. 

Daily 
Ex. Friday 



V. A. SCHILLING. W. H. HUBLBURT, 

City Ticket Agent. Geu. Pass. Agent. 

264 Washington Street, - Portland, Oregoa. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Wakelee & Company ^ ^ ^ 




"DRUGGISTS 
* "PERFUMERS 



**JHE most careful attention by 
skilled and experienced phar- 
macists given to the compound- 
ing of Physicians 9 Prescriptions, 
We cannot afford to give less 
than our best efforts. Our work 
and our goods are AL WA YS the 
best of the highest grades ^ j* jt 



Corner Bush and Montgomery Streets ... 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALA. 




[ 



NEW STORE 



NEW GOODS 



NEW PRICES 



A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO SHOP 



Dress Goods, Linings, Underwear, Laces, 
Ribbons, (Moves, Etc. 

BLANKETS, FLANNELS, BED SPREADS, TABLE 
LINEN, TOWELS, ETC. 

GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS 



P. A. FINSETH, PROP. 

Bet. First & Second 

PORTLAND, ORE 



230 MORRISON ST. 



[II 



WINTER SCHEDULE-Daily 

Train No. 22 leaves Portland at 8:00 a. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 24 leaves Portland at 7:00 p. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 11:10 p.m. 

Return 

Train No. 21 leaves Astoria at 8.00 a. ni., arrives in 
Portland at 12:15 P- ni. 

Train No. 23 leaves Astoria at 6:30 p. m. and arrives 
in Portland at 10:35 p. m. 

Train No. 22 runs through to Seaside, leaving Seaside 
on the return at 2:50 p. m. 

All trains leaving Astoria for Seaside or returning 
from Seaside run on the Flavel Branch. 

The Astoria and Columbia River R. R. Winter Sched- 
ule is now in effect. Trains leave Union Depot, Port- 
land, daily at 8:00 a. m. and 7:00 p. m., arriving at 
Astoria at 12:15 P- m - and n:to p. m. Leaving for Sea- 
side at 12:20 p. m. 




mi OGinDfiiiii 



O 'SpicT0*^ 



As regards Time and Through 
Car Service to Chicago and 
other Eastern Cities. 



JUST THIIMKI 

3^ days with no change to Chicago 
4,^ days and one change to New York 



THEN AGAIN: 

Trains are lllumtnated by Plntsch Gas, 
run Into Union Depots, and Baggage 
Is checked through to Destinatloi 
Lowest Rates. 



For Information pertaining to the Union Pacific, 
call on or address 



J. H. LOTHROP, 

General Agent. 



C. E. Brown, 

Dist. Pass. Agent 



135 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



"No Community is Prosperous Whose ^People sure Not Employed" 

lYou Need Our Factories! 



i 



Patronize 
Home 
\ Industry 



<► M. ZAN, President 

;; E. H KILHAM, Yiee Pre* 



♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦ M ♦♦■♦ 4 ♦♦♦♦ M ♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦+- 



YOU preach this doctrine, now practice it You say you 
love yow noma, now show it. Yau say the community 
should be awe prosperous, keep your money at home. You 
admit we manufacture over tow hundred articles of impor- 
tance as cheaply as to Eastern or foreign markets— why not 
bay them? You admit that Chicago and otter thrifty dties 
not so far away were made so by enterprise citteeas ; fol- 
low their example. You speak of the patriotism ©f the whole 
people, hence show unselfish devotion to the manufacturing 
industries of Oregon. 



R. J. HOLMES. Treasurer t 
C H. McliAAC, Secretary ♦ 




^MM MM * ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ < ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦< 

HAMMOND MINING 
DREDGE = — j 

I FOR MINING ON RIVER "BARS AND "PLACER GROUND X 
ALONG WATER COURSES t 



Size of Boat, 90 x 26 Feet 55 Horse-Power Automatic 

Power Economic Boiler. 



80 Horse- X 

i 

Pump Capacity 5^00 Gallons per Minute. Bketek Light Pkmt AH Machinery ♦ 
X Friction Driven. Steel Buckets, Steel Chain, Phosphor Bronae Busfemgs. Daily Capacity, £ 
' 1 e,ooo Cubic Yarfa. Now and Improved Gold Savia* AppHaaees. See Gat on Page 80. J 



Writs for Estimates and Prices to 



Hammond Manufacturii^ Co* | 

100 First Street, Portland, Ore, t 



*&*<fe&***&*4k*4 



"<A Gentleman s Smoke' i 






^fEPFCCT 





Sp£ oBacco 




A 

Delightful 

Blend 

of Choke 

Turkish, 

Havana, 

Perique and 

Bright 

Virginia 

Tobaccos 



PO RT LAN D h« R £ . . 

ABSOLUTELY PUT 



WE COULD NOT IMPROVE THE QUALITY IF PAID 
DOUBLE THE MONEY 



25 Cents a Package, Postage Paid 



<£ 



SEND POP SAMPLE PACKAGE 

Factory No. U District of Oregon, 

92 Third Street, Portland, Oregon 



SlG. SlCHEL & CO. Manufacturers 



S First Prke Medal Awarded at the Oregon 



% Industrial Exposition, J 898 

<< 

1i 



Mention The Pacific Monthly token Ordering i 




Volume t 



JANUARY 

1899 



Number 



TEN CENTS A COPY J- J> J> J- J- ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 

THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
PUBLISHERS J- J- J> & J> & J> J- PORTLAND, OREGON 



$cri 






IN our country, and in our times, no man is worthy the hon- 
ored name of statesman who does not include the highest 
practicable education of the people in all his plans of adminis- 
tration. He may have eloquence; he may have a knowledge of 
all history, diplomacy, jurisprudence; and by these he might 
claim, in other countries, the elevated rank of a statesman; but, 
unless he speaks, plans, labors, at all times in all places, for the 
culture and edification of the whole people, he is not, he can 
nor be, an American statesman. 

Horace SMann. 



I I 

I Do You Like ^ ^ * § 

I A Luxurious Meal? I 

/•> W 

/l\ J"**.*.*** 

/I* w 

J "TIGER BRAND" g 

/|\ Pure Spices Vti 

/IS \t/ 

fl\ "OUR BEST" W 

;}; Roasted Coffee ^ 

% "KUSALANA" % 

/j\ Ceylon Tea $ 

* SI/ 

$ ...e^re Items... Sj/ 

/i> ^e^e^e which will aid materially <£*£<& SI/ 

f f 

/IN SI/ 

f SI/ 

/IN 
/ft 
/IS 



ASK YOUR GROCER FOR 

... THEM ... 

THE FIRST TIME YOU SEE HIM. 



^Manufactured and yjy 

Sold by J> J- J> kl m 

I CORBITT & MACLEAY CO. I 

| f 

/|\ Portland, Oregon. sfj 

/IS SI/ 

V~~~~~~~~ ...... J 



The Pacific Monthly. 

(The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and articles must not be reprinted 

•without special permission.) 

CONTENTS FOR JANUARY, 1899. 

Avalon Bay, Catalina Island, California frontispiece 

Sport in the Pacific C.J. Holder 125 

Illustrated. President of Pasadena Academy of Sciences. 

Vashti to Ahasuerus (Poem) <Adonen 128 

"That Good May Come/' (Short Story) 129 

Thorns (Poem) Jlorence May Wright 131 

An American Ideal Charles H. Chapman 132 

President of the University of Oregon. 

Retrospection (Poem) John Leisk Tait 135 

Through Winter's Snows (Short Story) Walter Cavley 'Belt, M.D.... 136 

The Dynamics of Speech Robert W. Douthat, Ph. D. . . . 137 

As Introduced by Philosophy. Prof, of Latin in University of West Virginia. 

The Voice of the Silence 141 

The first chapters of a new continued story. The writer will be unnamed 

for the present. 

The University of "Washington Edmond S. Meany 149 

Illustrated. Prof, of History, University of Washington. 

Man (Poem) Cotvper 152 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Our Point of View (Editorial) 153 

The Magazines 157 

To the Oregon Grape (Poem) /. W. Whalley 160 

The Month 161 

Some Day I Shall Meet My Love (Poem) Lischen M. Miller 163 

Books .- 164 

College Correspondence 166 

A Boy's King (Poem) S. E. Kiser 168 

Drift 169 

A Feminine Deduction. 
An Etching. 

Terms: — $i.oo a year in advance; io cents a copy. Subscribers should remit to us in P. O. or express 
money-orders, or in bank checks, drafts, or registered letters. 

Agents for The Pacific Monthly are wanted in every locality, and the publishers offer unusual in- 
ducements to first-class agents. Write for our terms. 

Manuscript "sent to The Pacific Monthly will not be returned after publication unless definite in- 
structions to that effect with stamps accompany letters enclosing manuscript. 

Address all correspondence, of whatever nature, to 

alex. sweek, Prest. THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUB. CO., 

J. THORBURN ROSS, Vice Prest. . . „.,.. nrvfVrl A . lrw ^ncrr™ 

W. B. WELLS, Manager. MacIea 3> Bu.ld.ng, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

LISCHEN M. MILLER, Asst. Manager. 

Copyrighted 1899 by William Bittle Wells. 
Entered at the Post Office at Portland, Oregon, Oct. 17, 1898, as second-class matter. 

The publishers of The Pacific Monthly will esteem it a favor if readers of the Magazine will kindly 
mention The Pacific Monthly when dealing with our advertisers. 

PRESS OF THE ELLIS PRINTING CO., 105 First st , Portland, Ore. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



SEND TO US FOR PRICES ON 



We are Manufacturers of the 
Celebrated 

Maltese Gross Brand 
of Rubber Belt f 
Ajax Brand Cotton 
Mill Hose... 




Rubber and 

Leather 

Belting... 



ft guiio PfifdB ! Mkr inlclii Co. 



87=89 FIRST STREET, PORTLAND, ORE. 



RUSSELL & CO 



A. H. AVERILL, 
Manager. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




High Grade, 
Engines, Boilers, 
Saw Mills, 
Threshers... 



Estimates furnished on Stearn Plants of all Sizes and for 
any purpose. Write for Catalogues. 



RUSSELL & CO., = Portland, Ore. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MO NTH I Y-ADVERTISING SECTION. 




|£> ALL-Bearing Type-Bar Joints and Fixed 
r ^ - ^ Type-Bar Hangers, giving Unimpair- 
able Alignment, Lightest Key Action. The 
Most Rapid. Platen Rolls to Show Work. 
Carriage locks at end of line, protecting the 
writing. Compact Shift Keyboard. Numer- 
ous Handy Features. Address for full par- 
ticulars, 

United Typewriter & Supplies Co. 

No 232 Stark Street, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 



Wrrma BR ANDES BROS. 

Vienna. Proprietors. 

cModel "Bakery^ 

CHOICE PASTRY and 
FANCY CAKES.... 

FRESH BREAD OF ALL KINDS. | 

Telephone 547'. & 390 Morrison Street. 1 



Muirhead & Murhard 

Contractors tor 

FINE PLUMBING 

Steam and Hot Water Heating 
Apparatus 




..343 Washington Street.. 

PORTLAND, ORE. ' 



H. H. WRIGHT 



THE 
NEW 
MUSIC 
STORE 




Y.M.C.A. 
BLDG. 
Cor. 4th 
& Yamhill 



The Latest Music at Half Price. The Finest Strings in 

the City. Violins, Guitars, Mandolins, Banjos. 

Pianos to sell or rent. Instruments Repaired, 

Tuned, Rented. 



SURETY BONDS 

Capital and surplus, - $2,500,000.00 

Fidelity and Deposit company 

OF MARYLAND 

Issues guarantee bonds to employes in posi- 
tions of trust. 

Court Bonds, Federal Officers,' City, County 
and State Officials' Bonds issued promptly. 

W. R. MACKENZIE, State Agent 
208 Worcester Block, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Telephone Main 986 




Cawston & Co., 



Dealers in 



Engines and Boilers, 

Wood-Working Machinery, 
...Iron-Working Tools and Supplies... 

48 & 50 First Street 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



Blake's Single and Duplex Pumps. 

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THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Use- 
THE TELEPHONE INDEX 

cA time sa'ber for business men, and the only Index pub- 
lished giving both Companies numbers* 

PRICE, $2.00 PER YEAR* 



For Advertising Space or Subscription, address 

G. H. AYDELOTTE, Telephones 

No. 5 Raleigh Bldg., Portland, Ore. 



Oregon Main S16. 
Columbia 238. 




i ' ' ' \ CAN BE OBTAINED ONLY 

: r\ f i ...Through a Complete... 

\ Metallic Circuit For each subscriber > and 

I Telephone I — — No Part y Lines - 

i Service 



THE COLUMBIA TELEPHONE COMPANY 



Alone has these Advantages. 



I OFFICES, 606-607 Oregonian Building, 



PORTLAND, OREGON. 



LATEST STYLES 



And First-Class 
Jewelry, Diamonds, Watches and Silverware 

AT MODERATE PRICES** 



A. FELDENHEIMER, 

COR. THIRD AND WASHINGTON STS. 



PORTLAND, ORE. 



I 



Louis G. Plunder..... j> 

***the gLORIST { 

\ 
i 
i 



CHOICE ROSES a specialty 
FLORAL WORK artistically arranged 

OFFICE AND STORE 



427 Washington St. Portland, Ore. I 

TELEPHONE MAIN 4S4 K 

Roseville Nurseries, Grounds and Greenhouses \ 

at Mount Tabor. X v 



IC.C.CLINEOILl PAINT CO. 

1 J44 FIRST STREET 

S PORTLAND, ORE. 

^ Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

I PURE PAINTS, OILS AND VARNISHES 

M Doors, Windows, Plate and W.ndow Glass, 
WALL. PAPER, 

fAnd the General Lines of 
BUILDING MATERIAL. 
L Glazing a Specialty. Columbia Phone 290 

SJSiaMLajSMLOMSMLajafS^^ 



When dealing with our advertisers kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PA CIFIC MONTHL Y—ADVER TISING SECTION. v 

W. H. McMONlES 

Wholesale Manufacturer ol 

Harness, Horse C oll ars and Leather Specialties ;,.. 

Jobber of SADDLERY HARDWARE, Etc. 

Ladies' & cents; Beits - 4 Front Street, Portland, Ore. 

Mexican Hand Stamped Work *r* * 

Telephone Oregon Main 517 

Consolidated University ^-^^^ 

( Portland - Puget Sound ) 

lbe Leading Educational Institution of lacific Northwest 

Offers Thorough and Extensive Instruction in all the 

Solid Branches of Education ... EXPENSES LOW... 

Winter Term Begins January 3, 1899 

Write for Particulars to 
Chancellor C R. THOBURN, S. T. D., University Park, Oregon 

Northwestern Mutual Life 

OF MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Grants more Insurance for the Same Cost or the Same Insurance 
at Lower Cost than any other Company. 



Largest Purely American Company. 
Official Reports of State Insurance Departments Represent it to be the 

Strongest and Best 



For Terms, Address 

S. T. L0CKW00D & SON, General Agents, 

Concord Building, Portland, Ore. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



John H. Mitchell Albert H. Tanner 

MITCHELL & TANNER 

Attorneys at Law 
Commercial Block, PORTLAND, ORE. 

A. C. & R. W. EMMONS 
Attorneys at Law 

PORTLAND AND SEATTLE 

Chamber of Commerce 
Portland, Ore. 



Russell E. Sewall, R. R. Giltner 

District Attorney 

GILTNER & SEWALL 

Attorneys at Law 

Offices, 508-509 Commercial Building 

PORTLAND, OREGON 

SAMUEL J. BRUN 

Attorney and Counselor at Law 
sixth floor, mills building 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Practices in all the Courts 



Library Association of Portland 

24.000 Volumes and over 200 Per odicals. 
$5.00 a Year and $1.50 a Quarter. Two 
Books Allowed on all Subscriptions. 

HOURS- From 9 A. M. to 9 P. M. Daily Except Sundays 

and Holidays. 

STARK STREET, BET. SEVENTH AND PARK. 



NO MORE HALF = SOLEING 

"LEATHER-INE" 

Applied to Sol-s and Heels of Boots and Shoes makes 
them outlast the uppers, and thoroughly water-proof. 

Greatest Money-Saver Ever Invented. 
By Mail, 25 Cents Per Bottle. Agents Wanteo. 

WALTER W. GEORGE, 150 Nassau St., N. Y. 



William Jrederic <Diers 

'Penmanship cArtist 



office and studio 

418 The dekum 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



MRS. L. M. ROBERTSON 

No. 202 Marquam Building, PORTLAND, "OREGON 

Fashionable Suits $5 up. Latest French Styles 
Satisfaction Guaranteed 



Alaska Mines "*JK£|' B * 

Printed matter describing Alaska sent for 26 Cents in 
Stamps. 

MILLER & DAVIDSON 

JUNEAU, ALASKA 

..CIRCULATING LIBRARY.. 

OF NEW BOOKS AND MAGAZINES 

25 Cents per Month 
■» JONES' BOOK STORE* 



Tfie Blumauer-FranR Drug Co. 

..WHOLESALE.. 



Fourth and Morrison Streets 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



291 Alder Street, 



Portland. Oregon 



The Californian Combination 

A New Sanitary Suit for Baby in Short Clothes 

A unique pattern for waist and drawers in one piece with stocking supporter attachment. It fur- 
nishes complete protection to the body in flannel, dispenses with bands, petticoats and numerous pins and 
buttons. 

For Bathing and Gymnasium Costume Unexcelled 

For full description see Trained Motherhood, this number. 

Pattern with full directions will be mailed upon receipt of 25 cents. Sizes one and two-year old. The 
garments in shrunk flannel, natural and white, will be sent upon receipt of $1.00. Apply for patterns, cir- 
culars and sample garments to Mrs. H. OTIS BRUm, Stanford University, California. 

j&CC ^C8SC8^C8^CtCe^C^X8^»^^C83»»^ &C82tfS.C833C83* 

When dealing with our advertisers. kinUly mention The Pacific Monthly. 






THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



vii 



Oregon 'Phone Black 984. Portland Agent for 

Columbia 658. Albany (Oregon) 

Woolen Mills. 

Civil and 
flilitary Tailor, 



n 



Rooms 1, 2, 3, 12, 1 3, up-stairs. 
Entrance, 88HThird St. 



PORTLAND, 
OREGON. 



\ THE BLUE MOUNTAIN \ 

\ ITceijfuel I 

j Company* | 

T. J. GORMAN, MANAGER. 

I COAL .. COKE .. ICE | 

247 Stark Street, I 

I Both Phones. PORTLAND, ORB. | 

-|IH l l>kl>l > »ltn*<tl>li/>n,l<ll>li,1tlM<l'l>l'li>Sr-l.l<blM,l<>#lif1tlM a Mk>>h<l>">i 



•4 • .■»•,••.•.)•»».»/•:•>•,•;•■)♦»>•.■•*'.*.'•,».••••••.* 

Matting and Rag Sale... j 

We have a large stock of China Matting • 

imported before the new tariff, and now j 

want to reduce our stock, and will sell at 2 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES 

Thousands of Remnant Pieces from i to 25 « 

yards, will be offered at great bargain prices. $ 



Also Japanese and Chinese Curios, Europ- 
ean and Domestic Toys, Fireworks, 
Flags, Etc. Will furnish Catalogue 
• upon application. 

Andrew Kan & Co., 

Hong Kong and Yokohama Importing House, 
Cor. 4th & Morrison St., Portland, Ore. 



'„•»••• 3«O«0»C*C«C •"••••••••• • ••••••• e ' 



The G* Heitkemper Co* 

WATCHMAKERS 
JEWELERS and 
SILVERSMITHS 

249 Morrison St., PORTLAND, OREGON 

^>^>^> C BEG to announce the arrival of a large, 
ne<w and nvell selected s l ock of the most beauti- 
ful things in Jeivelry, Watches, Silverware and 
Novelties. Your inspection is invited <£ <£ <£ 

Our Strong Point— SILVERWARE. 

Inquiries by mail promptly answered. 



e : j!&wsii!§!isili^^ 



H. W. CORBETT 

Vice President 

J. W. Newkirk 
Asst. Cashier 



E. WlTHINGTON 6S 

Cashier 



W. C. Alvord 

2d Asst. Cashier 



First 
National Bank 



PORTLAND, OREGON 

COR. FIRST AND WASHINGTON STS. 





AD" CAREFULLY! 



\ Remarkable and 
Unprecedented 
^ Opportunity 

For mothers who wish 
to buy Suits or Over- 
coats for their boys, 
and for men who wish 
to get The Best that 
is made. 



25 



PER CENT. DISCOUNT 

On any Suit or Overcoat 
in our house to any one 
who will cut out this ' ad" 
and bring it when pur- 
chasing goods. 

All the latest s-hapes and styles in Hart, Schaff- 

ner & Marx— celebrated goods— at a saving 

of 25 per cent, less than prices elsewhere 

for ordinary goods. 

PRICES— $7.50, 8.50, 10, 12, 15, 18 and $20 



\ 

1 

SAWL ROSENBLATT & CO, | 

Clothiers, Hatters and Furnishers, A 



LESS DISCOUNT WITH AD. 



193.195 First St., Cor. Taylor, 



Portland, Ore. A 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



viii THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 

MORTGAGE LOANS 

On Improved 
Portland City Property 

In sums from $500 to $500,000 at lowest current interest rates. 

np|^-1 /-kg Abstracted and Insured against 
I I LIC^ Defect or Loss. 

irilStS Administered with Skill and Fidelity. 

THE TITLE GUARANTEE AND TRUST CO. 



FIND US IN OUR NEW OFFICES, 
FOURTH STREET ENTRANCE 



WM. m. LADD, President. 

J. THORBURN ROSS, MANAGER. 

T. T. BURKHART, ASST. SECRETARY. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING, 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



A STOVE 

That has given satisfaction to every customer 
for forty-six years 
THE NAME IS 

CHARTER OAK 



We carry a foil line, as well as a complete line of 
HARDWARE, TINWARE, CUTLERY AND ALUMINUM WARE. 



cADOLPH c4. <DEKUM 



lit first St., Gadsby 'Block 



raS@ISfSI5li]cgS@iSJSS]i0OS@lilSlSISISIllSISIQS@SS 

-JOHNCRAN&CO.i 

Specialties in 

HOSIERY, UNDERWEAR, 
DRESS GOODS, LINENS, 

M Handkerchiefs, White Goods, Laces, Etc. 



286 WASHINGTON 
STREETS J* J* 



Portland, 



Oregon. | 
When dealing with our advertisers 



S. G* Skidmore & Co* 

Cut-Rate 
Druggists 

We give special attention to Prescriptions and 
the selection of High Grade Bristle Goods. 




kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 




a 



(5 









1 

69 



The Pacific Monthly. 



c OoU 1 



JANUARY, 1899 



&Co. 4 



Sport in the Pacific. 



<By C. J. HOLDER, 'President of the Pasadena. (Calif.) cAcademy of Sciences. 



U 



LOOK out, sir!" 
Zip-zee-zee-ee! and three hun- 
dred feet of line went humming, 
screaming from the big reel. The warn- 
ing from the boatman and the music oi 
the reel came at one and the same time, 
telling of the great game fish of Santa 
Catalina that was now towing the boat 
astern and ever and anon tearing off feet 
and yards of line. There was no deny- 
ing the excitement. I had heard of the 
tuna fever, a cousin to buck fever, that is 
so infectious in California waters, and in 
those few seconds of the strike and first 
rush of the tuna I was forced to confess 
that the half had not been told. I was 
driving a veritable wild horse of the sea 
and with a single rein. 

We had been moving slowly up Ava- 
lon bay on a sea of glass. The sun was 
yet behind the hills and the Eastern sky 
was flushed with crimson. Back of us 
rose the purple hills o f Avalon, rapidly 
changing color and forming a rare pic- 
ture, as they encompassed the great am- 
phitheater of Grand Canon. From out 
to sea came the cry of a laughing gull, 
and a long line of shags flying low were 
passing south to their favorite feeding 
grounds, where the green swells came 
rolling in upon the great sphinx that 
with stony glare looked into the West. 
The morning was cool, the air tempered 
to a semi-tropical condition that sug- 
gested palms and banana trees. The 



thoughts of the fisherman who sat hold- 
ing the rod were far away when the 
water suddenly boiled twenty yards 
astern as though there had been a mimic 
submarine explosion, then something 
that gleamed brightly came rushing 
along at the surface and the song of the 
reel rose on the air — Zee-zee! 

It was a point of record that but twen- 
ty-four members of the Tuna Club had 
succeeded in landing a tuna of over ioo 
pounds. I was desirous of emulating 
them; but I could well believe the 
stories I had heard of the strength and 
hypnotizing power of the fish. It rushed 
away with 600 or 700 feet of line before 
I could make any impression; then as I 
succeeded in stopping it I could feel a 
slacking of the line, could see a swirl of 
gleaming silver, then the line became 
entirely slack. He was gone. No? 

"Reel, reel, sir, for your life!" cried 
the boatman. 

I stood up and plied the handle of the 
big multiplier with all the vigor I pos- 
sessed, and for a moment saw a magnif- 
icent blue-backed fish coming toward me 
like an arrow from a bow. The tuna 
was running in on the line, and as he 
caught a glimpse of the boat he turned 
and dashed away again, taking all the 
line gained and more, and plunged deep 
into the ocean. He was a mighty sulker, 
and I later saw a tuna continue this un- 
til reeled in, coming to the surface tail 



126 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



first as dead as the proverbial flounder. 

This tuna was an erratic fellow. He 
soon gave up sulking and came to the 
surface to wheel about the boat in great 
circles; now submitting to the reeling-in 
process; now rushing away, hammering 
at the line with sturdy blows, to rise and 
repeat the rushing-in trick time and 
again. The endurance point would soon 
have been reached and another angler 



of small yellow fins or finarettes reach- 
ing back from the dorsal and neutral fins 
and some idea of the tuna may be had — 
the fish that towed our boat at least five 
miles and performed prodigies of valor. 
The tunas were leaping all about us, 
but one such fish was enough pleasure 
and excitement and we turned toward 
Avalon. It was the perfection of sea 
fishing; being twenty miles out to sea in 




reduced hors de combat by the tuna 
when a decided lapse was perceptible. 
The struggles were not so furious, and 
the big fish could be reeled in. On he 
came, running around the boat. "Gent- 
ly!" whispered the boatman, fingering 
his gaff nervously. "Now, sir!" A gen- 
tle swing and the big gaff hook slipped 
beneath the white belly of the fish and a 
few seconds later he slides into the boat, 
nearly six feet of gleaming blue and sil- 
ver; eyes big and staring; head powerful, 
beating the bottom with blows that fairly 
threaten the boat. 

Imagine a mackerel weighing 150 
pounds, colored as described, with rows 



water as clear as crystal, yet the tuna 
grounds were in shore along the rocky 
cliffs of the picturesque island. 

The tuna is the game fish par excel- 
lence of these waters; a famous leaper 
and the most powerful fish of its size 
known. On the records of the Tuna 
Club are accounts of boats being towed 
from seven to twenty miles, and nearly 
every fish caught made a struggle worthy 
of record. The largest tuna taken with 
rod and reel weighed 183 pounds and 
fought its captor, the president of the 
club, four hours. 

The club, with its three hundred mem- 
bers, advocates certain methods which 




The second greatest catch in the %>orld l&ith rod and reel. 



128 



THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y. 



are religiously followed, and it offers a 
gold medal which is fished for every year 
and held by the angler taking the larg- 
est tuna. The line allowed is a 24-strand, 
which gives the fish every chance, sug- 
gestive of the idea which holds among 
the members of the Tuna Club which is 
to protect game fishes and give them 
every advantage. 

Tuna fishing is a popular one at Santa 
Catalina, which is 3! hours from Los An- 
geles, and in May, June and July the 
island is the Mecca of sportsmen from 
almost every state in the Union. The 
waters of California teem with game fish. 
In the south the yellow tail is taken with 
rod and reel from San Diego to Santa 
Catalina and beyond to the islands off 
Santa Barbara. The sea bass and black 
sea bass are others. The latter is taken 
at Santa Catalina on rod and reel up to 
327 pounds, the record being held by F. 



V. Rider, secretary of the Tuna Club, 
who took a fish of this size on 24-strand 
line in 50 minutes. 

The ordinary sea bass is taken all 
along shore to San Francisco, specimens 
weighing 75 and 100 pounds having been 
brought to gaff. San Luis Obispo is a 
famous place for these gamey fish, while 
at the mouth of the Santa Inez steelheads 
tipping the scales at 20 pounds delight 
the wielder of rod and reel. The variety 
of game fishes which can be taken along 
the Pacific shores is remarkable. The 
salmon comes into Monterey in July and 
affords great sport to San Franciscoans 
who go to Santa Cruz and various places 
along shore and catch the gamey fish in 
great numbers. This sport has made the 
harbors and bays of the country along 
the coast to the north famous in the an- 
nals of sport. 



Vashti to Ahasucrus. 

"And when the wrath of the king was ap- 
peased, he thought of Vashti. — (Esther 1:2.) 



We had a bitter, bitter feud, 

My angry lord and I; 
And men said, "Oft is Fate thus rude, 

So passes Love to die." 
But oh I laughed in my glad heart, 

For well, well could I see, 
That never earthly quarrel could part 

For long my king and me. 



The dark-haired Esther on his arm 

At night sleeps by his side; 
All wonder that I wish no harm 

To her, who is his bride. 
Beloved! 'tis only I who know 

The thought that breaks thy rest, 
Thy soul yearns for the long ago, 

When I lay on thy breast! 



Some day they'll say, "Thy lord is dead.' : 

Then wonder much to see 
My eyes yet sparkle, lips still red, 

Not pale as grief should be. 
My own, not death, wedlock or pain 

Can stop Love's mighty sway; 
And we shall kiss and love again, 

When these have passed away. 

c/ldonen. 



"That Good May Come." 



TWO people, a man and a woman, 
were sitting in a well-furnished 
room on the ground floor of a 
house where apartments were to be let. 
There was the glare of the warm May 
sun on the road outside, and the noise of 
passing carriages containing daintily 
dressed women, with fair, expressionless 
faces, as befitted those bent on a weary 
round of afternoon calls. 

The man sat close to the window with 
a cigar between his teeth. The girl had 
chosen an armchair near the door, which 
communicated with the bedroom beyond. 
He was dark and handsome, and, with- 
out being stout, had a certain sleek, com- 
fortable appearance which gave an air of 
strength to the whole figure. There was 
nothing to find fault with in the man, or 
in his clothes, and yet some small irreg- 
ularity of feature would have been wel- 
come. He looked too neat, too self-pos- 
sessed, too well-contented with himself. 

His young wife was dressed in black, 
for since her marriage she had lost her 
mother. She was tall and slim and fair- 
haired. Her eyes were blue, her face re- 
fined, and her hands, long-fingered and 
white, were clasped together nervously. 
She glanced at the man in silence many 
times before she took courage and spoke 
what had been in her thoughts for some 
weeks. 

He had been a successful author, full 
of interesting ideas, anxious to discuss 
literary politics, ambitious to get on in 
his profession — a being to look up to and 
respect, before she married him. The 
novels may have merely shown talent, 
not genius, the ideas may have been sec- 
ond-hand, the ambition simply vanity, 
but she could not know these things. 

He had naturally frivoled during the 
Paris honeymoon, and she had been glad 
to feel that they were, for the time, 
equals; that they could play at being 
children, and laugh and be lazy, and let 
the serious side of life go by unrealized 
or forgotten. But the real secret of her 
love for him lay in her admiration of a 
superior intellect, her gladness at being 



able to lean on a nature stronger than 
her own. To the young Scotch girl, her 
education seemed to begin when she met 
her future husband. While they waited 
till their house in London was ready for 
them (they had been hurriedly sum- 
moned from abroad by the news of her 
mother's illness), she realized a dull sense 
of her husband's lazy, indolent life and 
vapid conversation. She admitted to 
herself at last that he was a different 
man. She thought that, if she did not 
inspire him to work, she could at least 
encourage him. 

"Gerald," she said, "you never write 
now." 

He turned slowly; all his movements 
were deliberate. "No," he said. 

"Why not?" 

"I don't feel in the mood." 

"Will the right mood return?" £ 

"I suppose so." 

"You don't seem to care." Her voice 
was sharp. 

"Why should I?" he asked. "I am not 
hard up just now." 

They had both money enough, the wife 
especially. 

"But," she exclaimed, "you have al- 
ready made a name. You cannot allow 
your reputation to grow rusty." 

He laughed good-naturally. "Dear 
child, I can." 

She flushed. "I want to rouse you," 
she continued. "I can't bear to see you 
forgetting your work, and all you lived 
in connection with it, for no reason." 

"You are the reason. I love vou in- 
stead." 

"O, but that is awful, Gerald!" She 
rose and crossed the room. "I dare not 
be to blame for your loss of ambition. I 
dread the consequences for us both. O, 
I love vou; don't be afraid. I worship 
yon quite foolishly, and you know I love 
you. But I also depend on your strength 
of character. I take pride in your genius, 
I admire your brain, just as I cling to the 
man who is everything in the world to 
me. I am not clever myself. I move in a 
small, narrow circle of people, well-bred, 



130 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



I admit, but neither very 'smart,' to use 
an odious word, nor very interesting - , as 
Bohemians are interesting. I have nor- 
row conventional notions for myself. I 
shrink from the freemasonry of women 
who smoke, and talk 'shop,' and go 
everywhere alone, just because they 
write for the papers. Your men friends 
frighten me; they have tidings of the lat- 
est discovery, the latest news at the edge 
of their lips, while I never glance at a 
newspaper without just missing the one 
thing you consider worth reading. But 
then I know that I have been so trained 
to keep to my own particular path in the 
world, that I should lose your love by 
making myself ridiculous and being un- 
natural if I tried to alter my whole life 
now. You see, dear, I appreciate what I 
cannot attain. Many women are the 
same — women born old-fashioned, who 
feel what they never speak about to any 
one. I have merely the courage to con- 
fess to you." 

"And all this" — he was astonished, but 
his eyes twinkled — "all this leads to — 
what?" 

"To my greater courage in venturing 
to beg you to be more yourself." 

"Have I changed?" The man's voice 
was hard and suspicious. 

"Yes, dear," she faltered; "you have — 
a little — you don't write." 

"Good God! I need a holiday badly 
enough." 

"You are so lazy, Gerald, about every- 
thing. You see, darling, I want to be 
able to lean on you, to rely on your ad- 
vice, to be able to count on your help in 
so many things. I should not complain 
if I had not been able to do that before, 
but I must speak when I see you so lazy 
and indifferent. Gerald, you move and 
talk as if nothing mattered. There is no 
business connected with our new home 
which you will undertake if you can help 
it. You simply drift where the mood 
takes you, and, if your love for me were 
not just the same, I should believe that 
you were weary of everything, including 
myself." 

He frowned and stared into the street. 

"Am I so changed as that?" 
She had said all by then, and was 
grieved to have distressed him, although 
she could not wholly grieve because her 



words had taken effect. She knelt down 
by his chair and put her arms around 
him. . 

He turned his head and looked down 
at her. 

"I dare say that you are right, little 
woman. I'll think about it, and get to 
work again." He sighed. "I have lost 
sight of everything but you. I want no 
friends, no other interests, no other ties. 
I only" — he bent low — "want your 
kisses; kiss me — kiss me/' 

She obeyed, and was glad he was not 
vexed with her. She did not realize that 
the man had a passionate craving for a 
woman's caresses and a woman's sym- 
pathy, which might lead him, in later 
days, to be well pleased with these things 
from the lips and hearts of other women. 

He was merely for the moment taking 
refuge in the gratification of the feeling 
which had led him to desert his former 
life and former ambitions. But she had 
brought the past vividly before him, and 
as she sank into a sitting posture, with 
one arm across his knees, his face (which 
she could not see) was stern and worried. 
His hand touched her fair hair gently, for 
he was very tender with women, and 
wished to assure her that nothing in her 
words had wounded him; but he gazed 
moodily at the bright street, and his 
thoughts were far from the girl by his 
side. 

He suffered acutely. The child whom 
he loved and adored had evoked the 
memory of another beautiful face, with 
the great mass of black hair lying 1 in a 
loose knot in the nape of a white neck, 
the dark eyes flashing scorn into his own, 
the deep musical voice, strong with pas- 
sion, reading a burial service over all his 
ambition, all his past beliefs. 

"Go," she had said; "go and marry this 
mad fancy, this pink-and-white daisy. 
Throw your pen away, and forget that 
you have worked for men and women, in 
the arms of one simple girl. But be con- 
tent with the life you have chosen. Come 
no more to me for sympathy, for help in 
your work or interest in your career. 
The latter is finished. Gerald Stanley 
the author is dead from this time to the 
end of all things, and the woman who 
helped to make him what he was 
resigns him to the woman who has 



" THA T GOOD SMA Y COME. ' ' 



131 



crushed his energies, and will live to 
know his name forgotten. When you 
have lost me, you will know what I have 
been to you." 

He knew at last — he was to know 
more later, when evil was done that good 
might come. 

"I think," said Maisie, after a long 
silence, "that I should like to go out. 
We might go and see your sister. Will 
you come?" 

Maisie sat up in bev bed, her hair in 
pretty disorder, and rubbed her eyes. 

"What did you say?" she muttered. 
"I was so sleepy, I had to go to bed. 
You dined with the publisher, didn't 
you?" 

"I am glad you got my wire." (She 
was staring at his face, he was so very 
white.) 

"The book is accepted," he added, 
much as he might have said that it would 
probably rain the next day. 

She clapped her hands with delight. 
"O, Gerald!" She was one of those 
women who put on a certain dignity in 
the daytime, and become delightfully 
girlish when they reach their bedrooms. 
She laughed and congratulated him, and 
drew him down to kiss her, and chatted 
of her pride in him and her love for him, 
until the pain he suffered made his lips 
and hands grow cold. She was serious 
at once. 

"You are tired, dear?" 

He made up his mind that he would 
tell her that the book had been inspired, 
and he himself, encouraged and aided, 



by a woman of whom he had never 
spoken and whom she had never seen. 
He was sick with remorse, but the words 
would not come. 

"Gerald, darling," she whispered ten- 
derly, "do you know what I have been 
longing to say to you for some time? 
You are your old self." 

He started violently. She laid her 
head on his shoulder, and continued 
softly: "When I first begged you to re- 
sume work, when I first reproached you 
for leading an idle, aimless existence, I 
fancied that I had done wrong, for you 
were made miserable by what I had said, 
and for over a month we were not very 
happy, dear, you and I. Then you 
found yourself. You began to work; 
you were 'adorable' to me; you thought 
and talked as in the old days; you had 
the same ideas; you were the man I lost 
my heart to, and have loved ever since. 
And then this book. Who woke your 
sleeping faculties into life, sir, but your 
stupid wife? So I, too, have my little 
share in your work, as in your heart. I 
am so proud of you, my husband! And 
you are not angry because I scolded you 
for being lazy, are you, darling?" 

"No," he answered. "Angry with 
you? God help me!" 

"O, I'm glad you're changed again, 
and I'm so happy!" 

The man tried to speak, and failed. 

There was a pause. Then a voice, un- 
like his own, asked slowly:- "You are — 
what?" 

"Happy — O, so happy!" repeated the 
girl. 



Thorns. 



It lies in my hand, 

A dead, dead rose; 
Not lovely now, but it once was fair. 

No sweets are shed 

From its petals dead, 
But its thorns are sharp as ever they were. 



It lies in my heart, 

A dead, dead love; 
Nor hope, nor happiness brings to me, 

A faded flower, 

It has lived its hour; 
But its thorns are sharp as they used to be. 

Florence SMay Wright 



An American Ideal. 



<By CHARLES H. CHAPMAN, <Ph. C D., President of the University of Oregon. 



**|N our childhood we are near to God. 
The angels still visit and whisper 
news from the unforgotten realms 
we have left behind." 

So sings the poet of immortality. 
Fresh from the Creator's hand; nay, 
trailing after us clouds of glory from 
the Eternal we come into this world of 
filth and deformity. It does not take 
long for the clouds of glory to fade 
away; but there is a time between child- 
hood and manhood, before God has shut 
away his face and the everlasting doors 
turning on their golden hinges have 
come between us and our home, when 
life in one great throb of strength and 
hope. We feel then that no task is too 
hard for us, that no prize is too high, 
that all things great and worthy are pre- 
destined for our use. It is in that gold- 
en prime that the youth reads in his 
book of one who cut his way upward in 
a rocky cliff, climbing ever higher while 
his companions stood below and 
watched him. There were names on the 
limestone, cut by hands now feeble in 
old age or dead and in their graves, and 
over them all was one name — a name 
once mighty to charm the soul of youth 
to high endeavor — it was the name of 
Washington. "I will climb," said the 
boy, setting his teeth, "above that name, 
and I will cut my own higher than his." 
He reads of that youth, with a swelling 
heart, and whether it be through starva- 
tion and penury, or whether on the gild- 
ed rounds of the ladder which his friends 
have raised for him he feels that he, too, 
can climb and must climb, and he wills 
to cut his name high up beside the un- 
dying records of the great men gone be- 
fore. 

In the nation, too, there is a spring- 
time when greatness is easier than it can 
ever be again. Nations grow cynical in 
their old age, and as grey-beards laugh 
at the enthusiasms of youth, so in their 
decreoitude nations smile at the rude 



zeal of their early heroes. There was a 
time when we made legends and heroic 
tales about Washington and Clay and 
Ethan Allen. We make no more legends 
and heroic tales; we smile when we hear 
them and the newspapers turn them to 
jest in their columns of fun. 

"Imperial Caesar dead and turned to 
clay, might stop a hole to keep the wind 
away." 

In our nation this springtime closed 
with the war of the rebellion. We still 
have men of eminence, but they are a 
very different race from those of the 
generations before the war. The men 
now coming into prominence in public 
life are mostly rich; the conditions 
which once made it' possible for a poor 
man to reach exalted eminence have al- 
most passed away. Let us hope that 
their absence is only for a time, and that 
they will again return. I do not believe 
that the unscrupulous, selfish man of 
great wealth who now parades in his 
brutal pomp upon the stage of our pub- 
lic life is the typical American; or that 
the conditions which have produced him 
are to be permanently satisfactory to our 
people. They are not the conditions 
which in a former epoch produced our 
great men — our Washingtons, our 
Franklins, our Marshalls, our Lincolns. 

Let us consider for a few minutes the 
conditions which could produce such a 
man as Lincoln and put them side by 
side with those which are turning out 
our Tweeds, our Crokers and our 
Goulds. Let us call the man produced 
by these conditions the old-fashioned 
educated American. This man of whom 
I speak was generally born on a farm, 
but his parents were not peasants. He 
had good blood in his veins, his ances- 
tors were free men and they were 
healthy. The man born with the poten- 
tiality of greatness in him does not come 
from a stock bestialized by tyranny, 
whether it be the tyranny of an imperious 



cAN cAMERICAN IDEAL. 



133 



monarch or the tyranny of a wage- 
master. The soul once crushed under a 
master's power, be the master a slave- 
driver with his whip and bloodhounds 
or a corporation armed with an injunc- 
tion from the United States courts — the 
soul once crushed cannot arise in a sin- 
gle generation and assert its wings in 
the high air of freedom. The free soul 
must be born free. Here is the curse of 
our wage system. It keeps multitudes 
of citizens hanging for the bread of life 
upon the word of a master. Slaves in 
all but the name. 

The education which trained the great 
American for his life work was a severe 
one; to live through it and come out 
with a store of energy for future use he 
needed a robust body to start with. The 
life of a city is full of intellectual stimu- 
lus, but it has not produced the loftiest 
thinkers, and it tends to degenerate the 
moral and physical fibre of the race. 
Great thinking which takes into account 
the problems of eternity must grow in 
the vast calm of nature's solitudes. 

Not in London, but in his country 
home, with green orchards around him, 
Newton solved the problem of the in- 
organic universe; and in another coun- 
try home Darwin deciphered for us the 
story of our origin. Almost all men 
who have attained to greatness have 
passed their youth in the country. Our 
typical American was born in the coun- 
try on his father's farm. Barefooted and 
bareheaded he played with nature in his 
childhood, and she took him to her 
bosom and mothered him. The birds 
sang to him, and he knew their lan- 
guage as all our fathers knew it in the 
springtime of the world; the sun kissed 
him and bathed him with light; the liv- 
ing things of the fields and woods were 
his companions ; the stars in their mighty 
march across the heavens perpetually 
sang to him, hymning the greatness and 
the mystery of God. 

To the present generation such a 
childhood may have lost its charm. Its 
stern simplicity, its pagan health, the 
rude self-helpfulness which came from 
it are perhaps less pleasing to us than 
the pinched cheek, the slender frame, 
the politer manners of the city child. 
But the city child blossoms too young. 



The aloe fills out the rude and homely 
bulk of its prickly leaves for a hundred 
years before it flowers; to make a man 
you must have a childhood of placid, 
unconscious, natural growth, free from 
the pernicious influence of too many 
books and of fashion. Books are the 
curse of childhood. In that precious 
period when impressions are stamped 
upon the mind never to be erased it is 
things, realities that the budding man 
should deal with; he should learn to 
look at things as they are; he should 
learn that iron is heavy and ice is cold 
by holding the iron and the ice in his 
hand. He will then know that no 
amount of idle wishing will make the 
iron lighter or the ice warmer. While 
the modern child sits stooped over his 
book, our old-fashioned American was 
learning to use his eyes and his hands 
in the freedom of the fields and woods. 
We are coming back slowly and tenta- 
tively to this system of pedagogy as if it 
were a new and untried thing. We are 
now and then allowing our children to 
take their noses out of their books and 
learn to use the hands which must earn 
their bread; but it is with fear and 
trembling, we are horribly afraid that 
our primary schools may turn out a 
breed of mechanics, carpenters and en- 
gineers. So far they have produced a 
great variety of breeds (among them the 
stock of Coxey's army), but I cannot see 
that a generation of capable and honest 
workmen would be a thing to dread or a 
falling off from past achievements. Our 
old-fashioned American went to school 
and he had a book. He went to school 
barefooted, with patches on the knees of 
his trousers and on other regions not 
visible in front. His face was sunburned 
and freckled; and his hair stuck out 
through a hole in his straw hat. His 
book was a venerable volume inherited 
from his father before him. The torn 
pages were rich with grease and sound 
morality; and he learned to read them; 
he ciphered a little in his arithmetic and 
he learned to write. This ended his 
primary schooling. Grown into a rugged 
youth with huge bones and mighty mus- 
cles, he panted to take his piace among 
active men and wreak his energy upon 
the world. He took his axe and went 



134 



THE PACIFIC §MONTHLY. 



into the woods or he followed his team 
with his hands upon the plow handles, 
proud and happy that he was a man and 
could earn a living for himself. But he 
was not a man, he was only a boy. Free 
and strong and calm, he knew nothing 
of the slumbering forces within his soul. 
He walked with God all day and at night 
he slept the dreamless sleep of holy 
youth. God looked upon him and loved 
him. The whole universe loved and 
helped him, for he was a harmonious 
part of the strong cosmos. We have all 
read with reverential awe the tale of Jay 
Gould's life; how he went to New York 
with a few cents in this pocket and rose 
to wreck the railroads and own the tele- 
graphs of a great nation. Frequently 
our great magazines and newspapers 
call upon the youth of America to revere 
the memory and emulate the deeds of a 
similar one. It was not to dreams of 
great wealth, of wrecked railroads and 
plundered nations, that our old-fash- 
ioned American boy awoke. I am 'al- 
most afraid to tell you what his ideals 
were — they were so boy-ilke,- so coun- 
trified, so primitive. Our young man 
began to dream of fame. He would be 
a great general, a great poet, a great 
doctor or lawyer, he would go to con- 
gress and rise to be president of the 
United States, and nowhere in the noble 
old books over which he pored did he 
read the praise of riches, but on every 
page there ran the tale of bravery, faith 
and patriotic virtue; he read how noble 
it is ta live and die, not for yourself but 
for your country; he read how Socrates 
went down to death for the truth, how 
Brutus loved his country better than his 
friend, and how the Spartan heroes stood 
and died on that memorable day at 
Thermopylae because it was their duty 
so to die. 

The foundation of intellectual great- 
ness is a sound body, and this our young 
American had. He had spent the first 
quarter of his life in training it and let- 
ting it grow. Then came his mind's 
turn. He took to reading and borrowed 
all the books in the neighborhood. Kind 
old ladies lend him volumes of poetry 
carefully wrapped in newspapers; the 
village lawyer lent him his speeches of 
Webster and his Shakespeare; the min- 



ister contributed a History of the Ref- 
ormation. In this period of awakening 
the hunger of the mind is insatiable;, 
everything is interesting, everything is 
food. At their first outlook into the 
world of knowledge the eyes see all 
things in sunlight. 

The next scene in the young man's 
educational history was the college. He 
had to earn money to pay his way. 
Sometimes he chopped cordwood, some- 
times he taught school, but in one way 
and another the money was generally 
found. At college he may have done 
chores to pay his board, or he may have 
kept bachelor's hall, but in some way he 
got through. At a fearful expense of 
time and energy he did finally fight his 
way to graduation and came out into the 
world a proud and happy bachelor of 
arts. Compared with the great founda- 
tions of our time the college which he 
attended was a poor affair. Its buildings 
were small and cheap; there was no 
elaborate outfit of apparatus; the pro- 
fessors were mostly old men who had 
spent the vigor of their lives in preach- 
ing. What had such an institution and 
such men to give a young man eager for 
all that is great and glorious in life? 
Very little of their own perhaps, but 
much which they held in trust. They 
could give him and they did give him 
the grand tradition handed down 
through the ages from generation to 
generation of great and transcendent 
living. They taught him the infinite 
value of high, unselfish conduct; the 
stern persistence which clings to its aim' 
at the price of happiness and health and 
life itself; the unique and infiinite claims 
of duty upon the human soul. These 
things and not its mistaken notions of 
science, its tattered fragments of Greek 
and Latin, were the really precious gifts 
of the old-fashioned college to the young 
man. These were the gifts he took 
with him and built into his life, and it 
was lives so built that made the glorious 
first century of our nation's history. 
Thus after a terrible struggle, — at a fear- 
ful expense of time and strength, — here 
and there a young man of those days got 
himself educated. But at the present 
day it will not suffice to have here and 
there an educated man in the commun- 



cAN cAMERICAN IDEAL. 



135 



ity.. The state to save itself from ruin 
needs an educated generation; a whole 
generation trained to use hands, and 
head, to love their country, to emulate-, 
the great men of its past and to work for 
the stability and glory of its future. 
Such a generation the state cannot have 
without creating it. The state for its 
own salvation must seize upon the child 
and mould him into such a citizen as it 
needs. Gross and dramatic dangers like 
those of rebellion or foreign war rouse 
the people to rational action and sub- 
mission. When the government seizes 
a man and makes him a soldier — takes 
him from his business and his family and 
exposes him to prolonged hardship and 
the peril of death, no one complains or 
questions its right. When the govern- 
ment establishes a costly school at An- 
napolis or W T est Point to train sailors 
and soldiers, no one questions the justice 
or expediency of the action. Yet these 
schools in a certain sense are for the 
few. In these great establishments a 
select band of young men are receiving 
a technical and highly specialized educa- 
tion at the expense of all the rest. But 
no one complains — the government 
must have soldiers and sailors, and we all 
see that in training these young men it 
is working for the ultimate good of us 
all. 

It is easier to make a good soldier 
than a good citizen. The soldier needs 
only to fight well and to obey — the citi- 
zen must patiently meet the problems of 
civic life and solve them • correctly as 
they arise day after day in endless suc- 
cession. There is no commander who 
can irrevocably direct his action, there 
is no great day of battle and victory 
when at sunset he can lay down his arms 
and say "the war is over." It is truly 



noble and beautiful to die for our coun- 
try, but there is an ineffably superior 
height of nobility and beauty in living 
for our country. In a great emergency 
the government can create soldiers in a 
few weeks — good citizens are only pro- 
duced by the labor of patient years. 

For the poor as a class higher educa- 
tion is forever impossible except 
through schools maintained at the pub- 
lic expense, and the primary schools 
which can exist without the aid of higher 
institutions are vain as the glitter of 
witches' gold. Instruction in primary 
schools always tends to aridity, formality 
and barreness. The influence upon them 
of higher instiutions is like, that quicken- 
ing which flowed to the dead son of the 
Shunamite from the body of Elijah. It 
is a very wakening of the dead. 

We admit without difficulty the use- 
fulness of the soldier. He fights for us. 
There is a tendency to doubt the ulti- 
mate value of the man who merely prays 
for us, but the unspeakable value of the 
man who can and will think for us we 
may have still to learn. And to find the 
thinker, to find the great brain, the 
mighty body, the generous soul — to find 
the Man keen to pierce to the causes of 
civic wrong, to endure the calumny 
without reward and fight the long fight 
that must be waged with unclean foes to 
the end that the people may continue 
prosperous and free — we must go among 
the ranks of the self-respecting poor. 
Thence they have always come, and 
thence they always will come. Shut the 
gate of higher knowledge to the poor 
and you shut our nation from its hope of 
future Franklins, Washingtons and 
Lincolns. Therefore we must look to it 
that the gate swings wide open and for- 
ver remains so. 



Retrospection. 



The phantom Past, with its dear, dead faces, 
Rose last night from the tomb of years; 

And. clothed for an hour in its pristine graces. 
Claimed my laughter, and found my tears. 



Oh, not in vain to have loved and labored! 

Not in vain to have hoped and feared! 
Mistakes shall mortar thy stony sorrows; 

And thence thy Temple of life be reared. 



And over the grave of thy dead Ambition, 
Shall blossom the Heartsease, wondrous 
fair; 
And Time distill from thy tears of anguish 
A lethal perfume, sweet and rare. 

John Leisk Ta.it. 



Through Winter's Snows. 



<By WALTER CAYLEY "BELT, §M. <2>. 



THE Oregon mist was falling cheer- 
lessly. The air was damp and 
heavy outside, but within my room 
was warm and cheerful. I was poking 
aimlessly about among the odds and 
ends in the bottom of my trunk. Sud- 
denly I came upon a faded buckskin 
moccasin, grimy and blood-stained, cut 
and torn. The evergreens of Oregon 
faded from my view and gazing back 
across the slanting years, I beheld an- 
other scene. 



Night in The Great Lone Land. To 
north, to south, to east, to west, as far 
as the eye could reach, and beyond, 
stretched the silent snow on silent plains, 
a solitude so oppressive that with a sigh 

I turned toward the hospital buildings, 
whose dismal gray afforded the eye its 
one relief from the shroud-like appear- 
ance of the plains. The shadow of a man 
fell across the snow. I heard a voice 
say, "Pardon, are you the doctair?" 

I answered in the affirmative. 

"I have come too late; m' belle Marie 
is dead, and I have suffer mooch with 
the cold." 

I saw he dragged a freighted tobag- 
gan. 

"I am trappair," he said. "Jean Bap- 
tiste de Marechal, they call me when they 
christen me in the Church of Ste. Anne 
de Beauchere. 'Twas there I live, in 
Beauchereville, as a boy I love Marie 
Pasquod, and when I go to work for the 
company as voyageur, I promise to come 
back. I come, and find her wait these 
years, for her great love. There in Beau- 
chereville I buy me little cottage, and we 
live so happy. Three children come, le 
petite Marie, Franchise and little Jean. 
Then I come to work for company again, 
in the country of the Great Slave Lake. 



I hear no news, but when I come to the 
fort every year. Then I hear that small- 
pox come to Beauchereville, that Fran- 
cois, Marie and little Jean sleep in the 
shadow of the good Ste. Anne. I go 
back Quebec, and bring my Marie out to 
this lone country. She make me promise 
when she come, she make me sware the 
three-fold oath by the bones of my fath- 
er, by the honor of my mother, by the 
altar of my faith, that if she die, no mat- 
ter where, I bring her to Beauchereville 
back and let her sleep beside her dead 
and by the altar of Ste. Anne. There I 
shall also sleep. Twelve days ago she 
die, 300 miles north where I trap. I put 
her on toboggan, and start for railroad 
to take her home. 

"I tramp all day over the frozen snow, 
and at night I watch to keep the big gray 
wolf away, and I kill nothing. For two 
days I boil my moccasin string to chew 
him. I was so hungry, but now I rest." 

I realized that I was in the presence of 
a great character. There was a man who 
had dragged his wife's body, on foot over 
three hundred miles of frozen snow in an 
arctic winter, to keep a promise to the 
dead. 

During his solitary journey I was the 
first white man he had seen. He was 
fearfully frost-bitten, but would not re- 
main for treatment. He pushed on by 
train the following day for old Quebec. 
I begged for one of his tattered mocca- 
sins as a memento of his trip. Before he 
left, he raised the silver fur about the 
sled, and I saw the tace of one who had 
passed through many tribulations into 
the perfect peace. I heard nothing di- 
rectly from him, but a week or so later I 
saw in a press dispatch that the sacred 
ground of the churchyard of Ste. Anne 
de Beauchere had been desecrated by the 
blood of a suicide. 



The Dynamics of Speech 

As Introduced by Philosophy. 



<By ROBERT W. VOUTHAT, 'Prof, of Latin in West Virginia University. 

PUBLISHERS' NOTE. — Dr. Douthat begins in this number the first of a series of papers on The Dynamics 
of Speech and The Development of Language. His theory is new and strikingly original, and will 
appeal to all who are interested in popular demonstrations of scientific subjects. 



EVERYBODY knows more or less 
about dynamics in machinery, but 
few people have thought much 
about man as a dynamo and of his 
speech as one manifestation of his pow- 
er, and yet the whole civilized world is 
enlightened by words more commonly 
and more thoroughly than by electricity; 
it is stirred to action by words a thous- 
and fold oftener than by machinery: 
words more than deeds brought on the 
revolution in America. The words of Pat- 
rick Henry touched hearts that could 
never have been otherwise moved; 
words have contributed first and most 
to all the reforms that have taken place 
in the world. Had not mind manifested 
itself in words, the Renaissance would 
never have begun in Europe? Blot out 
the literature of the world, stop the flow 
of speech and man would return to a 
state of primitive barbarism. Art and 
knowledge lost to him he would roam 
the plains and forests a savage, his home 
merely a shelter from storms, his fellow 
men as much his prey as bird or beast. 
Words are the force by which all civili- 
zation has come to the world, the force 
bv which all religion is maintained, by 
which all science has been developed, by 
which all knowledge of the Eternal has 
been communicated, by which our souls 
are lifted to a likeness with God. 

The proper conception for all things 
in the universe is to be found in the 
words that have come down to us from 
all the ages past. The mind of man is 
found in language, not in physical sci- 
ence. 

Physical science reveals the mind of 
God. Man has been testing, as it were, 
the engines of thought, — these words of 
his, — for thousands of years, to find out 



whether they will convey the burdens of 
his soul to his fellow men, who, as peo- 
ple engaged in mental and spiritual and 
intellectual commodities. He has found 
his engines to be well built. They do 
convey his thought and the world gets 
the full benefit of his productions. Now 
and then an engine is built on a peculiar 
plan: it runs well for a time, but finally 
it fails to work. It then goes into the 
shops; and, if the master-workman sees 
that the principle on which it was con- 
structed is not scientific, then it must be 
taken to pieces and the material other- 
wise employed. 

Words that have been tested and not 
found wanting, — words that have con- 
veyed the burdens of thought for ages, — 
words that connect, as it were, the mind 
of man with the mind of God, — words 
that are framed according to man's con- 
ception of the eternal fitness of things, — 
words that bring the history of the ages 
to the mind of the present, — these can 
never die; for the principle on which 
they were constructed is so thoroughly 
scientific, — accords so fully with all that 
is clearest and best, that we can say, in 
these all mind is stored, — by these all 
mind conveyed. 

Every construction of the mind con- 
sists of parts; that which consists of 
parts can be separated into its elements; 
these elements are the abstraction that 
have been made from the objects pre- 
sented; hence speech consists of abstrac- 
tions, which, when separated, may ex- 
hibit individual values. 

A great building is a construction of 
individual pieces of material and this il- 
lustrates a completed thought of many 
concepts; and, just as in the great 
building there may be many pieces of 



J38 



THE PACIFIC €MONTHLY. 



timber or st6ne or metal of very nearly 
the same size and properties, so in a 
sentence or chapter or book there will 
be found many words or sounds of al- 
most the same character. As the pieces 
of timber or stone or metal in the build- 
ing, each of the same size and quality 
and use have the same value, so the 
same sounds in words have the same 
values. 

Just as God out of "matter" creates all 
worlds and systems of worlds, all animals 
and vegetables, and keeps these in con- 
tinuance throughout the ages, so man 
who is made in the mental and spiritual 
"image and likeness" of God forms out 
of "matter" all the utensils and machin- 
ery of the world in which he lives, all the 
statuary and other imitations of God's 
works, all the representations in printing 
and drawing and writing of his concep- 
tions of the useful or beautiful for the 
need or enjoyment of himself and his 
fellows in this world. 

Just as God also by the motion of por- 
tions of the atmosphere and of other 
substances upon each other produces 
noise or sound, so man by the same 
means and also by the contact and sepa- 
ration of his organs of speech produces 
noise or sound intelligible to himself, 
and these sounds, together with their 
representative forms, are as much a part 
of design on his part as are any of the 
other acts of which he is capable. 

When he says God or writes the word, 
he means an Infinite comprehension, not 
a development. When he says man or 
writes the word, he means a manifesta- 
tion or creation, who in turn as a lineal 
descendant of his Creator can continue 
to make manifestations or generations 
of his mind and spirit throughout the 
ages. 

Men and women, the world over, have 
been occupied so much of late, each itl 
his own way, with the revelations of phy- 
sical science, that they have neglected to 
watch the connection between the mind 
that makes the revelations and the things 
to be revealed. 

Remove man from this world, man 
with his inventive mind, and soon all 
that can be called art, science or litera- 
ture will have passed away; and where 
music now swells in its voluptuous or 



to victory over injustice, where monu- 
ments rear their lofty heads in honor of 
the good or great, there will be the hab- 
itation of beasts, the abode ol owls and 
bats. 

How long man has occupied his place 
inspiring strains, where eloquence cheers 
in this world, no one knows; investiga- 
tions are not complete. All we do know 
is that he is wonderful in capacity, con- 
stant in development, and mighty in ac- 
tion. He imitates or finds out the Di- 
vine mind, as said Kepler in his discov- 
ery of the laws of planetary motion: "I 
think thy thoughts after thee, O God," 
and as of all man's discoveries of the 
secrets of nature and of his plans accord- 
ing with nature's plans, we say, "He 
imitates God!" 

'this discovery of the thoughts of God; 
this imitation of the works of God at- 
tests a mental kineship with Deity than 
which nothing could be stronger proof 
that "man was made in the image and 
likeness of God." 

Let us formulate this logically: 

i. He who has the condition and ca- 
pacity for copying the Supreme mind 
must be in mind a lineal descendant of 
that Supreme mind or of like powers; 

2. Man does in his art, literature, 
sculpture and painting copy the mind of 
the Supreme Being; therefore, 

3. Man must be in mind a lineal de- 
scendant of the Supreme Mind or of 
like power with such mind. 

Or for number 2, take a negative 
form, as follows: 

2. None of the lower orders of ani- 
mals can copy in the smallest degree the 
mind of the Supreme Being; or, if you 
prefer, 

2. Nothing done by the Supreme 
Being can be imitated by any one of the 
lower orders of animals; then, 

3. None of the lower orders of ani- 
mals can claim any mental kinship with 
the Supreme Mind. 

Or, put the argument in still another 
form, as follows: 

1. Mental or spiritual conceptions 
can be repeated only by mental or spir- 
itual beings; 

2. None of the lower orders af ani- 
cals can repeat the mental or spiritual 
conceptions of Deity or even of man; 



THE DYNAMICS OF SPEECH. 



139 



3. None of the lower orders of ani- 
mals are mental or spiritual beings. 

Man is emphatically an imitator of the 
Divine Mind. He never builds a house 
without constant regard to gravitation; 
he builds no railroad without a study of 
centrifugal force; he never handles elec- 
tricity without knowing how nature deals 
with the same force; he constructs no 
engine without first consulting nature, 
in order to ascertain how much strength 
will be required for the expansive force 
of a drop of water. 

This spirit of imitation has necessarily 
controlled all his efforts in the past and 
will corttrol in all the future. Of course, 
man will at times combine torces or ele- 
ments, and thus seemingly make what 
does not exist anywhere in Nature's 
realm; but the fact that combination can 
be made is proof that nature's law hith- 
erto unknown has been discovered; 
otherwise, the combination could never 
have been made. 

However, as I have not started out to 
discourse on science or of physics in 
general, or of mind in its individuality, 
but of man's continual imitation of the 
Divine Mind, allow me to introduce a 
set of new categories, by which to ex- 
plain the construction, operations and 
limitations of universal nature, from 
which as expression we learn the Divine 
mind, and from these by induction try 
to discover man's method of imitation 
in all his expressions of an inner self. 

Man's Model. — These categories are 
not intended as an attempt to over- 
throw anything that has been done in 
the past, but as simply an effort to prove 
that the condition and operations per- 
taining to a universe without man have 
been the model for everything that man 
has done since his appearance on the 
globe. 

Science. — When man finds out what 
nature is or does, he says he has a sci- 
ence. When he imitates her action, he 
says he is working scientifically: he is 
running on exactly parallel lines. When 
he fails to run his lines alongside hers, 
there is disaster, destruction, death. 
Her laws must be followed in the con- 
struction of all his machinery. Thus, 
man is proven to be an imitator. 

One of man's earliest studies was as- 



tronomy, not because he so much needed 
the science in his daily struggles for life, 
but because in astronomy he could dis- 
cover more of the wisdom and power of 
the Creator than anywhere else, and for 
2000 or more years that was man's chief 
study. He saw in the heavenly bodies 
more for wonder and admiration than 
anywhere else. David said, "When I 
consider Thy heavens, the work of Thy 
fingers, the moon and the stars which 
Thou hast made, what is man that Thou 
art mindful of him or the son of man 
that Thou visitest him?" etc. 

Well, this was a far-off study, seem- 
ingly the first method of study for any 
great subject, — a species of induction. 
We do not, as a rule, begin with details. 
We begin with the concrete: we take 
off the outside envelope before we begin 
to read, as it were, the contents of the 
letter. We first become acquainted by 
a general introduction and afterwards 
seek a closer intimacy. We are permit- 
ted to enter the parlor long before we 
become familiar with the kitchen. 
Geography was long studied before 
geology; botany before bacteriology; 
molecules before microbes, — the outer 
before the inner. Thought comes before 
belief, belief before knowledge. 

Suppose, now, we thus treat our sub- 
ject, going to the utmost bounds of 
knowledge, i. e., of everything that can 
be known or named in accordance with 
the condition or action of universal na- 
ture, and afterwards reduce to details as 
each particular subject may come before 
us. 

Ampere made two great categories, 
"Matter and Mind," sufficient for the 
beginnings of our thought, but insuffi- 
cient for its extension, because there is 
no hint of life or operation. Hume 
made two, "Ideas and Impressions," but 
these still present only the dead forms 
with their influence upon the general 
mind, and hence there is not enough dif- 
ference between his and Ampere's to 
satisfy a living, active, almost uncontrol- 
lable power, the Ego of universal na- 
ture. 

Man, the glory of the world, under 
the impulse of heaven's own life, inspired 
by the actual presence of Deity himself-,- 
gave instinctive utterance to his impulse, 



140 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



and breathed out the soul's emotion in 
the one word Ego, — I go, 1 move, I act, 
I live; I see, I hear, I taste, I feel, I 
smell; I think, I reflect, I plan, I pro- 
duce; I wish, I will, I perform. I feel 
my kinship with the Eternal. I seek to 
know, to appreciate his attributes, his 
excellencies, his glory; I feel longings 
uncontrollable: I must be divine. 

The power of this one expression, 
Ego, — an utterance which began to be 
formulated from the manitested power 
and infinite resources brought to view in 
human art in the distant past, has been 
felt upon the mind and heart of the most 
degraded as well as upon those of the 
most cultured. It is reflected in letters 
of gold from the palaces, the temples, 
the pyramids, the sphinxes, the obelisks; 
the canals, the bridges, the railroads, the 
telegraph, the telephone, — all proclaim 
the source of Ego divine. Poetry, phil- 
osophy, science, art, testify in clearest 
terms that man's first utterance proceed- 
ed from an appreciation of his own 
innate worth; and, wherever men have 
wandered, to the icy regions of the 
North, to the torrid zones of the different 
hemispheres, as well as into regions more 
favorable for physical existence; what- 
ever they may have done, in war or 
peace, at home or abroad, in the council- 
chamber or around the fireside,— they 
have everywhere felt the influence of this 
developed expression for both innate 
power and innate importance. 

The old Greek Philosophy of Socrates 
and Plato, and other great lights in a 
benighted age, was not a deliverance of 
what originated in themselves. The ideas 
of Socrates and Plato had lain dormant 
in human hearts for ages past. 

Not Original but Developed. — These 
ideas were only brought out by the in- 
tensity of emotion in these great souls. 
Plato and Socrates were moved by pow- 
er within and by conditions without, to 
bring forth for the struggling mind of 
their time the ideas of truth and faith 
that hitherto had simply failed of devel- 
opment. 

Through the influence of this one ex- 
pression of the soul, Ego, — its meaning 
lost to the intellect, but felt upon the 
heart, chemistry has made her conquests, 
geology her revelations, electricity her 



advances, botany her classification, 
mathematics her deductions, medicine 
her progress, philosophy her connec- 
tions. 

But pardon this seeming digression, 
and let us proceed with a consideration 
of what has been done in the effort to 
connect the mind of the world with the 
operations and conditions of universal 
nature. 

Locke has left us three categories, 
"Substance, Modes, and Relations," — 
good as far as matter and our considera- 
tion of matter goes, but yet deficient in 
not showing what are the "modes and re- 
lations, nor yet intimating a great source 
of life and energy. 

Finally, Kant has given us four, 
"Quantity, Quality, Relation and Modal- 
ity," but stiil there is want of origin and 
action, both of which should be exhibit- 
ed to make our categories of the knowl- 
edge correspond with the operations 
perceived in all parts of the universe. 
Kant's categories give us nothing more 
than the process of scientific investiga- 
tion. 

The categories which we would substi- 
tute for any that have hitherto occupied 
the mind of the philosopher are the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Comprehension, — because that 
will not only include such predicaments 
as "Quantity, Quality, Matter, Mind, 
Substance," but also indicate the origi- 
nal state of the universe as well as the 
perfected condition of every germ out of 
which new life is developed. 

2. Separation, — because that will not 
only include "Ideas and Relations," but 
also suggest source for these and all 
other individual entities. 

Individual Objects. — One of the first 
thoughts that can occupy our minds is, 
whence the individaul objects that pre- 
sent themselves in such infinity? We 
spend much of our lives in answering 
this one question, and most of us die 
leaving it to a great extent unsolved. 

In all proper investigation, however, 
each separation is traced to some ante- 
cedent comprehension, from which the 
individual has come. 

The blind man restored to sight would 
be impressed first of all with the number 
of objects in a separated condition. 



THE "DYNAMICS OF SPEECH. 



141 



3. Extension, — which is only hinted 
at in "Relation," "Impression," "Modal- 
ity," but is proven to be a necessary con- 
dition of all life, energy, action, and the 
essential qualification of all creation or 
growth . 

4. Limitation, — which has no place 
in any of the categories named, and is 



not generalized even by Aristotle in any 
one o f his ten, but which has been 
adopted by us, because it represents, not 
only the temporary "position, situation, 
or habit," but also the necessary termi- 
nation of all life, energy, action, growth, 
or state. 

(To be continued.) 



The Voice of the Silence. 



"By one of "Portland's leading citizens, a prominent member of society, who for the present 'will 
remain unnamed. The author, a close student of human nature, holds that character is strong- 
er than circumstances, and undertakes to illustrate his theory in a decidedly ndbel and inter- 
esting manner. The hero and heroine, taken from real life, and undoubtedly %>ell known 
to the majority of our Portland readers, are placed in a purely fictitious environment, where 
they proceed to work out the 'writer's ideas.— Ed. 



Prelude. 



AWAY off on the very edge of the 
world is a land called Nowhere. 
And in this land there was born, 
once upon a time, a child who grew to 
be among women the fairest the sun has 
shone upon since Spartan Helen swayed 
the hearts of men by reason of her 
beauty. 

In a grove of pines, upon a cliff above 
the sands was set the small gray cabin 
that she called her home. At evening, 
watching from its narrow windows, she 
saw the white gulls winging seaward 
and heard the wind whisper secrets to 
the trees. At her feet the wide slow 
river felt the strong pulse of the sea, and 
far out across the golden dunes the surf 
forever fringed the shore with pearl. 

She was Nature's daughter, and had 
from birth companioned with that great 
Mother's sweet and solemn mysteries. 
The moaning music of the bar had been 
her lullaby. The west wind rocked her 
cradle swung beneath the pines, and her 
playmates were the wild young things 
upon the hills. The sweeping tides, the 
dash of waves, the rain and tumult of 
fierce storms, ocean-born, filled her with 
exultant ioy. The tender light of the 
fathomless blue deep was in her eyes, 
her cheek was like the pink lip of a shell 
and her hair a midnight cloud. The 
tall green reeds that bent obedient to the 
lightest breath of summer had not more 
supple grace than she. Her voice, soft 



and low, thrilled with the vibrant melody 
of wind and sea and bird-song, and her 
smile was a flash of heaven's own fire. 

Alone, yet never lonely, leaning so 
close to Nature's heart that she heard 
its rythmic beating, taught by the ever- 
changing loveliness of air and earth and 
sky to read and understand much that is 
ordinarily hidden from mortal sight and 
ken, she grew from child to womanhood, 
a fair human flower blooming as a wild 
rose blooms and blesses some desert 
place with its fragrance and its beauty. 

There were few white faces in that 
Nowhere land. The men who went 
rarely up and down on the flow and ebb 
of the tide were rough and rude of 
speech. Absorbed in wresting a living 
from the untamed wilderness they had 
little thought or care for one of alien 
blood. To the Indians, the. saddened 
lemnants of a fading race, she was the 
"Moon Child," the "White One," and 
they held her in reverence and went 
softly past the pine grove on the cliff 
where her cabin stood. If, perchance 
they met her on the winding beach or on 
the hills they greeted her with fair words 
ami with such gifts as the river and the 
forest yielded. In such wise she lived, 
lacking no essential to a happy, irre- 
sponsible existence. For lo! necessity 
had revealed to her the secret that was 
lost when the flaming sword was drawn 
before the gates of man's forfeited Eden, 



142 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



and he was driven forth to learn through 
tears and toil, anew and blunderingly, 
the lessons forgotten utterly in the awful 
blindness that had smitten the soul of 
the race. 

Time passes there on the edge of the 
continent as it must pass in all the re- 
gions of the earth, and as the years drew 
on the outer world began to crowd upon 
the borders of the land of Nowhere, and 
things were no longer as they had been. 



Chapter I. 

In the breathless quiet of an autumn 
morning Elise lay upon the grass-topped 
hill above the bar and listened to the 
changing music of the surf. She was 
waiting for the mighty discord that, on a 
day like this, always heralded the turn of 
the tide. The first pink flush of the sun- 
rise reflected its warm light in the silver 
of the sleeping sea and a fiilmy mist 
hung over the river where it issued from 
the gates of dawn. The girl upon the 
hill-top revelled in the beauty of the 
awakening day. She had' breakfasted 
on fruit picked as she came through the 
huckleberry thickets in the sands, and 
her finger-tips were stained with purple 
juice, therefore, as she lay at full length 
on the yielding thick brown grass, she 
washed them in the dew and dried them 
in the sun. 

Just beyond the white line of the surf 
a tiny sloop rocked on the smooth swell. 
It had dropped anchor there at twilight 
the night before and its presence was a 
cause for speculation. Often during the 
brief years of her life she had watched 
the ships pass by from the north, and 
from the south, sometimes showing 
shadowy sails toward the horizon, some- 
times skirting the lonely shore, and once 
a vessel had gone to pieces on the sands 
of the South Spit. But that was long 
ago, and from its wreckage her cabin 
had been built. She was a baby then 
and barely remembered the occurrence, 
or recalled the dead faces that, without 
benefit of clergy, were buried beneath 
the shifting dunes across the river. But 
that a boat should seek this untried har- 
bor was a thing to marvel at. 

The hours slipped past. It was dead 
low water and the ebbins: tide had left a 



straight black lane through the gleam- 
ing snow of the breakers. There was 
ominous silence for a little space that 
was broken at last by a rending crash as 
if the sea and shore had been suddenly 
reft asunder. Then slowly, impercept- 
ibly at first, the tide came swelling in. 
And on its generous breast the sloop, 
towed by six stalwart oarsmen in a small 
boat, was borne through the gap in the 
dangerous wall of surf, in safety to the 
river. 

With her chin resting upon her clasped 
hands, her elbows cushioned in the soft 
grass, Elise watched the progress of 
that daring crew, sweeping in on the 
flood. When they drew abreast of her 
hill-top she sprang up and waved her 
hands, calling out the Indian word for 
welcome. They shouted back something 
in a tongue she did not understand, and 
laughed. Full of excitement and stirred 
by a curiosity as unusual as it was keen, 
she ran down the steep sliding sands to 
the beach. At a point where the chan- 
nel deepened near the shore the rowers 
came so near that she saw their features 
clearly and distinctly, and one, a smooth- 
faced youth who sat in the bow met her 
questioning eyes with a glance that sent 
the swift red to' her cheek and brow. 

She lingered and let them pass her 
after this. She no longer felt curious or 
concerned about their movements and 
intentions, but was vaguely disturbed, 
she knew not why. When the sloop had 
disappeared around a bend in the stream 
she climbed to the brow of the cliff and 
throwing herself down upon a springing 
bed of dwarfed and wind-matted huckle- 
berry bushes gave the day to dreams. 

Meantime the sloop, towed to a safe 
anchorage off the Indian village, a clus- 
ter of miserable huts on the flats around 
the Point, lay with her head to the 
stream while her owners explored the 
new region which they held to be theirs 
by right of discovery. 

"It's a God-forsaken place!" exclaimed 
the captain, a broad-shouldered son of 
Norway's rugged coast. 

"All the better for our purpose," re- 
plied his companion. "We did not come 
here seeking society, human or divine. 
The aborigines haven't spirit enough to 
interfere, judging from their general ap- 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



143 



pearance, and there doesn't seem to be 
anyone else, if we except the goddess of 
the shore who greeted our arrival." 

"The river is full of salmon, that is the 
one apparent fact that appeals to me," 
said the captain, and proceeded to give 
orders for the disembarking of the 
stores. And that was the manner in which 
the city of Kama, in the land of No- 
where was founded, though few people 
care today to remember it. 

For several days Elise kept to the cliff 
and to her cabin, though she was con- 
scious of a vague restlessness that she 
had never known before. As yet she 
had neither seen nor heard aught further 
of the strange invaders of her peaceful 
realm, and she began to think thev 
might have gone on up the river and she 
would never behold them again. But 
one morning going down to the beach 
to bathe she heard voices. She had just 
time to draw back into the shelter of a 
storm-twisted, up-rooted spruce when 
around the bend two men came slowly 
walking and examining the tide-marks 
and the drift-wood along the shore. 
They paused so near her hiding place 
that she could have reached and touched 
them with her strong white hands. And 
one was the youth who had looked at 
Tier in that disturbing fashion a few days 
before. She wished now he would pass 
on and let her bathe in peace. But when 
she was again alone she glanced about 
half fearfully before she cast her mantle 
•on the sand and slipped into the tide. 

Coming back along the beach an hour 
later, the two men noticed the prints of 
slender bare feet leading from the water's 
edge across the damp sands to a flight of 
rude steps going up to meet a narrow 
path that lost itself in the dense tangle 
of manzinita and sallal under the pines. 

"There is probably an Indian hut up 
there," remarked black-bearded Hanson, 
the smith of the company. "If I wasn't 
so hungry I'd go up and investigate." 

His companion laughed. "Go on to 
your dinner/ he said, "I am not hungry, 
and I am going to see where this trail 
leads to." He sprang up the steps, 
pausing at the top to wave to Hanson 
swinging along toward the Point beyond 
which the village lay. Then he turned 
and came face to face with Elise. 



"I — I hope — that is I do not mean to 
intrude," he stammered, more embar- 
rassed than surprised, for now when he 
saw her again he became suddenly aware 
that this was what he had been expecting 
and longing for ever since that first day 
when her strange beauty illuminated the 
desolation of the lonely shore. 

Her eyes drooped under his, and the 
warm color crept up to her forehead. 
"No," she said softly, "I am glad you are 
here, this," pointing along the path to 
the open door of her cabin, "is my 
home." 

"Do you live alone in this wild place?" 

"Yes?' 

"And are you never afraid?" 

She lifted her eyes to his face in doubt 
and questioning. She but half grasped 
the meaning of his words, but she an- 
swered slowly, "No, I think not; there 
is nothing to fear." 

"But you must be very lonely some- 
times, there are not many people coming 
and going on the river." 

She shook her head. "No, I am never 
lonely, but,"' she smiled and looked up 
at the brown pine branches overhead, 
"I shall be when you go away." 

And yet this was the first white man 
to whom she had ever spoken face to 
face who was not twice her years, and 
unshorn and uncouth. The instinct is 
inborn in womankind. Perhaps Eve 
coquetted with the serpent in the garden 
before the fall. 

After that there were few days on 
which they did not meet. The meetings 
were, for the most part, brief. Elise 
would have had it otherwise, but Odin 
was busy. The company of which he 
was a member were working night and 
day to get their stores under cover and 
their buildings ready for the season's 
run of salmon. They found the Indians 
friendly and disposed to help, and the 
prospect for immediate returns from 
their daring investment of labor and 
capital in an unknown land was promis- 
ing. The men chaffed Odin about his 
"pretty white girl" at first, but they 
had other and more serious matters in 
hand and did not interfere though his 
was not the only young head among 
them that could be turned by a lovely 
face. They alwavs greeted her with a 



144 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



certain deference and respect when they 
passed her on the beach or in her canoe 
on the river. She representd, in a way 
which they dimly recognized, their ab- 
sent wives, mothers and sweethearts. 
And though they wondered not a little 
over her presence in this uncivilized 
place, they forebore to question. 

Sometimes in the tender glow of the 
warm autumn twilight Odin came down 
the river in his skiff and found the girl 
waiting, and they would drift on the tide 
where never a ripple stirred, till the stars 
came out and the red flush faded from 
the western sky. Sometimes they wan- 
dered down the beach and climbed the 
hill above the bar to the grass-cushioned 
couch where Elise had lam and watched 
the sloop come in on that eventful morn- 
ing. And once, it was a day long to be 
remembered for more reasons than one, 
they left the river and following the surf- 
bordered sands came at length to a 
brook that spread itself out in wide shal- 
lows to meet the sea. Upon its brink 
they paused and Elise glanced down at 
her embroidered moccasins half irreso- 
lutely. For the first time in her brief ex- 
perience she hesitated to do the thing 
that impulse prompted. 

"We cannot cross," said Odin, but she 
pointed to the looming headlands shut- 
ting off the sea- view northward. 

"It is beautiful up there," she mur- 
mured. "You can see almost to the 
other side of the world." And she 
sighed regretfully. 

For answer Odin stooped and gath- 
ered her in his arms. "I will carry you," 
ne cried, "that is the only way." 

The brook was wide and the sands 
might be treacherous. It was therefore 
necessary to move slowly and with cau- 
tion, and the warm clasping arms about 
his neck may have confused him some- 
what so that he failed to perceive just 
where the water ended and the dry 
ground began. But at last the soft clasp 
loosened and Elise whispered shyly: "I 
think we are across." 

"Yes," he replied, we are," and reluct- . 
antlv released her. There were many 
rough placs in the steep trail that wound 
up over the headlands, and she, whose 
feet were as accustomed to these rugged 
heights as are the swift feet of the, deer 



let him help her at every turn. 

They came, about noontide to a nar- 
row grassy ravine opening toward the 
sea. At its foot the rocks were bare 
though still wet from the dashing spray. 

"We are hungry," cried Elise, "and 
there is our dinner waiting for us. We 
have only to build a fire and lo, the feast 
is spread!" 

She began to gather dry twigs and 
branches blown from the big spruce 
trees at the head of the ravine in some 
long-past winter storm. And when they 
had their fire burning brightly they went 
down upon the rocks and with the aid 
of Odin's pocket-knife and the sharp 
steel blade which she always carried at 
her belt in her rambles on the hills, it 
was an easy task to obtain enough shell- 
fish for their present needs. 

"Now," said Elise, when this task was 
accomplished, "we must carry them up 
and throw them upon the fire, and then 
we will dine." 

A golden afternoon followed, spent for 
the most part in the little hollow where 
the steep walls shut out all but a scant 
triangle of sea and sky, and where the 
warm sunlight poured its soft splendor 
over them. It is beautiful to be young. 
They were both very young and one of 
them was very fair, the consequence was 
inevitable. Life could never be quite the 
same to either after that day, that perfect 
dsy. And when, in the deepening dusk 
they said good night at the door of the 
cabin in the pine grove their lips met in 
love's first clinging kiss. 

Early in the winter the sloop sailed 
away with the result of the season's work 
safely stored in her hold, but because of 
the values permanently represented in 
machinery, canning apparatus and 
buildings it was deemed advisable to 
leave some one of the company in charge. 
Odin volunteered to remain till spring, 
and Hanson the blacksmith was to keep 
him company. There was little real 
labor to be performed now, and through 
the long stormy winter their time was 
their own to spend as they might please. 
It naturally followed that Odin pleased 
to spend the major part of his 
days and nights beneath the roof that 
sheltered Elise. There was always some 
excuse, some reason by which he justi- 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



145 



fied his presence there. For instance, 
drift-wood must be provided for the fire 
that warmed the day's hearth-stone. Her 
white hands, he held, were unfit for such 
rough work. Hanson agreed with him 
that it would not do to "let a woman 
chop wood," while two strong men 
lounged in idleness in her immediate 
neighborhood. And Hanson gallantly 
offered to do his part toward relieving 
this necessity but found his services not 
required. Sometimes he strolled with 
Odin down the beach, but very rarely 
mounted the steps to the cabin door. 

"He's to be trusted, that boy," he 
would mutter to himself sometimes, sit- 
ting in front of the stove in the office of the 
cannery on a long evening, waiting for 
Odin's return. "He's one in a thous- 
and, so long as he is as he is I've no call 
to interfere." But Hanson did not at- 
tempt to conceal from himself the fact 
that he was dissatisfied with he present 
state of affairs. He thought much of his 
own pink-cheeked daughter, a girl about 
the age of this strange creature who had 
bewitched his companion, and feared she 
might, at this very moment, be dream- 
ing of the youth at whose coming he had 
more than once seen her blue eyes soft- 
en tenderly. He would willingly have 
trusted his motherless Nellie's happiness 
in this young man's keeping, but Odin's 
attentions had never been pronounced 
and there was nothing to do or say but 
wait and hope that everything would 
turn out right in the end. And while he 
waited Elise and Odin together dreamed 
away the golden hours. 

The girl's education was progressing 
at a rapid pace. Love is a capable 
teacher, and when the pupil is keen for 
knowledge time does not drag. There 
were books in the cabin, the remnant of 
a once valuable library. Elise could not 
remember when or how she had learned 
to read, and it is doubtful if she under- 
stood a half of what she read, though she 
read much. However, with Odin's voice 
to interpret, and the tender expressive 
pauses, the illuminating glances and fit- 
ful discussions in the firelight, she began 
to grasp the hidden meaning of the 
printed page. But it was not from 
books that she was gaining her knowl- 
edge and understanding of life. She was 



reading, rather spelling out letter by let- 
ter the lesson of human nature from the 
leaves of a palpitating human heart, and 
the pastime possessed a growing fascin- 
ation for her. At this time she was not 
conscious of any motive, or, indeed, of 
anything beyond the fact of present hap- 
piness. To be taken care of, to have her 
simple wants provided for without exer- 
tion upon her part was an experience so 
altogether new and delightful that she 
gave herself up to the full enjoyment of 
it. 

Now and then the rain-clouds rolled 
away, the wind fell and the sun shone 
out warm and clear as in midsummer, 
and they would spend the day rambling 
over the hills above the bar, or, crossing 
the river, walk miles along the south 
shore, listening to the ever-present sound 
of the surf, silent for the most, or speak- 
ing their half-formed thoughts in brief, 
disjointed sentences. But it was on 
those evenings when the pines were 
shaken by the storm, and the wind 
moaned about the cabin eaves that they 
made real progress. It was very pleas- 
ant in the cabin with the rain beating 
upon the window panes and the drift- 
wood fire burning brightly upon the 
hearth. The rough walls were hung, 
and the floors were spread with furs — 
pelts of the bear and beaver, the panther 
and the seal, tanned and presented to the 
"Moon-Child" by the Indians. Her 
couch which was set against the wall in 
the corner by he fire-place was covered 
with a rug of priceless sea-otter skins so 
skillfully pieced together as to seem but 
one. 

They were sitting here, Elise with her 
bare arms clasped above her head and 
her eyes watching her companion's face, 
he with an unwonted shadow on his 
brow. 

"Why do you speak of going away?" 
she questioned. "Are you then so 
weary of — the river that you long for 
home and friends?" 

"I have no home," he replied; "that 
I have told you often, and no friend so 
dear as the one I shall leave behind when 
I go away from here." 

She brought her clasped hands down 
into her lap and leaned caressingly 
nearer. "Then why do you go?" she 



146 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



murmured softly. 

Her oval cheek was temptingly near 
his lips, he felt the warm pressure of her 
form, but he did not move or even look 
at her. Perhaps he dared not trust him- 
self to do so. 

"Why do you go?" she repeated. 

"Because I must. There are many 
reasons, the chief of which is yourself." 

"I! indeed no! If I furnish a reason 
at all, it is for staying. Do not go; 
please say that you will never leave me." 

She put both her hands in his and 
looked in his eyes. 

"Listen," he held her off at arm's 
length. "I am going to speak plainly, 
more plainly, perhaps, than I have any 
right to speak, but I believe it is better 
that I offend you than that you should 
not understand. I love you!" 

"I have known that for some time. 
Did you think that would offend me?" 

"I am going away because I love 
you." 

"I do not understand — " 

"If I loved you less truly I might be 
tempted to bind you with promises that 
you would sometime regret. But I ask 
you to promise nothing only to believe 
that all my life long I shall love you, and 
only you, and that I seek to win fortune's 
favor only that I may be free to win 
your's." 

"But do you not already know that I 
love you? Have I not told you so a 
thousand times, and in a thousand 
ways?" 

"I know that you think you love me." 

She was puzzled. This was a new note 
in the prelude and it interested her at 
the same time that it awakened a faint 
half fear and doubt. She looked at him 
wonderingly, smiling to see that he 
dared not meet her glance. "He will not 
go, he cannot leave me," she thought ex- 
ultantly. And yet there was something 
very determined in the lines of the face 
fronting her in spite of the averted eyes. 
She tried to come closer, but he held her 
off resolutely. 

"No," he said, "I must tell you while 
I have the will to do it! You cannot 
live here in this fashion all your life. It 
is impossible. When you become ac- 
quainted with the outside world your 
wants, your needs will increase. Your 



heart will change with your changing 
environment, knowing this I have no 
right to claim from you the promise 
which I am sure you would freely give, 
and I do not claim it. Only," and he let 
his eyes rest tenderly upon her now, 
"When the time comes for you to meet 
life's responsibilities I must be in a posi- 
tion to protect you. Do you under- 
stand?" 

She shook her head. "Not altogeth- 
er," she said. "What is this promise 
which you make so much of, and which 
you will not claim though you hold me 
ready to grant it?" 

"Why," he answered, the color flush- 
ing his boyish cheek, "the pledge that a 
man asks of the woman he loves when 
he feels that he justly can. I should ask 
you to become my wife." 

"Your wife!" Then wonderingly, 
"Your wife! that means " 

"Everything!" 

"You would really want me to be 
that — to be everything to you?" 

"If I could be sure that you would be 
happy." 

She gently drew her hands from his 
clinging clasp and walked slowly to the 
window. It was a wild night, but the 
moon, struggling through a cloud-rift, 
struck a faint responsive gleam from the 
black breast of the river where it showed 
briefly between the tossing branches of 
the pines. A sudden sense of desolation 
swept over the girl, a premonition of im- 
pending fate perhaps, she shuddered and 
came back to the fire. 

"I wish," she said, "that we had not 
spoken of these things, they make me 
uncomfortable, and we have been so 
happy!" 



Chapter II. 

The winter could not last forever. 
With the dawn of spring the sloop re- 
turned bringing this time the wives and 
children of the members of the com- 
pany. The Indian village in the flats 
became the scene of busy domestic life, 
cabins went up and household goods, dis- 
embarked from the sloop, were moved 
in and in a very brief space of time the 
new-born town wore an air of semi-civ- 
ilization that robbed it of all attractive- 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



147 



ness in the eyes of Elise who, at Odin's 
request visited the feminine additions to 
its population. 

She was very sweet and gracious in 
her manner to these invaders of her 
realm, but they did not get on, some- 
how. Odin said when she spoke to him 
about it that they did not understand 
each other. "You meet and greet them 
as if you were a princess and they only 
the commonest clay; they resent it, of 
course." 

"But I do not mean to treat them as — 
as inferiors," cried the girl, hurt for the 
first time in their association, by some 
vaguely implied disapproval in his tone. 
"I want them to like me, for your sake, 
and I am ready to like them if they will 
let me." 

'They never will," he said with brutal 
frankness, "because they cannot, and 
never can understand you. There is 
nothing people of our class so quickly 
and deeply resent as condescension. It 
is something they cannot forgive." 

"But the condescension, as you call it, 
in this case, is pure imagination," she 
cried. 

"No, pardon me, it is not imagination. 
It is there and it is very real, though you 
are perhaps unconscious of it." 

"And you resent it, too — " 

' iMo," he replied, "no, you cannot 
help it. They are the common people, 
they are my people, you are not. You 
cannot understand us." 

"And yet," she reminded him, smiling 
half-fearfully, "you claim to understand 
me better than I understand myself. Are 
you quite consistent, my Odin?" 

They were standing in her cabin in the 
gloaming. His hand was upon the latch 
of the door preparatory to departure, 
and now when she repeated with a faint 
touch of kindly derision in her tone, 
"Are you quite consistent, my Odin?" he 
threw his chin up and drew his brows to- 
gether in a way he had when troubled or 
annoyed, and looked — anywhere but at 
his fair questioner. She watched him 
closely, as she had grown to do of late. 
Every change of expression in his clean- 
ly moulded face, every fleeting shadow 
in the deep-set gray eyes, every quiver 
of the thin-lipped sensitive mouth, inter- 
ested her in these lengthening days o\ 



the early spring. There was a dim pre- 
monition of impending change in their 
relationship that disturbed her at times. 
She was vaguely conscious of an ever- 
present feeling of expectancy, and each 
act of his, each word and look took on a 
new meaning. She studied him as she 
would not, and could not have done a 
few months before. Seeing now that he 
either did not intend to answer her ques- 
tion, or that he could not, she asked an- 
other. 

"Why do you say you are of the com- 
mon people? Why do you say that I am 
not? Are we not fashioned from the 
same clav by the hand of the same 
Creator?" 

Still he did not look at her. "You 
ask me difficult questions," he said. "I 
cannot explain as I would, but the fact 
remains, we are not of the same class. 
I am a working-man, a laborer. I have 
broken stones upon the streets of San 
Francisco for my daily bread. I am of 
the people!" 

"You niake distinctions, my Odin," 
her tone was a caress, so soft and sweet 
it was, so tenderly lingering upon the 
pronounciation of his name, "but you 
fail utterly to convince me of a differ- 
ence. I. too, am acquainted with labor. 
Do I not work, keep my cabin and sup- 
ply my own needs? Why, until you 
came and relieved me of the necessity 
for it I did all sorts of hard things, and 
enjoyed doing them." 

"It was not the same; you have never 
worked for wages, you could not, you 
were fashioned for another fate, and you 
can never understand the lower classes." 

"Of which you are?" 

"Of which I am." 

"And yet," she mused, still regarding 
him attentively, "you have the speech 
and manners of a gentleman." 

He winced visibly and drew himself 
up proudly. "That," he said with bitter 
emphasis, "is one of the few privileges of 
which capital has not yet deprived 
labor." 

"You are like Launcelot now," she 
cried. "Don't you remember the 
lines you read only last night? 'Alas! I 
am not great save that it be some far- 
off touch of greatness to know well I am 
not great.' Ah, my Odin, why should 



148 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



we trouble about conditions and classes 
and such things? Have we not each 
other, and is not the summer about to 
dawn? Ah, when you have seen the 
rhododendron bloom upon the hills and 
have bathed in its rose-colored flame 
you will forget that you have ever known 
the name of care. You will stay till the 
rhododendron blooms, and then — — " 

"And then?" he repeated. 

"Ah, who can say what will happen 
when the world is laid under the spell 
of that enchantment. Kiss me if you 
must go." 

Odin had to submit to much question- 
ing from the women of the company. 
"Who is she? Why does she live here 
alone? It is not the proper thing for a 
girl to do. And her dress! Really, 
Odin, if you have any influence with 
her it is clearly your duty to persuade 
her to dress like a white girl." To which 
Odin replied that, not being very well 
informed in the matter of prevailing 
fashions he did not feel competent to 
advise any woman about her. dress ; he 
preferred to leave that delicate subject 
to the management of the sex most in- 
terested. As for himself he saw nothing 
lacking or inappropriate in the attire of 
Miss Devore. 

The questions, "Who was she?" and 
"Why was she there?" he could only ig- 
nore, since he could not answer them. 
These interrogations had often vexed his 
own waking dreams. He had never pre- 
sumed to put them to the girl herself. 
What she might choose to tell him he 
would gladly hear, but as yet she had 
pleased to tell him next to nothing. 
Once he opened a book and read aloud 
the name written in a cramped old-fash- 
ioned hand upon the fly-leaf, "Ambrose 
Devore." 

"That was my father's name," she re- 
marked, "these books were his, and all 
these things," sweeping her hand about 
the room where many quaint vessels of 
hammered brass and silver hung against 
the rude wall, "were his. He built this 
cabin before he went away and left me 
with Satla. Satla was very old and I 
was very young. Indians live to a great- 
er age than white people, I think, but in 
a little while, a few years, I have for- 
gotten how many, she, too, went away. 



Since then I have been alone. Alone 
till you came, my Odin.'' 

She clasped her hands upon his arm 
and smiled up into his face. "I shall 
never be alone again." 

And that was all he knew, or, he told 
himself, was likely to know of her past 
history. But the present — was it not 
his? and the future — he did not allow 
himself to dream much about the future. 

One May morning, Odin coming 
down the river, found Elise sitting upon 
the steps that led from the beach up to 
the pine grove. 

"I am waiting for you," she cried; "I 
have something to show you, a beautiful 
surprise. Tie your boat and come with 
me." 

To land and secure the light skiff out 
of reach of the tide was the work of a 
moment. As he mounted the steps she 
rose and resting her two hands upon his 
shoulders leaned down , offering her 
cheek which he touched briefly with his 
lips. There was a reserve, amounting 
almost to reluctance in his response to 
all affectionate demonstrations from her. 
He never volunteered a caress. 

"No," she cried gaily when they 
reached the cabin door, "we are not go- 
ing in ; come this way, follow me, I will 
lead you into Paradise." 

She turned off down the narrow path 
that ended, or seemed to end abruptly 
at the spring, cut off suddenly by a 
dense tangle of chapaoral. But Elise, 
stooping, put aside the screen of slender 
green-leaved branches and led him into 
the semi-darkness of a trail worn deep 
in the moss-carpeted sand by the moc- 
casined feet of countless generations of 
red men. The way was so narrow that 
they had almost to force their way at 
times through the crowding under- 
growth. In the deeper hollows under 
the big spruce trees, the sallal and giant 
ferns met above their heads and they 
groped their passage through a dimly 
lighted tunnel of rank vegetation. As 
the trail wound up the steep slope of the 
first ridge they came again into the sun- 
light and from the summit caught a 
glimpse of the sea between brown trunks 
and soughing branches of the pines. 
They rested here a moment leaning 
against the mossy bank. 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



149 



"We are almost there," Elise said. 
"This hill-top is the western gateway. 
Come!" 

A turn in the path shut out the sight 
and sound of the sea. They stood upon 
the verge of a deep curving hollow from 
the center of which rose a little knoll. 
Overhead the spreading, flat-topped 
pines shut out the sky. Below, to the 
right, to the left, crowning the knoll and 
crowding the hollow, a brimming blos- 
soming valley of tender pink that rav- 



ished the eyes, and steeped the senses in 
a langourous sweet calm. The rhodo- 
dendron was in bloom! 

Elise reached out her hands, clasped 
and drew them back against her heart. 
"Ah!" she breathed, "it is beautiful!" 

"Yes," he replied, it is beautiful, beau- 
tiful." But he was. looking at her as he 
said it, and in all that sea of bloom the 
only flower that he beheld was her face. 

(To be continued.) 



The University of Washington. 



<By EDMOND S. SMEANY, Professor of History, University of Washington. 



IT is a part of the American form of 
government that the state should 
recognize its responsibility toward 
the youth of the land. When an Amer- 
ican state recognizes a responsibility it 
usually proceeds with commendable di- 
rectness to discharge the same with full 
measure. Washington territory was or- 
ganized as an integral part of the Union 
by act of congress dated March 2, 1853. 
At that time the American people had 
behind them more than two centuries of 
experience with educational problems. 
Harvard had been founded in 1636, 
William and Mary's college in 1693, and 
Yale college in 1700. While stumps 
still lingered in the new streets of the 
town of New Haven, those sturdy New 
England pioneers in 1641 agreed to es- 
tablish and maintain from the common 
funds a public school. Thus they be- 
gan one of the first systems of free pub- 
lic schools in human history. The plan 
spread, and withim eight years we find 
that there was not a New England col- 
ony, with the exception of Rhode Island, 
in which some degree of education was 
not compulsory. American history 
shows that from that day to this every 
hardy American p ; oneer who pushes out 
to conquer the wilderness builds for his 
family a home, for his kine a shelter, and 
then forthwith proceeds to join with his 
nearest neighbors to erect and maintain 
a common school. 



Is it any wonder then that we should 
find that this idea of the common school 
had so permeated the public mind and 
so influenced the public policy that the 
act of congress which organized the ter- 
ritory of Washington should contain the 
generous provision that two sections of 
land in every township should be grant- 
ed and dedicated to the support of com- 
mon schools? 

Is it any wonder that we should find 
that the establishment and maintenance 
of schools should be among the prob- 
lems solved by the very first session of 
the territorial legislature? 

Let us glance briefly at that past, for 
out of it has grown the present. Upon 
the organization of the first territorial 
legislature Governor Isaac Ingalls Stev- 
ens, first and greatest of the common- 
wealth's executives, delivered his initial 
message, filled with wholesome and wise 
recommendations. Among other things 
he strongly advised immediate action in 
the establishment of a system of com- 
mon schools. In this portion of his mes- 
sage he uses these words: "A great 
champion of liberty said, more than 200 
years ago, that the true object of a com- 
plete and generous education was to fit 
man to perform justly, skillfully, and 
magnanimously, all the offices, both pri- 
vate and public, of peace and war." 

The legislature was ready to act, and 
the common school system was at once 



150 



THE "PACIFIC ^MONTHLY. 



established, and has grown to such pro- 
portions and attained such a degree of 
•excellence that it is a pride of the people. 
In closing his recommendations as to 
•education, Governor Stevens said: ''I 
"will also recommend that congress be 
memorialized to appropriate land for a 
university." The legislature also acted 
promptly in this matter. Congress had 
granted for the Oregon university two 
townships of land, and on March 22, 
1854, congress was memorialized for two 



wild lands between their settlements, 
they had unbounded ideas of universities. 
On January 29, 1855, they established 
two, one at Seattle, another on Boisfort 
plains, in Lewis county. The agents 
appointed to select the granted lands 
failed to do their part, and on January 
30, 1858, the universities were consoli- 
dated and located on Cowlitz Farm prai- 
rie, in Lewis county. Again the lands 
were not selected. The pioneers along 
the shores of Puget sound grew tired 




President Frank Pierrepont Graves. 



townships of land for the Washington 
university. In the incredibly short 
space of four months, or on July 17, 
1854, congress granted the land as re- 
quested. 

At this time a government census 
showed the total population of the new 
territory to be just 2965 souls. The 
boundaries then extended from the Pa- 
cific ocean to the Rocky mountains, em- 
bracing, besides the present area, por- 
tions of Idaho and Montana. In spite 
of their few numbers and the miles of 



of this jugglery, and on January 25, 
i860, they incorporated the Puget Sound 
University, but before a building could 
be erected the other pioneers relented, 
and in January of 1861, the university 
was relocated in Seattle. Hon. Arthur 
D. Denny, founder of the city, gave a 
ten-acre site. The legislature named 
Rev. Daniel Bagley, John Webster and 
Edmund Carr a commission to select the 
granted lands, to sell them for not less 
than one dollar and a half an acre, and 
to build the university; Thev did it. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. 



151 



The corner stone was laid on May 21, 
1861, and school opened in 1862. The 
sessions have known but few interrup- 
tions from that day to this. 

The territorial history of the institu- 
tion is filled with struggles, with victories 
and defeats, the latter predominating. 
Most of the lands having been used for 
buildings, there was no revenue except 
from the tuition fees paid by the stu- 
dents. Not a dollar was appropriated 
from the treasury of the territory until 
1875, when $1500 was given for repairs. 
In 1877 the sum of $3000 was voted out 
of the treasury to pay the tuition fees 
of scholars to be appointed by the legis- 
lators, the judges and the governor, 
similar provisions were attached to all 
subsequent appropriations, which 

amounted in all, from 1854 to 1889, to 
the sum of $34,350. 

Under the changed conditions of 
statehood, from November, 1889, to the 
present time, the university has fared 
much better. The total appropriations 
for that period amount to $473,492 38, 
of which $225,000 will be paid back upon 
the sale of university lands. The Uni- 
versity of Washington now has one of 
the finest sites in America. It consists 
of 355 acres in the city of Seattle. This 
land has water frontage on both lakes 
Washington and Union. The soil is 
covered with a luxuriant growth of na- 
tive trees and shrubs, most of which will 
be preserved though thousands of speci- 
mens of other plants are being intro- 
duced every year so that the University 
will soon have one of the finest arboreta 
in America. 

The new buildings include one large 
main building, made of stone and 
pressed brick, at a cost of $112,000; a 
small but complete stone observatory 
building; a large frame drill hall and 
gymnasium building, and a brick power 
house. The illustrations of these build- 
ings are made from photographs by a 
student, Clarence B. Blethen, of Seattle. 
Other buildings are planned for the near 
future. 

The main building is well equipped 
with numerous laboratories stocked with 
the latest approved apparatus to aid in 
the institution of chemistry, physics, bi- 
ology; g e °logy an d c i v ^ engineering, as 



well as a library, museum and lecture 
rooms. The latest additions to the fac- 
ulty and to the material equipment pro- 
vide for the work along lines of mining, 
mechanical and electrical engineering, 
showing that the university will keep 
pace with the rapid development of the 
various resources of the state. 

The great event in this year's history 
of the University of Washington is the 
formal inauguration of President Frank 
Pierrepont Graves, Ph. D., LL. D., on 
November 30. Dr. Graves has for three 
years enjoyed the distinction of being 
the youngest college president in Amer- 
ica. He was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
in 1869. He was graduated from Co- 
lumbia university in 1890, and later pur- 
sued post-graduate studies in the large 
universities of the East, including Har- 
vard, Columbia and Boston. He was an 
instructor of Greek in Columbia, later 
professor of classical philology in Tuft's 
college, from which place he went to 
Laramie in 1896, to become President of 
the university of Wyoming. His 
progress has been substantial, as well as 
rapid. He is the author of three Greek 
books: "The Burial Customs of the 
Ancient Greeks," The Philoctetes of 
Sophocles," and "A First Book in 
Greek," the latter being written in con- 
junction with Dr. E. S. Hawes. In 
1895 he was married to Miss Helen Hope 
Wadsworth, a graduate of the Boston 
university, in the class of 1891. Presi- 
dent Graves, with his scholarship, energy 
and enthusiasm,' and his wife, with her 
culture, refinement and sympathetic in- 
terest in all that pertains to the universi- 
ty, have inspired the institution with an 
abundance of new life. 

The attendance has already risen from 
164 at the close of last year, to 230 at 
the close of the first term of this year. 
Besides these regular students there are 
130 teachers who are pursuing free Sat- 
urday courses, established for their ben- 
efit. During the winter months free 
courses will be offered for miners and 
prospectors. Last year these helpful 
courses in mineralogy and assaying were 
highly appreciated by a large number of 
miners and others interested. The at- 
tendance this year will be much greater, 
judging from the number of inquiries. 



152 



THE "PACIFIC ^MONTHLY. 



Besides the regular members of the fac- 
ulty this work will be aided this winter 
by a course of lectures by the superin- 
tendent of the smelter at Everett, Luther 
D. Godshall, Ph. D., who is a member 
of the board of regents. 

The enthusiasm that characterizes this 



Tuition is free to all who are able to do 
the work required. 

Recent laws provide for cities of cer- 
tain size, maintaining free kindergartens. 
The state of Washington thus provides 
free education from the baby schools of 
the kindergarten through the graded 




Observatory. 



year's history of the University is by no 
means confined to the new president, 
the faculty or the board of regents. It 
has stirred the entire student body. 
There are new musical clubs, an orches- 
tra, new literary societies, and a general 
activity that ensures success. 

The door of the university is open. 



schools, the high schools and on to the 
exalted degree of doctor of philosophy, 
from the post-graduate studies in the 
state university. No citizen can ask 
more, no state can do more for the youth 
of the land in whose keeping is the fut- 
ure of the nation. 



Man. 



Op'ning the map of God's extensive plan, 
We find a little isle, this life of man; 
Eternity's unknown expanse appears 
Arching around and limiting his years. 
The busy race examine and explore 
Each creek and cavern of the dang'rous 

shore, 
With care collect what in their eyes excels, 
Some shining pebbles and some weeds and 

shells; 



Thus laden, dream that they are rich and 

great, 
And happiest he, that groans beneath his 

weight. 
The waves overtake them in their serious 

play, 
And every hour sweeps multitudes away; 
They shrink and sink, survivors start and 

weep, 
Pursue their sport and follow to the deep. 

Cozover* 



History records no greater progress 
in any line of human endeavor than 
has been made in science during the 
nineteenth century. The practical in- 
ception, development, and perfection of 
the many uses of steam have all been 
crowded into less than the one hundred 
years that are so soon to be brought to a 
close, and to even enumerate the com- 
forts and conveniences that have been 
made possible through the agency of 
steam alone fills us with amazement. 
Yet, with all the results that have direct- 
ly or indirectly come from it, steam takes 
a comparatively insignificant place when 
we consider what science (we use the 
term in its broadest meaning) has accom- 
plished. The nineteenth century, there- 
fore, will be known as the scientific age. 
If distance, both on land and on sea, has 
not been entirely annihilated, it has at 
least been brought largely under the con- 
trol of man, and for the transaction of 
business we may indeed say that it has 
been annihilated. The locomotive thun- 
ders over its steel rails at more than a mile 
a minute, the ocean greyhound piows its 
way through foaming billows at almost 
the same rate, and what these lack the 
telephone, and the telegraph, furnish. 
This said, the introduction to the wonder- 
ful story of progress is hardly made, and 
to go into any detailed consideration of 
the subject would take us beyond the 
bounds of our present purpose. In all 
of the lists, however, that have been made 
of the inventions and discoveries along 
the lines of science that have taken place 
during the nineteenth century there have 
been some omissions of such importance 
as to suggest a compilation of the list 
that follows : ' 

In travel and transportation — The lo- 
comotive, the steamship, the electric car, 
the pneumatic tube, the bicycle, the grain 
screw and elevator, the hydraulic, steam, 
and electric elevators, and the horseless 
carriage. 

For the recording and transmission of 
thought — The telegraph, the telephone, 



the phonograph, the gramaphone, the 
kinetescope, short-hand, the typewriter, 
the mimeograph, electrotyping and ster- 
eotyping, the postal card and envelope, 
postage stamp, marine and military sig- 
nal code, wireless telegraphy, the cylin- 
der printing press and the perfecting 
printing press. 

In light and lighting — The friction 
match, petroleum, coal gas, gasolene, 
electric lighting and acetylene gas. 

In heating — Steam, hot air, hot water, 
and electric. 

In metallurgry — The Bessemer pro- 
cess of converting pig iron into steel, 
Harveyized and nickle steel, the reduc- 
tion of gold ores by the cyanide process. 

In physical science — The unity of the 
constitution of the universe, the wave 
theory of light, molecular theory of mat- 
ter, conservation and correlation of en- 
ergy, Weber's law, vibratory theory of 
atoms, variations and survivals of spe- 
cies, the cell theory of organisms, the 
vortex theory of atoms, overtones in 
musical notes and the scientific basis of 
music. ' i 

In photography — Photography itself, 
X rays, color photography and from it 
printing in natural colors, the applica- 
tion of photography to astronomy and 
physiologoy, and engraving of photo- 
graphs (half-tones) by acid etching. 

New sciences — Geology, biology, phil- 
ology, botany, history, psychology, bac- 
teriology, the spectroscope, analysis of 
light, chemistry and archaeology. 

New inventions — Harvesting machin- 
ery, cotton gin, smokeless powder, sew- 
ing machine, planing and wood-working 
machinery, the diamond drill, high ex- 
plosives, new gases and "liquid air," 
paper-making machines, the dynamo, 
breach-loading ballistics, steel building 
material, the machine typesetter, armored 
ships, the hydrostatic press, the turbine 
water- wheel, the screw propeller, iron- 
clad vessels, roller process of making 
flour, stem-winding watches, logging 
machinery, land cleaning machinery, 



154 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



Bowers' dredger, house-moving appar- 
atus, the manufacture of ice and hermeti- 
cal sealing, the compound of sulphur 
with India rubber, and countless others. 
In medicine and surgery — Anaesthetics 
and the organic, origin of disease. 

Besides these may be mentioned scien- 
tific weather forecasting, which is rapidly 
becoming more and more accurate, and 
hence of greater importance. 

It is difficult to realize that all of these 
wonderful inventions and discoveries in 
science have taken place during the nine- 
teenth century, and that hitherto the 
world has been in comparative darkness. 
It is difficult to realize that we have been 
so singularly fortunate above those of 
other centuries, and now that the open- 
ing days of a new century are at hand 
we look forward with wonder, and ask, 
can this continue? Is the scientific prog- 
ress so wonderfully introduced by steam 
to continue, or is the thought of the 
world during the next century to take 
some new, and to some an unexpected 
turn? Present conditions point to the 
latter theory as the most probable. If 
so, in what line may we expect to look 
for progress and development? Cer- 
tainly not in literature. The field has 
been too thoroughly exploited already. 
Homer, Virgil, Dante, Chaucer, Spencer, 
Shakespeare, Milton, Byron, Browning, 
Goethe, Schiller, Hugo and Hawthorne 
are not likely to be equalled, much less 
surpassed, by the literary lights of the 
next century. Certainly not in art. Two 
hundred centuries have struggled in vain 
to reach the standard set by Greece in 
sculpture and Italy in painting. Phidias 
and Michael Angelo! Is the century 
that produced an Edison, a Tesla, to turn 
about and discredit such names as these 
in art? Certainly not in philosophy. 
The sturdy old philosophers of Greece 
would stir in their graves at the thought. 
Plato, Socrates, Descartes, Bacon, Spen- 
cer. The mere mention of such names is 
sufficient argument. Certainly not in 
music. Rubinstein said, spme years ago: 
"With the supremacy of Bismarck on 
the one hand and Wagnerism on the 
other, with men's ideals all reversed, 
dawns the critical moment for music. 
Technique" (the scientific side) "has 
taken gigantic strides, but composition, 



to speak frankly, has come to an end. Its 
parting knell was rung when the last in- 
comparable notes of Chopin died away." 
Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Haydn 
and Chopin have set the standard in 
music, and it is inconceivable that such a 
reaction could take place after a century 
of science and money-getting as to pro- 
duce music more sublime than that 
which has already been given to the 
world. What, then, is left for us if we 
are not to see the progress along any of 
these lines? We may in our haste say 
that there is nothing" worthy left. Ah 
yes! we have forgotten. There is some- 
thing higher, nobler, more divine than 
literature, or art, or philosophy or music, 
and it is this — the most natural thing in 
the world, a reaction against a century 
of headlong rush of science, and each for 
himself — that is left for us. It is the 
downing of the selfishness in men's na- 
tures — a vast movement forward to up- 
lift our fellow beings, to create more 
humane conditions, to make life what it 
was intended that it should be; in short, 
it is to improve the social conditions of 
the masses — what we call social progress. 
This is the task, as we see it, for the 
coming century. How well it will be 
performed will not depend upon a Mich- 
ael Angelo, a Plato, a Shakespeare, or a 
Mozart. It will depend upon the great 
masse's who are to come after us, and in 
the proper performance of which each 
individual will have a personal interest 
and a personal stake. It will depend 
upon the proper education of our sons 
and daughters so that they shall be pre- 
pared to meet and bear the responsibilities 
which will come upon them, and nobly 
perform the duties of American citizen- 
ship. 

J- 

Much is being said and written about 
the advisability of our holding the Phil- 
ippines, and judging from the interest 
which is taken in the question and the 
diversity of opinions that are expressed 
it seems inevitable that the question will 
come up for final settlement at the next 
presidential election. Doubtless by that 
time "expansion" will be pretty well 
threshed over, and the people in a posi- 
tion to cast their votes intelligently. At 



OUR POINT OF VIEW. 



155 



the present time, however, there seems 
to be but one standpoint which is gener- 
ally considered, and it is not altogether 
to our credit that this is so; for, instead 
of being actuated by the spirit which 
characterized the heroes of '76, who laid 
down their lives for the principle that 
"government must derive its just powers 
from the consent of the governed," and 
the principle upon which this common- 
wealth was subsequently founded, the 
question has descended to this, Would it 
be a good investment financially? 

Surely this great nation, conceived 
upon principles so diametrially opposed 
to those embodied in such a question, 
has not so far forgotten its heroes and its 
traditions and has become so absorbed in 
finances as to lose sight of the higher con- 
siderations which should influence it in 
deciding a question of this kind. The 
question of duty here is paramount. Of 
course we cannot consistently turn the 
Philippines over to a foreign power, 
neither can we return them to Spain for 
misrule and corruption. There is no 
shifting our responsibility in the matter. 
But we should not force the Philippines 
to accept any government that may be 
obnoxious to them, whatever that gov- 
ernment may be. The people to be gov- 
erned are the ones to be considered. 
Finances and trade advantages have 
nothing to do with the preliminary ques- 
tion, unless we wish to prostitute our 
noblest traditions to the love of money. 
If the people of the Philippines, there- 
fore, accept willingly a government of 
the United States pure and simple all 
well and good. But if they prefer to try 
it themselves under the kindly protection 
of this great nation, it is clearly our duty 
to let them do so. We have no rights 
over the 9,000,000 people who inhabit 
those islands, and there is no logical 
ground on which we can compel them to 
accept the form of government that we 
may prescribe. Duty is the first consid- 
eration, and the substitution of anything 
else for it shows degeneration. 



There is always a charm in turning the 
pages of a new book. We take it in our 
hands with feelings akin to reverence 
and pride, and vistas of thought rise be- 



fore us. We have put the old book aside. 
Its leaves are perhaps torn and soiled, 
and though we lay it away with relief, 
nevertheless there are present feelings of 
regret as well. Here is a page that rep- 
resents some neglected opportunity, and 
we turn it quickly. Here a page full of 
pleasanter recollections, and there an- 
other of regret. But the old book is 
done with now. Its torn leaves and 
memories are things of the past, and we 
put it back upon the shelf. We handle 
the new book reverently. Its immense 
possibilities fill us with awe. So it is 
with the years of our lives. We have 
put aside the old volume with its 365 
pages of cares, joys and sorrows. A new 
book awaits our reading, and men pause 
with its unopened pages before them, 
wondering what this marvelous book of 
life has to tell — whether of further joys 
or sorrows, triumphs or failures, and 
there springs up in the heart of each 
man the determination to do his part 
well, to make the most of the reading. 

Thus we are brought face to face with 
one of the strongest impulses of the 
human race — the desire for improvement. 
The pity of it all is that the resolutions 
which are the outcome of this are made 
only to be broken. The leaves of the 
new book are turned with haste or care- 
lessness. The meaning of the divinely 
written pages is misunderstood or mis- 
interpreted through that indifference 
which amounts too often to skepticism, 
and so the story of human life and fruit- 
less endeavor goes on and on in a never- 
ending succession of volumes, and man 
learns but little after all from the perusal 
of the book of years. And yet some 
good must come even from broken reso- 
lutions, and the world is better because 
they have been made. The strong man, 
however, does not make resolutions. He 
acts. "Let us make no vows," there- 
fore, "but let us act as if we had." 

J* 

The fact still remains that the article 
by Captain Cleveland Rockwell on the 
"Physical Characteristics of the North- 
west," which appeared in our October 
number, is by far the most interesting 
and comprehensive article of the kind 
that has yet appeared in print. We are 



156 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



constantly receiving the most flattering 
notices from different parts of the coun- 
try concerning it, and are moved to men- 
tion the matter to our readers as a gen- 
tle reminder at this time because so much 
worthless stuff is being foisted upon the 
public in the guise of annual "literature." 

J* 

Owing to the fact that so many chan- 
ges have been made in this issue in re- 
gard to the type, paper and general 
make-up of the magazine, we have been 
compelled to publish a little later than 
usual. Our purpose has been, and al- 
ways will be, to improve the magazine 
from month to month, and we wish to 
express again our deep appreciation of 
the many kind suggestions and criti- 
cisms that we have received looking to 
the improvement and success of the pub- 
lication. In this connection we would 
like to call the attention of our readers 
and the public generally to the Portland 
firms who are so liberally patronizing 
The Pacific Monthly. It is the adver- 
tiser who has made the American maga- 
zine, the magazine which stands head 
and shoulders above those of the rest of 
the world, possible, and it is to him that 
we must look for support. The best way, 
therefore, to encourage a magazine here 
is to read our advertisements, and, when 
trading with a firm whose advertisement 
appears herein, to mention the fact that 
you saw the "ad." This is a small favor 
to ask of our readers, and a word of this 
kind here and there will be gratefully ap- 
preciated. Try it. You will be glad if 
you do. A further word in regard to 
the date of publication of The Pacific 
Monthly. For the next few months we 
propose to issue on the 15th of the 
< month, but later on to come out on the 
first, working gradually to that end. 



The short story, "That Good May 
Come," which appears in this number of 
The Pacific Monthly, is equal in its way 
to "The Other Woman," that brief but 
intensely interesting study in speculative 
morality written a few years since, by 
Richard Harding Davis, and published 



in The Interior. It is a story that com- 
pels thought, and while it is suggestive 
of the everlasting tragedy that underlies 
human love and life it is not altogether 
sorrowful. Let him who reads learn if 
he can a lesson, but it is first of all a 
warning to the woman. This is our rea- 
son for reproducing it here. 



It is not by precept alone that the great 
lessons of human life were, or are ever to 
be, taught. Love, the author of the sen- 
tient universe, became the example of 
supreme self-abnegation that all man- 
kind might learn the secret of the happi- 
ness that is the birthright of the race. 

"When all's said, and all's suffered and done 
The secret in four little letters 
Lies clasped: it is love that men live by!" 

Xot blind devotion to the individual, 
though that, too, has its place and mis- 
sion in the shaping of human destiny, but 
the wide, far-reaching tender heart that 
enfolds all humankind and beats in uni- 
son with the great heart of the world, — 
the love that understands, that strives al- 
ways to uplift, to improve, to restore; 
that builds, perhaps upon the mountain 
top, perhaps in some quiet corner of the 
valley, a temple to the Ideal and keeps 
the alter fire forever burning though the 
physical man hungers for daily bread or 
dines upon a crust, ft is the man who is 
ready to sacrifice material comfort, the 
things men in the aggregate have grown 
to esteem necessities, but will never low- 
er his standards or desecrate his ideal, 
who has learned how to live. Such an 
one, — it may be he is an artist patiently 
working out with palette and brush the 
beauty that illumes his soul, teaching by 
means of color the single note in the 
harmony of the Universal Whole that is 
given him to teach; he may be a mu- 
sician, an orator, a writer of books, a 
man of affairs, a political leader; he may 
stand in the full front of the public gaze 
or he may toil in obscurity, — but what- 
ever and wherever he may be, he is pre- 
eminently a teacher, divinely taught, who 
lives and works that others may live and 
learn. 



FOR JANUARY. 



Scribncr's 



The Rough Riders. ..Theodore Roosevelt 
On the Fever Ship 

Richard Harding Davis 

Though We Repent 

Louise Chandler Moulton 

The Letters of Robert Louis Stevenson 

Edited by Sidney Colvin 

The Entomologist George W. Cable 

The British Army Manoeuvres 

Capt. W. Elliott Cairnes 

The Muse's Tragedy Edith Wharton 

Song Richard Hovey 

The Peach Arthur Cosslett Smith 

Search-Light Letters Robert Grant 

A Ride Into Cuba for the Red Cross.. 

Charles R. Gill, M. D. 

With the Sirdar 

Major Edward Stuart Wortley 

"Though we repent, can any God give back 
The dear, lost days we might have made so 

fair — 
Turn false to true, and carelessness to care, 

And let us find again what now we lack?" 

Louise Chandler Moulton's little poem 
strikes a note too true to be ignored. 
"Though we repent," what have we, after 
all, but the dust and ashes of Dead Sea 
apples as the fruit of our repentance! 
Richard Hovey, the handsome dark- 
bearded writer of very charming verse, 
has a little "song" in the January Scrib- 
ner's that is more than ordinarily sweet 
and touching. In the first installment 
of "The Entomologist," George W. 
Cable proves that he has lost none of his 
power to charm. Nothing could exceed 
in delicate finish the description of that 
great event, the capture of the Psyche 
crew. "And all this life and beauty, this 
gay glory and tremorous esctacy and 
effort was here for moth-love of one in- 
carnate fever of frail-winged loveliness!" 
The bit of moralizing that follows is 
exquisite. Only Cable can carry us into 
that delightful atmosphere of bloom — of 
blossoming flowers and flowering hu- 
manity. In "Search-Light Letters," 
Robert Grant is somewhat severe in his 
treatment of would-be "first-class passen- 
gers," the men and women without 
ideals. But it cannot be possible that 



"Solomon Grundy" represents Mr. 
Grant's idea of the average American. 
"The Muse's Tragedy" is so obviously 
a woman's story that one does not need 
Edith Wharton's signature to know that 
it was written by one of the sisterhood. 
No one but a woman would so betray 
the sex. There are two men whom the 
world loved and still loves — not reveres 
and honors, particularly, but loves, and 
one of these is Robert Louis Stevenson, 
who though dead yet lives in the hearts 
of his readers. The letters edited by 
Colvin are interesting only because they 
reveal more of the beloved personality 
of the writer. 

The Cosmopolitan — 

The Making of Stained-Glass Windows 

Theodore Dreiser 

Princes of Egypt. .. Charles Chaille-Long 

In Dreamy Hawaii George Merrill 

The Coming Electric Railroad 

Sydney Short 

Joseph's Dream Grant Allen 

Electing a Governor. . .Samuel G. Blythe 

Banked Fires Anna A. Rogers 

A Curious Indian Burial Place 

Jennie Lown 

Irish Leaders in Many Nations 

John Paul Bocock 

The Jews in Jesusalem 

Edwin S.. Wallace 

Autobiography of Napoleon Bonaparte.. 

Cradle Song Wingrove Bathon 

For Maids and Mothers — The- Over- 
taught Woman. .Harry Thurston, Peck 
Some Picture Books of Olden Days . . 

Mary E. Allen 

Great Problems in Organization 

: Charles R. Flint 

The Philippines— Shall They Be An- 
nexed? A H. Whitfield 

A Plea to Peace Ella Wheeler Wilcox 

Sydney Short writes entertainingly in 
this number of the possibilities and prob- 
abilities of electricity supplanting steam. 
"Joseph's Dream" is one of Grant Al- 
len's very vivid illustrations of what 
might happen. "The Autobiography" 
of the great Napoleon is at last finished, 
though the mystery remains. But mys- 
tery or no — the autobiography has been 
one of the most interesting expositions 



158 



THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y. 



of the life and times of Napoleon that has 
been given to the public. "The Over- 
taught Woman" is, to my mind, the most 
important article between the covers of 
the Cosmopolitan for January. Every 
mother who has daughters to educate 
should read it and ponder. Every young 
woman who is spurred by an ambition to 
obtain a "higher education" and to emu- 
late man in his specialized work, should 
peruse Mr. Harry Thurston Peck's wise 
dissertation upon the incompetencies of 
sex and be warned in time. George W. 
Merrill gives one the idea that "In 
Dreamy Hawaii" life is next door to 
Paradise, and Jennie Lown describes 
Mimaluse Island, in the Columbia river, 
where the Chinook Indians in by-gone 
days were wont to deposit the bodies of 
their dead. 

McClurc's — 

Voyaging Under the Sea Simon Lake 

Stalky & Co Rudyard Kipling 

The Day of Battle Stephen Bonsai 

The War on the Sea and Its Lessons 

Capt. A. T. Mahon, U. S. A. 

Rising Wolf-Ghost Dancer 

Hamlin Garland 

The Parrot and the Melodrama 

E. Nesbit 

The Later Life of Lincoln 

Ida M. Tarbell 

From War to War F. W. Hewes 

The Scotch Express Stephen Crane 

The Regular Fighting Man 

James Barnes 

Hamlin Garland is a realist, but he is 
also a poet and an artist, and so is saved 
from the bareness and bleakness that 
usually follows in the wake of realism. 
This virile Westerner paints pictures, 
only he uses his pen instead of a brush, 
and the colors he mixes upon his palette 
are words that glow. "Rising Wolf," 
and the description of the Ghost Dance 
in McClure's for this month is somewhat 
different from anything that he has here- 
tofore written. Kipling's "Stalky & 
Co." is quite as good as the two preced- 
ing stories of the series, but somehow 
Messrs. Stalky Beetle and McTurk are 
not so interesting in this number. Per- 
haps they are growing up too fast. 
Stephen Crane is always Stephen Crane, 
no matter whether he writes of war or 
peace or speeding express trains. Simon 
Lake's description of the "Argonaut," 



the submarine boat, is wonderful enough 
to turn Jules Verne pale with envy. 
"The Parrot and the Melodrama," by E. 
Nesbit, is a delightfully written bit of 
romance of the rather old-fashioned sort, 
and ends as all romances should, in a 
marriage. 

Harper's — 

The Naval Campaign of 1898 in the 

West Indies S. A. Staunton, U. S. A. 

Their Silver Wedding Journey 

William Dean Howells 

A Glimpse of Nubia, Miscalled "The 

Soudan" Capt. T. C. S. Speedy 

The Weakness of the Executive 

Power in Democracy 

Henry Loomis Nelson 

The Love of Parson Lord 

Mary E. Wilkins 

The Span of Life 

. .Wm. McLennan and J. N. Mcllwraith 
The Sultan at Home 

Sidney Whitman, F. R. G. S. 

The Naval Lessons of the War 

H. W. Wilson 

The Romance of Chinkapin Castle. . 

Ruth McEnery Stuart 

Fifty Years of Francis Joseph 

Sydney Brooks 

Brother Jonathan's Colonies 

Albert Bushnell Hart 

Bismarck the Man and the Statesman 

Charlton T. Lewis 

Story F. Hopkinson Smith 

Sidney Whitman may be right in his 
estimate of the Turk, as an individual, 
but English-speaking people, in the light 
of modern history, must question the 
correctness of his views of him as a na- 
tion. We are willing to believe in the 
gratitude — in that "feeling of attachment 
towards English and Englishmen in gen- 
eral"— but we do take with a grain of al- 
lowance the assertion that England has 
made a mistake, an irretrievable blunder 
in her treatment of the "unspeakable." 
Captain T. C. S. Speed} 's "Glimpse of 
Nubia" is full of interest, particularly 
that portion of it descriptive of native 
hunting. In speaking of Bismarck's au- 
tobiography in January Harper's, Charl- 
ton T. Lewis says: "It is a book of con- 
fessions, conscious and unconscious. 
There is nothing like it in literature. * * * 
The greatest men have almost always 
been too reserved for the curious interest 
of posterity; and when, like Frederick II 
and Napoleon, they have been eager and 
lavish in giving information, we must be 



THE MAGAZINES. 



159 



glad to accept it, not as what we wish 
for, but as what they would have us see. 
The curtain is lifted, but the scenes are 
set to shut off most of the stage. Bismarck, 
on the other hand, gives us an unre- 




PZVINCE BT^lARCK 

After an engraving 
Copyright. 1898, by Harpkr k Frothfrs 

served sweep of vision, a reckless thor- 
oughness of exposure, which seems to 
negative all concealment." Mary E. 
Wilkins has given us, in "The Love of 
Parson Lord" a story so sweet and 
touching that, coming from her pen, it is 
a surprise. For once she has made the 
New England character loveable in spite 
of its hardness and coldness. 

Century — 

The Carlyles in Scotland. ..John Patrick 
Jonathan and John. .Charles D. Roberts 
On a Boy's First Reading of "Henry 

V." S. Weir Mitchell 

Via Crusis F. Marion Crawford 

Uncle Still's Famous Weather Pre- 
diction Ruth McBnery Stuart 

Alexander the Great 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler 

The Many-Sided Franklin 

Paul Leicester Ford 

The Darkened Day. .John Vance Cheney 
Carlyle's Dramatic Portrayal of Char- 
acter Florence Hotchkiss 

His Wife Mrs. Poultney Bigelow 

The Sinking of the Merrimac 

Lieutenant Hobson 

An American in Madrid During the 

War Edmund Kelly 

"You Taught Me Memory" 

Curtis Hidden Page 



Advantages of the Nicaragua Canal.. 
Capt. A. S. Crownenshield, U. S. N. 

The Limerick Tigers 

Harry Stillwell Edwards 

Ruth McEnery Stuart's negro stories 
are always enjoyable. She understands 
her subject and her characters are real. 
"Uncle Still's Famous Weather Predic- 
tion" is quite as good as anything she 
has produced. "The Darkened Day," by 
John Vance Cheney, strikes again that 
new note that has of late appeared in his 
verse, the tender, half-sadness that is like 
the influence of a sunny October after- 
noon — vaguely, deliciously felt, but not 
understood. Mrs. Poultney Bigelow's 
little story points a moral with a ven- 
geance, and the reader's sympathies are 
all with "The Wife." "The Limerick 
Tigers" is rollicking with fun, though 
probably to the "Tigers" themselves 
their experiences appear to verge upon 
tragedy. There is something peculiar 
apparent at times in Lieutenant Hob- 
son's literary style in his account of "The 
Sinking of the Merrimac," but it is good 
reading nevertheless, and it is well that 
it was written. "Via Crusis" is not alto- 
gether equal to the prior work of the au- 
thor. Marion Crawford is happier in a 
summer latitude. He is not so much, or 
so delightfully at home in England as 
beneath the warm blue skies of Italy. 
However in this number the scene shifts 
to the south, and Mr. Crawford is get- 
ting back into his semi-native environ- 
ment. 

Munsey's — 

Our Relations With the Far East. . 

Charles Denby 

An Unromantic Romance. .A. J. Gillette 
The Advance of American Dramatic 

Art Clement Scott 

A Spanish Painter in America 

Lena Cooper 

The King's Mirror Anthony Hope 

The Point of View. . . .Walter L. Hawley 
Luxurious Bachelordom. .James L. Ford 
The Garden of Swords.. Max Pemberton 
"From the Depths of Some Divine 

Despair" Tom Hall 

The Home of Jefferson. Maud H. Peterson 
Should Fortune Come 

Theodosia P. Garrison 

Swallow H. Rider Haggard 

Afloat Grace H. Boutelle 

Something More About Advertising.. 

Frank A. Munsey 

The most interesting thing in Mun- 
sey's this month is the beginning of An- 



160 THE "PACIFIC MONTHLY. 

thony Hope's new story, "The Mirror of enveloped when we beheld and admired 
the King." It is written as only An- them through the rosy mists of our child- 
thony Hope can write, and it bids fair to hood days. The particular personage to 
outclass "The Prisoner of Zenda" in whom we are introduced in the opening 
point of literary merit. There is a dig- chapters of this new royal chronicle is a 
nity and seriousness apparent that in no very fascinating youth, and already the 
way detracts from the graceful ease of possibilities for future romantic compli- 
Mr. Hope's inimitable style. This is a cations are in sight. But there is some- 
republican age, but in spite of it we like thing besides romance here, a deeper 
to be presented at court, and this enter- vein than has hitherto characterized the 
taining writer permits his readers to as- work of Anthony Hope Hawkins, 
sociate on the most intimate terms with Frank Munsey has something more to 
royalty. Kings and queens, princes and say about "Advertising" that is well 
princesses, become under his generous worth reading, since it is doubtless the 
and kindly treatment delightfully human, outcome of practical experience. And 
and yet lose nothing of the fairy-like Rider Haggard's "Swallow" is nearly 
glamour of romance in which they were ready for her homeward flight. 



To the Oregon Grape. 

In the crown of our land I will twine me a 
flower, 

Which Nature hath given our woods for a 
dower, 

Whose glossy green leaf robs the sun of its 
fire, 

And seems wet, as with rain, in its lustrous 
attire. 

The glintings of gold in its round blossoms 
shine, 

In its fruit is the red of the generous wine, 

Or a tint amethystine perchance 'twill dis- 
close, 

Or a jewel of jet 'mid the cold wintry snows. 

From the summits' basaltic whence water- 
falls pour, 

Their bright crystal floods with a deafening 
roar 

To the canyons below where the sun arrows 
gleam, 

Through the whispering alders that bend o'er 
the stream, 

The crisp crinkled leaf of our plant shall up- 
rear, 

Its sharp pointed lances from year unto year. 

Defending its own, as our sons shall defend 

Our State from invasion till cycles shall end. 

Ever bloom on our hills, give thy smile to 
our vales, 

When the Spring on the soft breeze its frag- 
rance exhales, 

Or the Summer or Fall o'er the forest doth 
throw 

Its robe, or the Winter its mantle of snow. 

Fit emblem of beauty, of vigor and wealth — 

A Trinity joined in the Godhead of Health — 

For a giant who rears hoary Hood as his 
crest, 

And kneels with rapt face to the wave of 
the West. 



/. W. Whalley. 



A RECORD OP THE WORLD'S PROGRESS. 



In Politics — 

The Paris journals publish the predic- 
tion made by the recently deceased 
Hutchinson Bowles, who was the cor- 
respondent for the London Standard 
from that city, that England would make 
war upon France. The Canadian press 
is united in its expression of the belief 
that nothing is to be gained through the 
American-Canadian commission for 
Canada by appealing to the sympathetic 
side of Uncle Sam's nature. It is gen- 
erally conceded that when the United 
States begins to realize the value of the 
Canadian market there will be a change 
of front. "America will pay a fair price 
for Canadian trade when she discovers 
that it is wanted elsewhere," says the Ot- 
tawa Free Press. William J. Bryan, in 
a speech at Lincoln, Nebraska, Decem- 
ber 23, declares that the "American peo- 
ple have not accepted the gold standard 
as final." He deplored the growth of 
what he calls the "paper money trust," 
which he considered a greater menace to 
the country than any foreign foe could 
be. Joseph H. Walker, who is chairman 
of the house banking and currency com- 
mittee, gives out the opinion that there 
will be no currency legislation passed by 
congress before 1904. His reasons for 
this belief is a lack of agreement between 
those in authority at Washington. 
Twenty million dollars are to be paid to 
Spain as "indemnity" for her losses in 
the recent war. It is well done, for 
Spain. She shifts a respons bility which 
she was no longer able to meet, lays 
down a burden too heavy for her to 
carry, and preserves her honor and re- 
plenishes her depleted treasury. 

In Literature — 

"A Fleet in Being," Kipling's splendid 
tribute to the British navy, is fully appre- 
ciated by the Spectator, which does not 



hesitate to declare it a piece of truly 
patriotic work, and his best. One of its 
most commendable features, according 
to the Spectator, is its beautiful discre- 
tion in telling only those things that 
make for the honor and glory of Eng- 
lish maritime power and leaving unsaid 
all that could in any way reflect discredit 
upon the navy, which is one way of say- 
ing that. Mr. Kipling tells the truth, but 
not the whole truth, and is a clear con- 
fession on the part of the great London 
authority, that there are things on the 
English seas that will not bear exposure 
in the strong searchlight of public print. 
William Watson's collected poems are at 
last given to the world in one precious 
volume, and the world is receiving them 
with due measure of gratitude. Glowing 
color, virile strength, melody as pure and 
sweet and tender as the "music of the 
spheres," beauty of form and feature — 
all these are in William Watson's verse, 
and more. He is one of the world's 
great singers. Thomas Hardy has pro- 
duced a volume of verse which he ap- 
propriately calls "Wessex Poems." 
Hardy's poetry is too much like his prose 
to be attractive. There is altogether too 
much of the unhappy and hopeless real- 
ism that characterizes "Jude the Ob- 
scure" apparent in these poems to make 
them pleasant reading." The New God," 
by Richard Voss, is described as a "won- 
der tale" by the critics. It is a story of 
the Christ, and is the work of a poet 
rather than of a novelist. Theodore 
Watts Dunton has produced two re- 
markable novels, "Aylwin," and "The 
Coming of Love." These books are not- 
able for the fact that some of the most 
interesting literary characters of the age 
figure, thinly disguised, in their pages. 
Ian Maclaren has published another 
book. It is called "Afterwards," and it 
is not about Drumtochy. Pinero's 
"Trelawny of the Wells" is the successful 
play of the month. 



162 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



In Art- 
Barnard's new work, "The Hewers," is 
now ready to be put into marble. The 
clay model just finished has been photo- 
graphed, and reveals the inspiration of a 
genius that compels recognition. This 
figure, "The Hewer," is one of a colossal 
group which the sculptor has designed 
and sketched in miniature. Whether the 
group is ever completed or not this one 
figure is in itself a noble work of art, and 
one of which America may well be proud. 
Laura Carroll Dennis says of Bar- 
nard: "Art to him is the expres- 
sion of life, and though he stands 
on the mountain top, his heart throbs 
with the great heart of humanity." 
Emil Sauer, the young pianist of whom 
it is predicted that he will eclipse Pader- 
cwski, arrives in America this month. 
He has already captured Berlin, London 
and St. Petersburg. It remains to be 
seen how a New York audience will re- 
ceive him. 

In Science — 

Six new chemical elements have been 
discovered since the beginning of the 
year 1898. These are krypton, neon, 
metargon, coronium, polonium and eth- 
erion. Etherion is much lighter than 
hydrogen, and is a better conductor of 
heat. It is claimed that it exists not only 
in the solar atmosphere and in that of the 
earth, but that it is diffused throughout 
all space. The physiological effect of 
music has already been recognized, and 
it is now proposed to utilize it in the 
treatment of certain diseases, particular- 
ly in nervous maladies. Hellite is a new 
explosive of American manufacture and 
invention, the power of which is almost 
beyond belief. It is comparatively noise- 
less, and has already passed the experi- 
mental stage. 

Leading Events — 

December 1. — Governor Tanner, of Illinois, 
is indicted by the grand jury for omission of 
duty in connection with the Virden coal 

miners' riots, October 12. The French 

government issues a decree forbidding the 
importation of fruits and plants from the 
United States President Alfaro, of Ecua- 
dor, assumes a dictatorship over that coun- 
try. 



December 2. — Emperor Francis Joseph's 
semi-centennial jubilee is observed through- 
out Austria The United States is recog- 
nized as the supreme power in the province 
of Santiago de Cuba. 

December 3. — American officials begin the 
work of cleaning the streets of Havana. 

December 4. — President Zelaya, of Nica- 
raugua, appoints a new cabinet. 

December 5. — General Henry succeeds Gen- 
eral Brooke as military commander in Porto 

Rico The closing session of the Fifty-fifth 

congress begins with the reading of Presi- 
dent McKinley's annual message. 




KMILIO AGUINALDO 

From dARPER's Weekly. Copyright, 1898, by Harper & 
Brothers. 



December 1-17. — Massachusetts cities hold 

elections Two thousand Spanish troops 

sail from Havana for Spain Orders are is- 
sued for the establishment at Havana of the 
United States garrison, to consist of the 
Eighth and Tenth infantry. 

December 7. — Mass-meetings are held in 
Chicago to protest against the extension of 
the street-railroad franchises for fifty years. 

December 8.— The United States senate 

takes up the Nicaragua Canal bill The 

house passes tne urgent deficiency appropria- 
tion bill, providing funds for the support of 
the army and navy— The court of cassa- 



THE SMONTH. 



163 



tion at Paris oraers a stay of proceedings in 

the Picquart court-martial Henry Laven- 

den is elected a member of the French Acad- 
emy. 

December 9. — M. de Geirs, the new Russian 
minister to China, presents his credentials 
to the emperor, declining to recognize the 
Dowager Empress. 

December 10. — The American and Spanish 
commissioners at Paris sign the peace treaty 
William Black, the novelist, dies. 

December 11.— General Calixto Garcia dies. 

December 12. — Major-General Ludlow is 
appointed first military and civil governor of 

Havana In the house of representatives, 

Hepburn, of Iowa, introduces a bill appro- 
priating $140,000,000 for the construction of 
the Nicaragua canal. 

December 13. — Major-General Brooke is ap- 
pointed military and civil governor of Cuba 

The resignation of Sir William Vernon 

Harcourt as leader of the British liberal 

party is announced Former Chief Justice 

J. B. Waite, of the Oregon supreme court, 

dies The corporation of Yale University 

accepts the resignation of President Dwight. 

December 14. — The United States senate 
continues to debate the Nicaragua Canal bill 
President McKinley addresses the Geor- 
gia legislature at Atlanta. 

December 15. — Spain agrees to pay the 

January coupon on the Cuban debt The 

United States senate passes the urgent de- 
fiviency appropriation bill for the immediate 

needs of the army and navy M. Muller is 

elected president of the Swiss confederation 
A warrant is issued in Paris for the ar- 
rest of Count Ferdinand Esterhazy in con- 
nection with the Dreyfus case. 

December 10. — The American peace com- 
missioners leave Paris The house passes 

a bill to extend the customs and revenue iaw 
of the United States over Hawaii. 

December 17. — The house passes the Indian 
appropriation bill. 



December 18.— The Spanish peace commis- 
sioners arrive at Madrid. 

December 19.— Mr. O. H. Piatt, of Connec- 
ticut, defends the right of the United States 
to hold territory under any form of govern- 
ment it pleases. 

December 20. — President McKinley returns 

to Washington The French senate adopts 

a bill prescribing death for state officials who 
are guilty of treason in time of peace. 

December 21. — Generals Miles and Merritt 
testify before t^e war investigating commis- 
sion at Washington. 

December 23. — Colonel Roosevelt's reports 
on the fighting before Santiago are made 
public. 

December 23. — Spain's minister to the col- 
onies announces that the payment of the 
coupons of the Cuban bonds has been as- 
sured. 

December 24. — Agoncillo and Lopez, the 
Filipino envoys, arrive in New York. 

December 25. — Three thousand employes 
are thrown out of work by the closing down 
of the cotton factories in Augusta, Georgia. 

December 20. — General Merritt, at Chicago, 
discusses the situation in the Philippines. 

December 27. — American troops are fired 

upon in Havana Porto Rico makes known 

her desire to be admitted to the United States 
as a territory. 

December 28. — General Brooke refuses to 

recognize the Cuban insurgent army 

Ho Ho falls into the hands of the Filipinos. 

December 29. — The Cubans again petition 
General Brooke to be permitted to take part 
in the celebration of the Spanish evacuation 
and are refused. 

December 30. — The Cubans consent to post- 
pone their celebration of independence. 

December 31. — At Washington orders are 
issued for additional troops to Cuba to assist 
in maintaining good government there. 



Some Day I Shall Meet My Love. 



In years to come, the Time unwinds 
The tangled skein of days and nights — 

The silken threads of dreams strung thick 
With promises of dear delights — 

Perhaps when summer's soft wind blows, 

Perhaps when falls the winter snows — 
But some day I shall meet my love. 

And some day I shall know my love, 
And watch her eyes with love-light shine, 

Some day shall feel the tender warmth 
And radiance of her smile divine. 

And heaven itself shall stoop to be 

One with our great felicity 
When some day I shall know my love. 



Ah some day I shall woo my love 
With tender words and kisses sweet, 

And my true heart witn all its love 
And passion lay at her dear feet. 

And she will reach her hand to me 

And whisper, "Love, I love but thee," 
When some day I shall woo my love. 

Ah some day I shall wed my love, 
And with love's magic golden key, 

Unlock t_e door to that sweet joy 
That yet is nameless mystery. 

And we shall wander hand in hand 

Through that fair flower-enchanted land, 
When some day I shall wed my love. 

Lischen M. Miller. 



The Semi-Centennial History of Ore- 
gon, the first of a series of historical 
bulletins issued by the university of Ore- 
gon and edited by Professor F. G. 
Young, is welcomed as the public begin- 
ning of a work whose value to the state 
and to posterity it is difficult to over- 
estimate. This number serves to intro- 
duce and explain in a clear and compre- 
hensive manner the nature and import of 
the series. In the supplement which is 
particularly well written, the editor says: 
"The settlement of Oregon was the cli- 
max and consummation of the march of 
the American people across the conti- 
nent. The Pacific was first reached by 
the American pioneer in the Oregon re- 
gion. The passages made by the pio- 
neer families across a 2000-mile stretch 
of wilderness made up of plain, parched 
desert and rugged mountainous regions 
— all infested by fiercest savages — have 
no parallel in history. These migra- 
tions rank in the history of colonization 
where the voyages of Columbus and Ma- 
gellan rank in the history of maritime 
discovery." 

Professor Young has been engaged 
for several years in gathering together 
the authentic records of the early set- 
tlement of Oregon, the letters, the diar- 
ies, the written and verbal accounts of 
pioneer experience. This material he is 
carefully examining and classifying, as 
it comes into his hands, rejecting noth- 
ing that can add, in the smallest measure, 
to the completeness and value of the his- 
torical report and accepting only that 
which is verified truth. The organiza- 
tion of a state historical society, of which 
Professor Young is the head will prove 
without question a very helpful factor in 
the work which so far, has been a labor 
of love on the part of the able editor and 
historian. 

"And Cyrano de Bergerac — you have 
read the play — what do you think of it? 
How did it impress you?" 



"Ah ! At first I was amused, then in- 
terested, and at last filled with a sweet 
and elevating sadness, a sympathy that 
was admiration, a tenderness suffused as 
with golden sunlight. It is beyond crit- 
icism because it touches the heart and 
appeals to the soul." 

"Bismarck's Autobiography," pub- 
lished by Harper & Broth&rs, gives us 
almost a complete history of Europe dur- 
ing the last three-quarters of a century, 
but more than that it gives us a clear in- 
sight into the private and public life of 
the man who, perhaps more than any 
other, made this history. 

The sympathy of the world was with 
Bismarck when, a few years ago, he was 
forced to resign the chancellorship and 
retire to his country place at Friedrichs- 
ruh, with nothing before him but the 
cheerless prospect of an idle and inactive 
old age. He had always been in the thick 
of events, and it goes without saying that 
the day of his retirement was the bitter- 
est day of his long life. But as we now 
see it, that day was a most auspicious 
one for the world. For had the Iron 
Chancellor remained in public lite, it is 
probable that his monumental autobiog- 
raphy would never have been written, 
and we would never have known the 
great diplomat as he really was. The 
idea of an autobiography was first sug- 
gested to Bismarck in 1889, but as he 
was still in active public service at that 
time, it was impossible for him to attempt 
such a task. But after he had sur- 
lendered the reins of government and 
had retired to his peaceful retreat at 
Friedrichsruh, the thought became more 
and more pleasing to him. He was a 
man after Kipling's own heart. He 
liked to do things, and with his life be- 
hind him and the monotony of idleness 
before, it was with relief that he turned 
to the doing of his last great work, 
telling the story of his life. Like 
Napoleon on St. Helena, with the mem- 



"BOOKS. 



165 



ory of his past greatness, living over 
again Jena, Wagram, Waterloo and 
Austerlitz, one may imagine Bismarck 
watching from afar the political arena 
and longing to be again at the helm, 
setting his course for the nation. And 
in telling this his own story, Bismarck is 
once again in the strife, he lives in the 
old time fighting days, and while in the 
old library at Friedrichsruh he dictated 
this wonderful biography to Lothar 
— ucher, the fire and vival picturesque- 
ness of his words prove beyond a doubt 
that the old statesman, in spirit at least, 
was living again in the days when he had 
at last realized his ambition, when 
France was crushed and Germany 
united. 

j* 

The announcement of a new novel by 
H. G. Wells, the far-famed author of 
"The War of the Worlds," will be of 




TT. G. Wells 
(By Courtesy of Hnrper tt Brothers) 

Interest to a large portion of the read- 
ing world that took pleasure in that 
ececntric, fantastic, and delightfully im- 
possible flight of fancy. This new novel 
is entitled "When the Sleeper Wakes/' 
and is to appear as a serial in Harper's 
Weekly during 1899. 
j» 
Herbert Bashford, whose poems have 
already won a degree of recognition from 
an appreciative public, has produced 
through Whitaker & Ray, of San Fran- 



cisco, a volume, of vefse, "Songs of the 
Puget Sea," that is attractive in appear- 
ance. It is a dainty little book in white 
and green and gold, and the type is clear 
and the paper all that it should be. Of 
the quartrains that make up the latter 
half of the volume the best is this: 

"When dashing, gallant Custer fell he gave 
The world a shining name Time cannot dim; 

He was a soldier so intensely brave 
That even Courage paled to follow him." 

There is another, "A Sea Picture," 
that is faultless. "The Derelict" is the 
one poem of the many that is not marred 
by a false note : 

"Men come not nigh when they pass me by, 

For they fear me, everyone, 
As I cleave the gray of the dawning day 

Or drowse, in the summer sun. 

Past unknown isles, for miles and miles 

I wander away to where 
The iceberg lifts and the salt spray drifts 

In the freezing Arctic air. 

I steal by the bars when the flame-winged 
stars 
Have swarmed in the upper blue, 
And the glow and shine of the drenching 
brine 
Like the white fire burns me through. 

I haunt as a ghost the rock-girt coast 
Where the bell-bouy loudly rings 

And the breakers leap to the mighty sweep 
Of the night wind's sable wings." 

Mr. Bashford has an unhappy way of 
marring his work by inartistic touches. 
His verses, with a few exceptions, are 
like pictures that are spoiled by an awk- 
ward stroke of the brush at the finish. 

Beautiful things come out of the South 
besides magnolia blossoms and George 
W. Cable's Creole stories, and not the 
least beautiful that has appeared during 
the year just closed is Howard Weeden's 
"Shadows on the Wall," a volume of 
negro portraits and verse dedicated to 
"The Absent." The black faces that ac- 
company each little poem are drawn 
from life by one who knows and loves 
and understands her subjects. We are so 
accustomed to seeing the negro carica- 
tured that these countenances, tender, 
sad, or rollicking with fun, as the case 
may be, are a revelation. 



College Correspondence 



University of Oregon, Eugene. 

Now that the holidays have passed the 
students are studying fiercely. The 
amount of method in their madness will 
appear at the "exams," which are to be 
held the first week in February. 

A valuable little book, which is all our 
own, has just come from the university 
press. Professor Carson has compiled 
the standard rules and regulations gov- 
erning the making of good English 
prose, especially for the use of the Eng- 
lish department in the university, al- 
though in the preface she expresses the 
hope that the book will become valuable 
to all the students. Brief, but clear and 
concise in wording and form, this book 
gives, in small compass, the important 
rules, leaving out, what so many books 
of like nature do not, that which is ex- 
traneous and confusing. A notable 
thing is the number of blank pages in- 
terspersed to be filled at the student's 
discretion. Intended for use on the 
home campus only, this book would be 
of great assistance to students elsewhere. 

On Friday, January 6, a committee 
of senators and representatives from the 
legislature visited the various class- 
rooms. They were also present at the 
assembly, where each member made a 
few remarks appropriate to the occasion. 

Cheered by the success of last year, 
the U. or O. Glee Club is continuing its 
work with enthusiasm. Though many 
of the members of the '97- '98 club are 
not in the university, the complement of 
membership is full, and the club is earn- 
estly at work preparing for its tenth con- 
cert, to be given some time in March. 
Under so energetic and interested a 
leader as Professor Glen, the club cannot 
fail to repeat its last year's history and 
add still more chapters. 

Laura Miller. 
J* 

University of Washington. 

At the public inauguration of Frank 
Pierrepont Graves, Ph. D., LL. D., as 



president of the university of Washing- 
ton, addresses were delivered by Presi- 
dent David Starr Jordan, of Stanford 
University, and Hon. John R. Rogers, 
governor of the state of Washington, to 
a large audience of the distinguished 
men and women of the commonwealth. 
President George H. King, of the board 
of regents, remarked that the board of 
regents hoped the new president would 
continue his administration for a score 
of years at least. Everything promises a 
prosperous career for this institution, 
and its friends have gathered new hope 
and courage from the auspicious an- 
nouncements at the president's inaugur- 
ation. 

On commencement day over 50 
students will be graduated from the uni- 
versity. This is by far the largest grad- 
uating class in the history of the insti- 
tution. 

George Cameron King, of California, 
one of the privates in Roosevelt's fa- 
mous regiment of "rough riders," gave 
a lecture in the university recently on 
"The Battles in Cuba." 

Students in the departments of geol- 
ogy, chemistry and biology have organ- 
ized the geological society of the uni- 
versity of Washington. They began 
their existence as a society in a modest 
way, and have already given several pro- 
grammes, made up of papers showing 
an earnest and studious research into the 
problems discussed. 

The winter schools for miners is prov- 
ing a success. Between 20 and 30 min- 
ing men are taking advantage of the 
work offered. The increase in this work 
has necessitated the employment of a 
new instructor in metallurgy and min- 
ing. The new member of the faculty is 
Dorsey A. Lyon, A. B.. of Standford 
University. Dr. Lincoln D. Godsball, 
superintendent of the Puget Sound Re- 
duction works, at Everett, who is a mem- 
ber of the board of regents, is giving a 
series of practical lectures in this winter 
school for miners. 



COLLEGE CORRESPONDENCE. 



167 



Rev. William M. Barker, D. D., Bish- 
op of Olympia, has contributed to the 
university library a valuable catalogue 
of "Facsimiles of Manuscripts in Euro- 
pean Archives, Relating to America." 

The free Saturday courses for public 
school teachers and others are still well 
attended by large classes of earnest stu- 
dents. 

Edmond S. Meany. 



Leland Stanford Junior University. 

January i was the day for new vows, 
and this semester opens with a rush of 
renewed energy and determination. 

Encina Hall, in spite of examinations, 
took on a gay appearance the last Friday 
of the semester, for a regulation "cake 
walk," in which dusky gallants and 
beauties in gaudy colors danced to 
Darktown music on the polished floor 
of the Encina clubroom. 

On Tuesday evening, December 20, 
the Encina students presented Captain 
Forrest S. Fisher, of the Varsity eleven 
with a solid silver loving cup, with a 
cardinal pennant and white block "S" 
in enamel, as a token of their appreci- 
ation of his services as 'varsity captain 
and halfback. 

Chester Murphy, of Salem, Or., the 
popular quarterback, has been chosen 
captain for 1899. He is one of the best 
individual players Stanford has ever 
turned out, and has proven himself a 
star player and an excellent field-general. 
His eighty-yard run in this year's 'var- 
sity game has not been equalled in inter- 
collegiate games on the coast. It is a 
notable fact that Murphy, a Salem, Or., 
boy, succeeds Fisher, who hails from The 
Dalles, Or,, giving Oregon a good rep- 
resentation of captains. 

A movement has been begun in the 
senior class to raise a fund for the erec- 
tion of an athletic training house for the 
university teams. The co-operation of 
the alumni, students, faculty and friends 
of the university is to be enlisted. The 
house as planned will cost in the neigh- 
borhood of $4000, and will have, it is 
hoped, a dining-room and kitchen for 
training tables, an assembly-room with 
fireplace, dressing-room with lockers, 



hot and cold showers, rubbing and 
steam rooms. The movement is in 
charge of the '99 finance committee, ot 
which Forrest S. Fisher is chairman. 

0. C. Letter. 
J* 

University of California. 

A corps of distinguished American 
and European architects have been in 
Berkeley, who are competing in the 
great international contest for the plans 
of the new university. 

Eleven .firms of architects are repre- 
sented, coming from Paris, Berlin, 
Zurich, New York and Boston. They 
are the ones who were successful in the 
preliminary competition recently decid- 
ed in Antwerp, their designs being se- 
lected from over 100 sent in. Accord- 
ing to the terms of the competition, they 
were to come to California, to inspect the 
university site, to remodel their original 
plsns and submit the finished designs in 
May. They have all returned home 
now, but before leaving Berkeley they 
expressed themselves in terms of the 
highest praise over the possibilities, arch- 
itecturally, which the university site 'of- 
fers for an imposing group of college 
buildings. "Nothing in the world can 
equal it," said one of their number. "The 
Golden Gate and San Francisco bay to 
the front, the foothills behinds, and the 
gradually rising slope from the bay 
shore, giving its immense sweep of 
view, presents a site unparalleled. It 
calls for some radical design, unique in 
its nature, to be in harmony with its sur- 
roundings." 

Next in order comes the question of 
the presidency. President Kellogg's 
resignation takes effect on March 23. 
The board of regents, in their December 
meeting, appointed a committee to nom- 
inate his successor. The committee 
consists of two or three of the regents, 
the governor-elect, the speaker of the 
assembly and President Kellogg him- 
self. These gentlemen will meet early 
in January to formulate their plans. 

The whole question is vitally import- 
ant to the students and faculty, and to 
arrive at a hasty conclusion would be a 
most inappropriate thing. Opinion is 



J68 



THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y. 



divided as to whether a choice should be 
made from out of the list of possible can- 
didates already identified with the uni- 
versity's corps of professors, or whether 
some eastern scholar of more than local 
fame should, be sought. Professor Ber- 
nard Moses, of the department of history 
and political economy, and Professor 
William Carey Jones, of the department 
of jurisprudence, are the only two men 
whom Berkeley can offer for such an im- 
portant work. But it seems almost cer- 
tain that the board of regents will look 
toward the Eastern universities for a 
candidate. Several prominent men have 
been mentioned, among them,President 
Benjamin Andrews, formerly of Brown; 



President Hyde, of Bowdoin, President 
Gates of Amherst, Albert Shaw, editor of 
the Review of Reviews, and Professor 
J. W. White, of the department of Greek 
at Harvard. Many more have been 
mentioned, which only goes to show how 
uncertain the matter is at present. There 
is a general feeling, however, that now, 
if ever, a mistake ought to be avoided, 
and the less the committee hastens the 
more is their final decision likely to be 
well received. 

The intercollegiate Carnot debate 
promises to be the one topic of interest 
as soon as college opens, but there will 
be time to speak of that later. 

Charles E. Fryer. 



A Boy's King. 



My papa, he's the bestest man 

Whatever lived, I bet, 
And I ain't never seen no one 

As smart as he is yet. 
Why, he knows everything, almost, 

But mamma says that he 
Ain't never been the President, 

And that surprises me. 

And often papa talks about 

How he must work away — 
He's got to toil for other folks 

And do what others say; 
And that's a thing that bothers me — 

When he's so good and great, 
He ought, I think, at least to be 

The Gov'nor of the State! 

He knows the names of lots of stars, 

And he knows all the trees, 
And he can tell the different kinds 

Of all the birds he sees, 
And he can multiply and add 

And figure in his head — 
They might have been some smarter men 

But I bet you they are dead. 



Once when he thought I wasn't near 

He talked to mamma then 
And told her how he hates to be 

The slave of Other men, 
And how he wished that he was rich 

For her and me — and I 
Don't know what made me, but 

I had to go and cry! 

And so when I sat on his knee 

I ast him: — "Is it true 
That you're a slave and have to toil 

When others tell you to? 
You are so big and good and wise, 

You surely ought to be 
The President, instead of just 

A slave, it seems to me." 

And then the tears come in his eyes, 

And he hugged me tight and said: — 
"Why, no, my dear, I'm not a slave — 

What put that in your head? 
I am a king — the happiest king 

That ever yet held sway, 
And only God can take my tnrone 

And my little realm away!" 

S. E. Riser, in Cleveland Leader. 



A Feminine Deduction. 

"This world is a hollow sham." ex- 
claimed the New Woman, with a petu- 
lant sigh. 

''Sit down and tell me about it," said 
her friend. "What has upset your usual 
sweet-tempered serenity?" 

"Oh, nothing in particular, and ev- 
erything in general. For instance, I 
have found out that the more a woman 
sacrifices for a man, the less he cares for 
her." 

"Certainly, "* acquiesced her friend. 
"Have you " 

"No,' oh no," hastily interrupted the 
New Woman. "And another thing," 
she continued. "The more you make a 
man suffer the more he is willing to suf- 
fer for your sake. In fact, his devotion 
increases in exact ratio with his misery." 

"Perhaps so," said her friend, hesitat- 
ingly. 

"No 'perhaps' about it. The whole 
system of marriage is based upon a 
wrong conception of woman's duty to 
man. That is why there is so much un- 
happiness in the world." 

"Why, how do you make that deduc- 
tion?" 

"It is simple enough. A girl marries 
with the mistaken notion that it is her 
sacred duty to do everything, bear ev- 
erything, and be everything that will 
add to her husband's comfort, pleasure 
and convenience, and she very soon dis- 
covers that instead of securing his hap- 
piness and her own thereby she has lost 
it, and then she grieves and frets and won- 
ders, and lies awake nights trying to 
think up still greater sacrifices to make 
for his dear sake, but it never works sat- 
isfactorily. What she ought to do is to 
let him do the sacrificing and the suffer- 
ing. It is the only way in which the 
welfare of the family can be preserved." 
"But that," objected her friend, "does 
not lessen the unhappiness. It only 
transfers it." 
. "Nonsense; that is just where you 



make your mistake. A man is perfectly 
happv onlv when he is miserable." 

SM. 

"Is that the man, Mr. Reed?" asked 
the magistrate, as the policeman led 
forward the man accused of burglary. 
"It is." "Did you recognize him while 
he was in the house?" "I did." There 
was a burst of incredulous laughter from 
the court and spectators. "Discharge 
the prisoner," said his honor. — Puck. 

Ji 

A certain learned professor in New 
York has a wife and family, but, profes- 
sor-like, his thoughts are always with 
his books. One evening his wife, who 
had been out for some hours, returned 
to find the house remarkably quiet. She 
had left the children playing about, but 
now they were nowhere to be seen. She 
asked what had become of them, and the 
professor explained that, as they had 
made a good deal of noise, he had put 
them to bed without waiting for her or 
calling the maid. "I hope they gave 
you no trouble," she said. "No," re- 
plied the professor, "with the exception 
of the one in the cot here. He objected 
a good deal to my undressing him and 
putting him to bed." The wife went to 
inspect the cot. "Why," she exclaimed, 
"that's little Johnny Green, from next 
door." — S. F. Argonaut. 

j* 

"I can give you gas if you are afraid 
the pain will be too great to endure," 
said a dentist to an elderly colored 
woman, who had come to have several 
teeth extracted. 

"No, sah, no, sah!" she said, shaking 
her head emphatically; "you don't gib 
me no gas en hab me git up out'n dat 
cheer en walk home dead, no, sah! I 
reads de newpapahs!" — Youth's Com- 
panion. 



170 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



An Etching. 

It is perhaps one of the saddest things 
in life to find that youth has forever 
slipped away and left us empty-handed 
and alone, stranded upon the bleak island 
of Middle Age, in the midst of the sea 
of Regret. The next saddest thing is 
to discover that we do not actually care. 
To realize that in the breast where the 
heart once beat quick and warm with the 
red current of human love and emotion, 
there is only a void that aches, and 
aches, and aches. Better fierce, madden- 
ing pain, bitter tears and the tumult of 
hate and thwarted passion than this 
dead calm that is neither akin to joy nor 
despair, that has ceased to hope, to re- 
gret, almost to remember. * * * * 

Fifty-seven years is a long time to 
have lived upon this earth. Yet, though 
I number my birthday so, I find it is 
ages since I ceased to live, if one counts 
time by heart-beats. Fifty-seven! My 
mirror tells me that I look ten years 
older, and experience whispers "you could 
give points to mother Eve, my lady." 
Well, maybe. But Eve had only one 
temptation. And she was, furthermore, 
unfettered by inherited tendencies. Dis- 
tinctly Eve had the advantage. The 
wonder is that she could have sinned at 
all, companioning with angels, freshly 
fashioned by the hand of God, environed 
by Paradise, while I, but I do not envy 
Eve, her garden, or her Adamic mate, 
her innocence, or her apple from the tree 
of Knowledge. I do not envy even the 
angels in heaven. For my bliss, though 
brief, was greater than any joy the angels 
know. And though I have ceased to 
feel, to care, or to regret, the glory of 
that love is mine to remember through 
all eternity. * * * 

There are times, seasons, moments, 
when a vague half-tenderness stirs some- 
where in — not my heart, for that is dead 
— but in that senseless void, where once 
my heart leapt warm and true, a living, 
lovmg rose of passion, and I wish that 
I could love again. * * * 

They tell me he is handsome. I do 
not know. I only know that he seems 
kina, that his eyes are like deep wells 
of light, and that their steadfast question- 
ing gaze almost awakens my dead heart, 



but when he takes my hand, I know 
that it is all too late, too late. Some 
other woman, younger and more fair, 
will win his love and make him blest, 
and I shall smile to see their happiness, 
and yet — and yet — ah, me, I wish that he 
did love me! 

Oraarv. 

J* 

Among the many slaves upon the 
plantation of a distinguished Southerner 
during the late war was a blind and de- 
crepit old woman known as Aunt Idy, 
who for some reason thought to better 
her condition by taking the oath of alleg- 
iance. 

One of the younger servants, hearing 
what had taken place, went to "ole miss" 
to make inquiries, and after being told 
that her friend had sworn to support the 
constitution of the United States, ex- 
claimed: 

"Fo" de Lohd! I don't know how 
Auiit Idy is gwine to s'pote the United 
States, when she can't s'pote herselt." — 
Harper's Magazine. 

. i good education is a relative thing. 
What was called a good education a few 
years ago is now common. It is pretty 
hard to keep up with learning — seeing 
there is continual increase in human 
knowledge, and no royal road to it. I 
can only say this, that for most people, 
the way to get a good education is by 
hard knocks, constant effort, devotion to 
the one aim, the cutting off of all dis- 
tractions, a love of knowledge and a bias 
for its possession scientifically, inability 
to be discouraged, knowing how to wait, 
dependence on God and frequent and fer- 
vent communion with him, this, with 
common sense all the way through. — F. 
S. Arnold. 



Doctor Talmage's youngest daughter 
was fond of evening gayeties, and often 
slept late in consequence. Coming 
down about 9 o'clock one morning, she 
met her parent's stern gaze, and re- 
ceived the very depressing greeting of: 
"Good morning, daughter of sin." "Good 
morning, father," was her response.- — 
Current Literature 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



ix 



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SUCCESSORS TO STUART & THOMPSON CO 



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We have a special shipping department, devoting careful attention to the Packing and 
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shall be pleased to mail a copv of our Price L/ist to those requesting it. 

RICHET C07VTRMNV 




ARE NOTED FOR QUALITY OF WORK AND PROMPT SERVICE 



JAMES R. EWING 

..Bookseller.. 



Miscellaneous Books 
Bibles ... 
Northwest Views 



267 Morrison Street 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Careful Attention to Special Orders 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly meat inn. The far) fie Month! n. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Wakelee & Company <* <* ** 




"DRUGGISTS 
v "PERFUMERS 



^[EE most careful attention by 
skilled and experienced phar- 
macists given to the compound- 
ing of Physicians' Prescriptions. 
We cannot afford to give less 
than our best efforts. Our ivork 
and our goods are AL WA YS the 
best of the highest grades ^ j* <& 



Corner Bush and Montgomery Streets ♦♦♦ 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALA. 




'1 CKSfl; GOODS STORE 



NEW STORE 



NEW GoODS 



NEW PRICED 



A COMFORTABLE P HCE TO SHOP 



Dress Goods. Linings, Underwear, Laces, 
Ribbons, Gloves, Etc. 

BLANKETS, FLANNELS. BED SPREADS, TABLE 
LINEN, TOWELS, ETC. 

GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS 
P. A. FINSETH, PROP. 

230 MORRISON ST. "^'.fT 1 " 1 

nsioria and doiumbio River R. R. Tie cord 

WINTER SCHEDULE-Daily 

Train No. 22 leaves Portland at 8:00 a. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 24 leaves Portland at 7:00 p. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 1 1 :io p. m. 

Return 

Train No. 21 leaves Astoria at 8.00 a. m., arrives in 
Portland at 12:15 P- m . 

Train No. 23 leaves Astoria at 6:30 p. m. and arrives 
in Portland at 10:35 P- m. 

Train No. 22 runs through to Seaside, leaving Seaside 
on the return at 2:50 p. m. 

All trains leaving Astoria for Seaside or returning 
from Seaside run 011 the Flavel Branch. 

The Astoria and Columbia River R. R. Winter Sched- 
ule is p.nv in effect. Trains leave Union Depot, Port- 
land daily at 8:00 a. m. and 7:00 p. m., arriving at 
Astoria at 12:15 P- m and 11: o p. 111. I.t avinu fur Sea- 
side at 12:20 p. m. 

When denliiifi with our fulrerti*-rs, 




< *spm&&' 



Hi competition 
Distention 



As regards Time and Through 
Car Service to Chicago and 
other Eastern Cities. 



JUST THINK! 

3^ days with no change to Chicago 
4.1^ days and one change to New York 



THEN AGAIN: 

Trains are Illuminated by Pintsch Gas, 
rm into Union Depots, and Baggage 
Is checked through to Destinatin* 
Lowest Rates. 



For Information pertaining to the Union Pacific, 
call on or address 



J. H. LOTHROP, 

General Agent. 



C. E. Brown, 

Dist. Pass. Agent. 



135 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 

Limit 1 min!inii The lanlic Monthly. 




j DO YOU BUY DRUGS... 



Toilet Articles, Soaps or Perfumes, or any of the thousand and one articles 
carried by a drug firm? Then let us send you our cut-rate catalogue. 



IT WILL SAVE YOU "DOLLARS... 



Does Photography interest you? Let us send you our Photographic Catalogue. 
We earry the largest and most complete stock on the Coast. 



Woodard, Clarke & Co., 



FOURTH AND WASHINGTON STS. 

►♦♦♦<♦♦♦♦♦ 




PORTLAND, OREGON. 

>»■♦♦♦ " »♦♦♦♦♦ . ♦» > ♦♦♦ 
No Community is Prosperous Whose People are Not Employed" 

You Need Our Factories! 



Patronize 
I Home 

I Industry 



M. ZAN, President 

E. H. K1LHAM, Vice Pres. 



YOU preach this doctrir 
lnv*» vmir hnmc nmu 



ine, now practice it. You say you 
love your home, now show it. You say the community 
should be more prosperous, keep your money at home. You 
admit we manufacture over four hundred articles of impor- 
tance as cheaply as in Eastern or foreign markets— why not 
buy them? You admit that Chicago and other thrifty cities 
not -so far away were made so by enterprising citizens; fol- 
low their example. You speak of the patriotism of the whole 
people, hence show unselfish devotion to the manufacturing 
industries of Oregon. 






< W& v 









R. J. HOLMES, Treasurer + 

C. H. MclSAAC, Secretary ♦ 

♦ 



J NOFtf £ 



♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦♦♦ 4 -f 4- + -f -f -f -f + + + ♦•f-f-f4-4-f -f ♦ ♦ ♦ + + + ♦ -f +■ ♦ ♦ ♦ + ++♦ + ♦ ♦ 



♦ + ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦*+ ♦♦ 1 




AVERY & CO. 



FURNITURE AND UPHOLSTERY HARDWARE. 
LOGGERS' AND LUMBERMEN'S SUPPLIES. 
SPORTING AND BLASTING POWDER. 
FISHING TACKLE. 



HARDWARE 

TOOLS, CUTLERY. 



MCCAFFREY'S CELEBRATED FILES 
AND HORSE RASPS. 



82 Third St., near Oak, 



i 



Portland, Oregon. 



▼▼▼▼▼1 




2» ''THE KIND 

THAT SUITS" 



SOLD IN to SIZES 
RANGING IN PRICE 
FROM J> j» J» 



10c to 2 for 25c. 



'QUALITY^ 
Not QUANTITY" 



LATEST and 
GREATEST 
OF ALL J- 



5c Cigars 







ALLEN & LEWIS 

Distributors 

PORTLAND, - - OREGON. 



Mention The Pacific Monthly when ordering. 






With A^uinaldo in the Phillipines. 



M9NTHIY 



Volume I 



FEBRUARY 

l$99 



Number s 



TEN CENTS A COPY * j> * * j* ONE DOLLAR A YEAR 

THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
PUBLISHERS jt > j« > > j» j» * PORTLAND, OREGON 



I7QUAL and exact justiee to all men, of whatever state or 
persuasion, religious or political ; peace, commerce, and 
honest friendship with all nations, — en tangling alliances with 
none ; the support of the "state governments in all their rights, 
as the most competent administrations for our domestic con- 
cern*, and the surest bulwarks against anti-republican 
tendencies ; the preservation of the General Government in 
its whole constitutional vigor, as the sheet anchor of our 
peace at home and safety abroad ; freedom of religion ; 
freedom of the press ;..... — these principles form 
the bright constellation which has gone before us, and 
guided our iteps through an age of revolution and reforma- 
tion. 

Thomas Jefferson, 



DO YOU BUY DRUGS... ! 

Toilet Articles, Soaps or Perfumes, or any of the thousand and one articles Jk 
carried by a drug firm? Then let us send you our cut-rate catalogue. £ 

IT WILL SA VE YOU "DOLLARS... I 

Does Photography interest you? Let us send you our Photographic Catalogue. 
We carry the largest and most complete stock on the Coast. 

Woodard, Clarke & Co., 

FOURTH AND WASHINGTON STS. PORTLAND, OREGON. 



GOODYEAR RUBBER COMPANY. 

We carry in stock a complete assortment of RUBBER GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

ANY STYLE. ANY SIZE. ANY QUANTITY. 



MACKINTOSHES 



Crack Proof— 
...Snag Proof 

RUBBER 

BOOTS 



Druggists' 
Rubber 

Goods 







BOOTS AND SHOES 



"GOLD SEAL" 

BELTING 

PACKING 

AND HOSE 



Rubber 

and Oil 

Clothing 



jtjtjt 



R. H. PEASE, Vice-President and Manager, 
73 and 75 FIRST STREET, Jt PORTLAND, OREGON. 



AVERY & CO. 



Furniture and upholstery Hardware, 
loggers' and lumbermen's supplies, 
sporting and blasting powder, 
fishing tackle. 



HARDWARE 

TOOLS, CUTLERY. 



MCCAFFREY'S CELEBRATED FILES 
AND HORSE RASPS. 



I 



82 Third St., near Oak, Portland, Oregon. ► 



► 



The Pacific Monthly. 

{The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and articles must not be reprinted 

without special permission.) 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1899. 

The Dewey Medal frontispiece 

With Aguinaldo in the Phillipines Capt. H. L. Wells of Co. L, 173 

illustrated. 2 d Oregon U. S. V. 

Adam's Mother (Short Story) Mrs. W. L. Wood 183 

The Scarlet Huntsman (Poem) Walter Cayley Belt M. D 186 

Joseph Simon, Oregon's Junior Senator A?7 

A Character Sketch. 

The Voice of the Silence J88 

Chapter III. The writer will be unnamed 

for the present. 
Life's Elegy (Poem) Valentine c Bro=wn 191 

Oriental Learning J. Hunter Wells, M. D 192 

The " Lettre de Cachet " in California David Starr Jordan 194 

President of Leland Stanford Junior University. 

44 Little George" (Short Story) Adonen 195 

The Dynamics of Speech Robert W. Douthat, Ph. D.... 198 

As Introduced by Philosophy. Professor of Latin in University of West Virginia. 

(Second Paper.) 

Will You Be My Valentine ? (Poem) Lischen M. Miller 202 

DEPARTMENTS: 
Our Point of View (Editorial) 203 

The Month— A Record of the World's Progress 206 

In Politics, Literature, Science, Art and Education, with Leading Events. 

The Magazines 209 

Books 212 

Drift 

The Sultan of Sulu 213 

When a Girl Really Loves 214 

The Horse to Become Extinct 215 

Old Manila 216 

Dr. Bill ' 217 

Poems to Order 218 

Terms: — $1.00 a year in advance; 10 cents a copy. Subscribers should remit to us in P. O. or express 
money-orders, or in bank checks, dratts, or registered letters. 

Agents for The Pacif c Monthly are wanted in every locality, and the publishers offer unusual in- 
ducements to first-class agents. Write for our terms. 

Manuscript sent to The Pacific Monthly will not be returned after publication unless definite in 
structions to that effect with stamps accompany letters enclosing manuscript. 

Address all correspondence, of whatever nature, to 

alex. sweek, Prest. THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUB. CO., 

J. THORBURN ROSS, Vice Prest. .... n „ DTI AKin riDcr-run 

w. b. wells, Manager. Mac,ea V Building, PORTLAND, OREGON. 

LISCHEN M. MILLER, Asst. Manager. 

Copyrighted 1899 by William Bittle Wells. 
Entered at the Post Office at Portland, Oregon, Oct. 17, 1898, as second-class matter. 

The publishers of The Pacific Monthly will esteem it a favor if readers of the Magazine will kindly 
mention The Pacific Monthly when dealing with our advertisers. 

PRESS OF THE ELLIS PRINTING CO., 105 FIRST ST , PORTLAND, ORE. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



SEND TO US FOR PRICES ON 



We are Manufacturers of the 
Celebrated 

Maltese Cross Brand 
of Rubber Belt # 
Ajax Brand Cotton 
Mill Hose... 




Rubber and 

Leather 

Belting,.. 

i 




87=89 FIRST STREET, PORTLAND, ORE. 



RUSSELL & CO. 



A. H. AVERILL, 
Manager. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




High Grade, 
Engines, Boilers, 
Saw Mills, 
Threshers... 



Estimates furnished on Stearn Plants of all Sizes and for 
any purpose. Write for Catalogues. 



RUSSELL & CO., - Portland, Ore. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY-ADVERTISING SECTION. 




|JJ AL/L-Bearing Type-Bar Joints and Fixed 
*"^~^ Type-Bar Hangers, giving Uuiuipair- 
able Alignment, Lightest Key Action. The 
Most Rapid. Platen Rolls to Show Work. 
Carriage locks at end of line, protecting the 
writing. Compact Shift Keyboard. Numer- 
ous Handy Features. Address for full par- 
ticulars, 

United Typewriter & Supplies Co. 

No. 232 Stark Street, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 



BRANDES BROS, 
Proprietors. 



Vienna 

cModel Bakery^ 



CHOICE PASTRY and 
FANCY CAKES- 
FRESH BREAD OF ALL KINDS. 

Telephone^?'- J> 390 Morrison Street. 



H. H. WRIGHT 



THE 
NEW 
MUSIC 
STORE 




Y.M.C.A. 
BLDG. 
Cor. 4th 
& Yamhill 



The Latest Music at Half Price. The Finest Strings in 

the City. Violins, Guitars, Mandolins, Banjos. 

Pianos to sell or rent. Instruments Repaired, 

Tuned, Rented. 




Muirhead & Murhard 

Contractors for 

FINE PLUMBING 

Steam and Hot Water Heating 
Apparatus 

..343 Washington Street- 
Portland, ORE. 



SURETY BONDS 

CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, - $2,500,000.00 

Fidelity and Deposit company 

OF MARYLAND 

Issues guarantee bonds to employes in posi- 
tions of trust. 

Court Bonds, Federal Officers, * City, County 
and State Officials' Bonds issued promptly. 

W. R. MACKENZIE, State Agent 
208 Worcester Block, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Telephone Main 986 



Cawston & Co., 



Dealers in 



Engines and Boilers, 

Wood- Working Machinery, 
...Iron-Working Tools and Supplies... 

48 & 50 First Street 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



Blake's Single and Duplex Pumps. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. , 



IV 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



THE TELEPHONE INDEX 

cA time saber for business men, and the only Index pub- 
lished giving both Companies numbers* 

PRICE, $2,00 PER YEAR* 

For Advertising Space or Subscription, address 

G. H. AYDELOTTE, telephones 

No. 5 Raleigh Bldg., Portland, Ore. 



Oregon Main 816. 
Columbia 238. 




-f CAN BE OBTAINED ONLY 



P<>rlWt ...Through a Complete... 

\ Metallic Circuit For each subscriber, and 

Telephone j - — No Part y Lines - 

Service 



THE COLUMBIA TELEPHONE COMPANY 



Alone has these Advantages. 



{ OFFICES, 606-607 Oregonian Building, 



PORTLAND, OREGON. 



LATEST STYLES 



And First-Class 
Jewelry, Diamonds, Watches and Silverware 



AT MODERATE PRICES^ 



A. FELDENHEIMER, 



COR. THIRD AND WASHINGTON STS. 



PORTLAND. ORE. 



Established 1882. 



Open Day and Kight. 



j» E* Housed Cafe j» 



128 Third Street 
PORTLAND, OREGON 



Clams and Oysters. 
Home-Made Pics and Cakes. 



Cream and Milk from Our Own Ranch. 

The Best Cup of 

Coffee and Chocolate in the City. 



C.C.GLINEOIUPAINTGO. 

144 FIRST STREET 

PORTLAND, ORE. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

PURE PAINTS, OILS AND VARNISHES 

Doors, Windows, Plate and Window Glass, 
WALL PAPER, 
And the General Lines of 
BUILDING MATERIAL. 
Glazing a Specialty. Columbia Phone 290 



a 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



W. H. McMONIES 

Wholesale Manufacturer ol 

c^ Harness, Horse Collars and Leather Specialties ^ 

Jobber of SADDLERY HARDWARE, Etc. 

^E^'hES It^pea wor k 74 Front Street, Portland, Ore. 

Telephone Oregon Main 517 

Consolidated University ^-^^ 

( Portland - Puget Sound ) 

1 he Leading Educational Institution of racific Northwest 

Offers Thorough and Extensive Instruction in all the 

Solid Branches of Education ...EXPENSES LOW... 

Winter Term Begins January 3, J 899 

Write for Particulars to 
Chancellor C R. THD3 JRN, S. T. D., University Park, Oregon 

Northwestern Mutual Life 

OF MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

Grants more Insurance for the Same Cost or the Same Insurance 
at Lower Cost than any other Company. • 



Largest Purely American Company. 
Official Reports of State Insurance Departments Represent it to be the 

Strongest and Best 



For Terms, Address 

S. T. L0CKW00D & SON, General Agents, 

Concord Building, Portland, Ore. 

When dealing with our advertise™, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



John H. Mitchell Albert H. Tanner 

MITCHELL & TANNER 

Attorneys at Law 
Commercial Block, PORTLAND, ORE. 



Russell E. Sewall, R. R. Giltaer 

District Attorney 

GILTNER & SEWALL 

Attorneys at Law 

Offices, 508-509 Commercial Building 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



A. C. & R. W. EMMONS 
Attorneys at Law 
PORTLAND AND SEATTLE 



Chamber of Commerce 
Portland, Ore. 



SAMUEL J. BRUN 

Attorney and Counselor at Law 
sixth floor, mills building 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Practices in all the Courts 



Library Association of Portland 

24,000 Volumes and over 200 Per>odicals. 
$5.00 a Year and $1.50 a Quarter. Two 
Books Allowed on all Subscriptions. 

HOURS— From 9 A. M. to 9 P- M. Daily Except Sundays 

and Holidays. 

STARK STREET, BET. SEVENTH AND PARK. 



MISS BERTHA MARTIN'S 

* S * DECORATIVE 'ART ROOM 

FULL LINE OF NEWEST EMBROIDERY MATIRIALS. 
CHOICE SELECTION OF STAMPING DESIGNS. 

Stamping neatly done. 
Room 820, Oekum Bldg., Third and Washington St., PORTLAND, OR. 



Wittiam Jrederic IXers 



'Penmanship cArtist 



N. E Corner 

1 2th and Alder Sts. 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



MRS. L. M. ROBERTSON 

No. aoa Marquam Building, PORTLAND, OREGON 

Fashionable Suits $5 up. Latest French Styles 
Satisfaction Guaranteed 



Alaska Mines and PO ™ n A e I .f ,ock 

Printed matter describing Alaska sent for 26 Cents in 
Stamps. 

MILLER & DAVIDSON 

JUNEAU, ALASKA 

..CIRCULATING LIBRARY.. 

OF NOW BOOKS AND MAGAZINES 

25 Cents per Month 

^JONES' BOOK STORE # 

2©1 A-lder Street, Portland, Oregon 



He Biumaner-FranK Drug Go. 

..WHOLESALE.. 



Fourth and Morrison Streets 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



nma£933»D3^2^C833»^C£8miOOO ^8^«8^9^8^< 



The Californian Combination 

A New Sanitary Suit for Baby in Short Clothes 

A unique pattern for waist and drawers in one piece with stocking supporter attachment. It fur- 
nishes complete protection to the body in flannel, dispenses with bands, petticoats and numerous pins and 
buttons. 



For Bathing and Gymnasium Costume Unexcelled 



■ Li 



For full description see Trained Motherhood, this number. 

Pattern with full directions will be mailed upon receipt of 25 cents. Sizes one and two-year old. The 
garments in shrunk flannel, natural and white, will be sent upon receipt offi.uo. Apply for patterns, cir- 
culars and sample garments to Mrs. H. OTIS BRUx, Stanford University, California. 

When! dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly, 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Oregon 'Phone Black 984. 
Columbia 658. 



Portland Agent for 
Albany (Oregon) 
Woolen Mills. 



Civil a^ 

flilitary Tailor, 



Rooms 1 , 2, 3, 12, 13, up-stairs. 
Entrance. 88MThiro St. 



PORTLAND, 
OREGON. 



Society***. 
Card Engravers 
and Printers 
w. G. smith & CO. 

We employ more help than all our com- 
petitors in Oregon combined. 

22 and 23 Washington Bldg., Portland, Or. 



Matting and Rug Sale... \ 

.....We have a large stock of China Matting • 

imported before the new tariff, and now * 

want to reduce our stock, and will sell at * 

GREATLY REDUCED PRICES 

Thousands of Remnant Pieces from I to 25 * 
yards, will be offered at great bargain prices, i 
Also Japanese and Chinese Curios, Europ- 
ean and Domestic Toys, Fireworks, 
Flags, Etc. Will furnish Catalogue 
upon application. 

Andrew Kan & Co., 

Hong Kong and Yokohama Importing House, 
Cor. 4th & Morrison St., Portland, Ore. 

•o*o*o*o*o»o»o*o«o*o*o*o*o*c*o*o*o«c»o*c*c*c*c*e«o*c«c*oJ5 



The G* Heitkemper Co* 

WATCHMAKERS 
JEWELERS and 
SILVERSMITHS 

249 Morrison St., PORTLAND, OREGON 

^>^^ c BEG to announce the arrival of a large, 
neiv and <well selected sfock of the most beauti- 
ful things in Je<welty, Watches, Silverware and 
Novelties. Your inspection is invited J* J*. jP 

Our Strong Point— SILVERWARE. 

Inquiries by mail promptly answered. 



i mm&m$m^m®immmm&2im&® mawm^; 



H. W. CORBETT 

Vice President 

J. W. Newkirk 
Asst. Cashier 



G. E. WlTHINGTON 

Cashier 



W. C. Alvord 

2d Asst. Cashier 



First 
National Bank 

OF 

PORTLAND, OREGON 

COR. FIRST AND WASHINGTON STS. 




Tel. Columbia 133. 
Tel. Oregon Red 2945. 



Kruse's 

Restaurant I Grill Room 

THEO. KRUSE, Proprietor. 

Stark Street, Portland, 

Opp. Chamber of Commerce, Oregon. 



Gourmand's Headquarters. 



When denlinii with om 



advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



viii THE PA CIFIG MONTHL Y—A D VEB TISINQ SECTION. 

MORTGAGE LOANS 

On Improved 
Portland City Property 

In sums from $500 to $500,000 at lowest current interest rates* 

nri'd'lP'C Abstracted and Insured against 
1 1 L IC^ Defect or Loss. 

irilStS Administered with Skill and Fidelity. 

THE TITLE GUARANTEE AND TRUST CO. 



FIND US IN OUR NEW OFFICES, 
FOURTH STREET ENTRANCE 



WM. M. LADD, President. 

J. THORBURN ROSS, MANAGER. 

T. T. BURKHART, ASST. SECRETARY. 



CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING, 

PORTLAND, ORE. 



A STOVE 

That has given satisfaction to every customer 
for forty-six years 
THE NAME IS 

CHARTER OAK 



We carry a full line, as well as a complete line of 
HARDWARE, TINWARE, CUTLERY AND ALUMINUM WARE. 



cADOLPH <A. DEKUM 



III first St., Gadsby 'Block 



JOHNCRAN&CO. 

Specialties in 

HOSIERY, UNDERWEAR, 
DRESS GOODS, LINENS, 

Handkerchiefs, White Goods, Laces, Etc. 

286 WASHINGTON 
STREETS** 

Portland, Oregon. 

ft. ji 



I S- G. Skidmore & Co. 

Cut-Rate 
Druggists 

We give special attention to Prescriptions and 
the selection of High Grade Bristle Goods. 



15J THIRD STREET 
Portland, Oregon 





When i[n\lini with one 'idvrtiser*, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 




Hon, Joseph Simon, 



{See page 187.) 



The Pacific Monthly. 



"Vol, I 



FEBRUARY, 1899 



£K.o. 5 



With Aguinaldo in the Phillipincs. 



'By CAPT. H. L. WELLS, of Company L, 
Second Oregon Regiment 'Volunteers, stationed at Manila. 



ON Sunday, the ninth of October, it 
was my good fortune to attend a 
grand fiesta and witness a review 
of the Filipino army by Emelio Agui- 
naldo, president of the so-called Repub- 
lica Filipinas. The scene of festivities 
was the pueblo of San Fernando, capital 
city of the province of Pampanga, some 
60 miles from Manila, and the place of 
residence of some of the wealthy sugar- 
planters who are backing the insurrec- 
tion. When I beheld the display of 
wealth, the bitterness of feeling of the 
planters against Spain and their enthus- 
iasm for the cause of liberty, I under- 
stood better than before how it has been 
possible for Aguinaldo to carry on the 
insurrection, and maintain his army of 
barefooted warriors in the field. These 
rich, educated and intelligent landed pro 
prietors are the brains and sinew of the 
revolution, while the common herd. 
which is guided by them as absolutely 
as the populace of any country is man- 
aged by the aristocracy, is the bone. 

Spain, in her exactions of revenue, has 
spared neither high nor low. Every- 
thing has been taxed, from the pig of the 
peon to the sugar fields of the planter, 
and taxed beyond endurance. These ex- 
actions have not been extorted to sup- 
port a just and proper government, but 
to enrich the ecclesiastical and civil au- 
thority in the islands. Every man, wom- 
an and child has felt the heavv hand of 



the tithe gatherer and the sting of official 
arrogance. Enterprise has been re- 
pressed and industry stifled, while toll 
has been levied upon the food and pro- 
ductive energy of the poor. No wonder 
the Mestisto or full-blood Filipino land- 
holder gives freely of his wealth to shake 
off the burden, and no wonder the peon 
carries the Mauser, Remington and bola 
and tramps barefooted through the 
swamps to break the power of Spain and 
give his native land freedom from op- 
pression. Go where you will, both in 
country and city, the same sentiment 
prevails, and the universal phrase, "Es- 
panol mucho malo" is heard on every 
hand and from the lips of age and infancy 
alike. Not a man with a drop of native 
blood in his veins is to be found among 
the supporters of Spain. I have seen 
men as white as the whitest Spaniard in 
Manila, and every drop of the white 
blood that of Spanish ancestors, declare 
his undying hatred of the Spaniard. To 
be sure there were volunteers of mixed 
blood and even pure native stock fight- 
ing with the Spaniards up to the capture 
of Manila by the Americans, but that 
was the result of conditions more than of 
sentiment. They were not adherents of 
Aguinaldo and were but following the 
custom of generations in filling the ranks 
of Spain's insular army; but now that the 
power of Spain has been broken, a Fili- 
pino government organized and Agui- 



174 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



naldo placed at its head, their patriotism 
has risen above the restraints of imme- 
morial custom and they are prepared to 
fight against their former companions 
in arms, if need be, to prevent the re-es- 
tablishment of Spanish authority in the 
Philippines. Whether they will submit 
peaceably to .the extension of American 
authority over them is a question yet to 
be determined. They have organized a 
republic and talk much of absolute inde- 
pendence and the future of the Republica 
Filipinas; yet from my observation I am 



the expression of their feelings and as- 
perations. 

We left the station at Manila at 6 
o'clock in the morning, after a sharp ride 
in one of those miniature vehicles that 
are used for carriages in this country, 
drawn by equally miniature, but spirited, 
horses, and secured seats in a second- 
class car, the only first-class seats having 
been taken by other excursionists. Our 
party consisted of three officers and a 
lady, the wife of one of them, a worthy 
representative of the beauty, grace and 




Suspension Bridge across Pasig River, Manila. The picture also sho<ws the large native cascos 
used as freight lighters on the River and in the Bay. 



of the opinion that should a policy of 
local self-government be pursued in the 
most populous provinces and the leading 
citizens be intrusted with it, the rule of 
the United States can be established 
without encountering armed opposition. 
At the fete it was my good fortune to 
be the guest of one of these worthy back- 
ers of the insurrection, to meet the presi- 
dent of the newly organized republic 
while surrounded by his counsellors, and 
get a good insight into the conditions as 
they now exist, as well as to see the peo- 
ple in large numbers and unrestrained in 



intelligence of the women of America, of 
whom there are not half a dozen now on 
the islands. The railroad was built by 
an English corporation, and is an Eng- 
lish institutions with Filipino modifica- 
tions. The cars are the small compart- 
ment variety in use in England, opening 
from the side and having a footboard 
along the entire side, along which the 
conductor walks while collecting fares. 
It is here where the Filipino modifica- 
tions make their appearance. In this 
warm climate the windows are left open 
for the free entrance of the breeze and'. 



WITH AGUINALDO IN THE PHILLIPINES. 



175 



cinders, and through these openings the 
conductor thrusts his black head and 
hands to receive the tickets. They also 
serve to frame the grinning countenance 
of the guard when he pauses to listen to 
the conversation of the passengers and 
to laugh at the American tongue strug- 
gling with Castilian. 

I am afraid we were a source of great 
anxiety to these poor officers, for the 
American custom of getting off the train 
at every station and jumping on again 
after it is in motion seems to be a new 
one. Their fear that we would be left 
behind or come to grief was pitiful at 
first, but it lessened somewhat when our 
skill in executing the feat was made ap- 
parent to them by repetition. I am 
afraid we even contaminated the natives, 
for at one station we persuaded half a 
dozen of them to get out and stand in a 
group for a photograph, and just as the 
button was pressed the little black urchin 
(machacho) who rings a dinner bell to 
start the train, swung his bell and the 
train began to pull out. Then "there was 
female voices mingled in cries of alarm. 
We gave them the benefit of our experi- 
ence and a genuine American "hustle," 
but the net result was one lady and one 
gentleman left behind. " The conductor, 
assisted by the entire assembled popu- 
lace, succeeded in stopping the train and 
taking them aboard again, but thereafter 
they could scarcely be persuaded even to 
put their heads out of the windows. 

At every station the train was inspect- 
ed by a squad of insurrectos, the entire 
country outside the city of Manila being 
mounting in hot haste," and male and 
under their control. Under the protocol 
signed with Spain, the American troops 
were confined to the occupation of Ca- 
vite and the bay and city of Manila. 
Spain's authority had already been ex- 
tinguished in the country by the insur- 
gents, and this resulted in the Americans 
holding the city and the rebels the 
country. This has caused a little fric- 
tion at times, because of Americans be- 
ing denied the right to pass Filipino 
* outposts. Only last Sunday the colonel 
of the Oregon regiment, with a party of 
officers and Red Cross nurses, on an ex- 
cursion by launch up the River Pasig to 
the Laguna, was refused permission to 



proceed after going a few miles, and had 
to return to the city. When the treaty 
of peace is made, the Americans will 
either withdraw entirely or establish their 
authority over the entire island, by force 
if necessary, and the insurrectos army 
will be a thing of the past. 

The railroad, so far as we saw it, runs 
through a low and fertile country. The 
rivers that flow down from the moun- 
tains enter the bay through deltas, and 
the road bed is a succession of embank- 
ments between long stretches of water 
and bridges across streams. The engi- 
neering problems in its construction were 
not serious ones, but the amount of cul- 
vert and bridge work was considerable. 
I have been told that of 40 engineers em- 
ployed on the work 39 died. No Cau- 
casian can work all day in a hot tropical 
sun and a malarial atmosphere and es- 
cape fever, and day work was necessary 
in surveying this road, for there is neither 
dawn nor twilight in the tropics. The 
succession of night and day is almost as 
abrupt as the opening and closing of a 
door between a lighted room and a dark 
one. The long evening twilights of the 
American summer are unknown, and the 
joy of sitting on the front porch, playing 
an after-dinner game of tennis or taking 
a spin of an hour or two on the wheel, 
comes not to the dweller in the tropics. 
No Caucasian should come here with the 
expectation of working in the sun and 
going home again alive, and as there is 
but a brief time each day when the sun is 
not hot while it is light enough to do 
outdoor labor, it follows that such work 
must continue to be done by natives. 

The railroad skirts the bay of Manila 
around to the north, and then continues 
northerly to the upper portion of the 
island. Its passenger traffic is large, 
three long trains, chiefly of third-class 
cars, running each way daily. Its freight 
business consists chiefly of rice, sugar, 
tobacco, coffee and hemp. As for food 
products, each district supplies itself with 
the rice, sugar, fruit and fish that consti- 
tute the bulk of the native diet, so there 
is but little outward movement from Ma- 
nila in this line, while nearly all that 
reaches the city from the outside is 
transported by water from a distance or 
from the vicinity of the city by carts 



176 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



drawn by water buffalo (carabao) or in 
baskets on the heads of women, who are 
the breadwinners of the lower classes. 
For the entire 60 miles between Manila 
and San Fernando the road is bordered 
as far as the eye can see with fields of 
rice and sugar cane and banana planta- 
tions, while native towns and villages are 
as close together as the towns along the 



among men, women and children alike, 
and most of whom smoke cigars, and 
one can get some idea of the consump- 
tion of tobacco. Add to this home de- 
mand a good foreign market and the to- 
bacco business would assume gigantic 
proportions. There is certainly field for 
the investment of capital in railroads, 
plantations and the manufacturing in- 




A typical company of cAguinaldo' s Filipino cArmy. 



best railroad lines in the United States. 
The province of Pampanga is especially 
rich in cane fields, and there are districts 
not reached by the railroad where great 
quantities of sugar go to waste annually 
for lack of transportation. With facili- 
ties for marketing the product the out- 
put of sugar from this district could be 
increased many thousands of tons an- 
nually. The same can be said of coffee, 
tobacco and chocolate. The finest to- 
bacco is grown in the northern prov- 
inces, and immense quantities are con- 
sumed in the home market. Imagine a 
population of 8,000.000 people, each one 
of whom smokes from 25 to 100 cigar- 
ettes daily, for the habit is universal 



dustries necessary for the preparation of 
the products of the islands for market. 

There was a large crowd assembled at 
the San Fernando station when we ar- 
rived. An elegant carriage, drawn by 
four gaily caparisoned and decorated 
white horses, was in waiting for Presi- 
dent Aguinaldo, while the Calle Real 
(the royal road, as the main thorough- 
fare everywhere is invariably called) was 
lined with soldiers, who faced inwards 
from opposite sides of the street, the men. 
being at intervals of about five yards, 
and the line extending along a distance 
of nearly two miles. Between these lines 
we drove in the fine carriages our host, 
who had gone up the day before, had 



WITH AGUINALDO IN THE PHILLIPINES. 



177 



sent to the station to meet us, receiving 
salutes from the soldiers as we passed, 
and being objects' of intense curiosity 
and interest to the thousands of natives 
who lined the street. It was indeed a 
triumphal procession of the first Ameri- 
cans who had been seen in that section 
of the country. The entire route was 
lined with decorations of colored paper 
on bamboo frames, and at intervals the 
street was spanned by a handsome arch 
made of bamboo poles interlaced with 
woven bamboo strips. These arches 
were exteremely graceful and artistic in 
design, and in this respect more than 
compensated for their lack of the mas- 
sive effect so characteristic of the tri- 
umphal arches constructed for Ameri- 



mficant feature of the decorations was 
the blending of the American and Fili- 
pino flags. Every short distance there 
was a pole bearing a shield, on which 
were the letters "L\ S." at the top and 
"R. P." at the bottom, with Old Glory 
depending from one side and the sun 
and stars, emblem of the island republic 
from the other, testifying to the idea of 
the people that the United States and 
the Republica Filipinas were united in 
the cause of human liberty. This was 
the keynote of our treatment, and on 
every side we heard the exclamations, 
"Buenos Americanos," "Vive los Etatis 
Unidos," "Vive la Republica Filipinas!'' 
We were driven to the house of our 
host, a "casa grande" in very truth, and 




Captured Spaniards and loyal Filipino soldiers pitching pennies on the Santa Lucia, tie boulevard 

between the ivall and the Bay, Manila. 



can celebrations. They had the advan- 
tage, also, of cheapness, for the entire 
half dozen did not cost as much or con- 
tain as much material as one average 
arch of American design and construc- 
tion. Here is a suggestion to American 
Fourth of July committees to dwell 
upon. To us the most pleasing and sig- 



were given breakfast and a smoke, the 
latter both before and after eating. It 
is impossible to enter a Filipino house, 
from the grandest hacienda to the mean- 
est hut of polen-thatched bamboo, with- 
out being offered a cigarette as soon as 
the ceremony of shaking hands has been 
concluded, and this invitation generallv 



178 



THE PACIFIC MONTH! Y. 



includes a cigar and is almost always 
followed by the tender of something to 
drink and to eat. They are royal hosts, 
these Filipinos, and go to the limit of 
their means, and are courtesy and gen- 
uine kindliness personified. We were, 
of course, at this time specially enter- 
tained, but I have found the same spirit 
to be all-pervading wherever I have 
been, in country and city alike. If one 
dares to express his thanks for such 
courtesy he is at once overwhelmed with 
the assurance that the whole house is 
his and all its inmates his servants. I 
am the possessor on this basis of several 
of the finest residences in Pampanga and 
a retinue of servants that would pauper- 
ize an Astor for their support. 

The dinner table is always set, and 
there are always soup, wine, fruit and 
delicate cakes for those who do not de- 
sire a heartier meal. The entertainment 
fund must be large in the course of a 
year, for friends come in by the dozens 
every day. As for servants and hang- 
ers-on in these grand houses, they are 
as thick as flies. Three or four meet 
you in the entrada below, others greet 
you on the stairs, others wait on you in 
the hallway, while still others swarm in 
the dining-room and kitchen. There is 
not much room required for their ac- 
commodation, for they sleep on woven 
palm mats on the floor, the mats being 
rolled up and put away in the daytime. 
If one has occasion to move about the 
house at night he is in danger of stumb- 
ling over recumbent forms wherever he 
goes. As for food, the expense of keep- 
ing servants is very light. Rice, boiled 
dry and eaten with the hand, is the chief 
article of diet, to which are added choco- 
late, fruit, and of late bread. The many 
dainty dishes spread before the guests 
are not for the consumption of servants 
in the Philippines any more than in the 
United States. There is a good reason 
for so many servants. They are neces- 
sary in order to get anything done, for 
my observation is that for practical work 
one good household servant such as the 
American housewife has and abuses with 
overwork is worth a dozen of them. 

About an hour after our arrival at the 
house we were drawn to the window 
overlooking the decorated street by the 



strains of martial music, and saw ap- 
proaching the celebrated native band, 
followed by Aguinaldo behind his four 
milk white steeds and surrounded by a 
mounted body guard. He raised his hat 
in greeting to some of our party as he 
passed, while many of his staff and offi- 
cers and civil dignitaries in the succeed- 
ing carriages and on foot shouted salu- 
tations. Behind them marched a body 
of troops as an escort. This native band 
is justly celebrated. I venture the pre- 
diction that if it ever comes to the United 
States, even Sousa's military band will 
be overshadowed in popularity. It is 
not a noisy organization, volumes of 
sound apparently being its least consid- 
eration, and for this reason is not so 
good for marching purposes for a body 
of troops as large as a regiment as the 
military bands to which we are accus- 
tomed; but for harmony, accuracy of 
time, perfection of tone and phrasing it 
is unapproached by anything I ever 
heard. There is a preponderance of 
reeds and French horns, hence the har- 
mony and the lack of noise. If Sousa 
could hear one of his own marches 
played by this Filipino band, he would 
feel still better pleased with himself than 
he does now. It must not be supposed 
that the band plays marches only, for it 
renders operas and the most exacting 
classical music with equal perfection. 
This excellence of tone and accuracy of 
time is characteristic of all the native 
musical organizations, even to the small 
theater orchestra and the mandolin and 
guitar quintettes. Wherever two or 
three of these musicians are gathered to- 
gether, there music is found. 

President Aguinaldo proceeded to the 
large government house, where he held 
a reception and was entertained at a ban- 
quet. The Americans were presented to 
him and sat at the table as guests of 
honor. Previously, however, there was 
a review of the troops, some 3,000 of 
them marching past the window where 
Aguinaldo stood. A window in this 
country consists of a broad opening in 
the side of the house, extending nearly 
its entire length and closed by sliding 
frames of window glass, or sea shell, and 
wooden slats. With these drawn to one 
side the whole interior is exposed. It 



WITH AGUINALDO IN THE PHILLIPINES. 



179 



was thus the president stood, an Ameri- 
can lady on either hand and backed by a 
group of his staff and American officers, 
while the troops marched by in columns 
of fours. 

The review was by no means impos- 
ing. Indeed, there is nothing imposing 
about the Filipino soldier. He is neither 
Romanesque nor statuesque. Wherever I 
have seen him, on guard or standing in 
line, he presents a lifelike representation 
of one afflicted with "that tired feeling." 



an armed mob that would easily be 
brushed aside by a much inferior body 
of trained troops. A few of them have 
served in the Spanish army and show 
signs of training and possess a degree 
of military bearing, but the great ma- 
jority possess little of either. The re- 
view over, Aguinaldo made a speech in 
Tagalo to the crowd that filled the plaza, 
but owing to an unfortunate neglect of 
my early education, I am unable to re- 
peat it. There were, however, occasion- 




SMoro natives of the large island of ^Mindanao, 
conquered this tribe. 



The Spaniards never 



His backbone appears to be plastic and 
his legs of unequal length. In all my 
experience of four months around Ma- 
nila I- have never seen a company per- 
form evolutions with anything approach- 
ing the precision and snap displayed by 
the American soldier, either regular or 
volunteer, even with but a few days of 
drill, nor have I seen anything but the 
simplest movements attempted. They 
do not even keep step well, and the 
manuel of arms seems as an sealed 
book to them. They utterly lack that 
coherence and solidity that come from 
drill and discipline, and to me seem but 



al allusions to the Americans, which al- 
ways evoked^ exclamations of approval 
from the crowd. The ceremony con- 
cluded with the inevitable photograph, 
Aguinaldo being taken with his fair 
American visitors and group of officers 
and dignitaries. Then followed the ban- 
quet. 

Let no one imagine this was a feast 
of rice and garlic. On the contrary, away 
out here in an interior province of 
Luzon, with no one present besides the 
natives, except the few American guests, 
I sat down to as fine a banquet as it was 
ever my good fortune to attend. There 



180 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 




"Dip net fishing in Vasig c JRi<ver, c Phillipim Islands. The fishermen live 
in the little thatched hut on the raft. 



were spotless linen, fine crockery and 
table ware in abundance, cut glass and 
silver, while the menu embraced a 
multitude of finely cooked dishes, with 
wine and champagne. Fish, flesh, fowl 
and fruit, with innumerable delicacies, 
served promptly and in good style, kept 
us busy for more than an hour, and then 
came the toasts, both in Spanish and 
Tagalo. So far as my limited acquaint- 
ance with the former language enabled 
me to follow the speakers, I gathered 
that the substance of all the speeches 
consisted of praise of the liberator, as 
Aguinaldo is styled, and his counsellors 
and soldiers, and the pledging of faith 
to the Republica Filipinas, accompanied 
by occasional allusions to America, 
which were invariably greeted with ap- 
plause. An /American medical officer 
was one of the speakers, and took occa- 
sion to announce that a cable had just 
been received to the effect that the 
United States had demanded of Spain 
an indemnity of $90,000,000 or the ses- 
sion of all her East India possessions, 
and that Spain had acceeded to the latter 
alternative. This statement was received 



with shouts of approval, and there fol- 
lowed vivas in rapid succession for the 
United States, President McKinley, the 
Americans, Aguinaldo, the Filipino re- 
public and everything else their enthus- 
iasm could suggest, Aguinaldo himself 
proposing vivas for the Americans. This 
sentiment is not simply an expression of 
present policy, but is genuine on the part 
of the great masses of the people. They 
are immensely pleased with the Ameri- 
cans, who have come so far across the 
sea to overthrow the power ot their im- 
memorial oppressor. In my judgment 
this is all the masses care for, to be re- 
lieved from Spanish rule and burden- 
some taxes, and if the American govern- 
ment gives them this they would be per- 
fectly satisfied with the present status, 
were it not for the influential classes 
urging them on to the support of an in- 
dependent republic. At present the in- 
fluence of the leaders is powerful. Agui- 
naldo is almost venerated as "El Libre- 
dor," and the idea of an independent 
government under the protection of the 
United States has taken a strong hold 
upon the class composing his army. It: 



WITH AGUINALDO IN THE PHILLIPINES. 



m 



is on this basis they cheer the Ameri- 
cans, and they always are careful to in- 
clude the Republica Filipinas in all such 
sentiments. Still, I believe the wealthy 
classes are satisfied that American rule 
is better for them than an unrestrained 
government of the people, while the 
masses, as I said before, are well enough 
satisfied to be relieved from the domin- 
ion of Spain. The element of danger in 
the situation, as I conceive it, is the Fili- 
pino army, both organized and unorgan- 



and individual liberty they do not com- 
prehend. For this reason there may be 
some friction in fully establishing Ameri- 
can authority and laying the Republica 
Filipinas on the table indefinitely, and it 
will call for diplomacy and delicate hand- 
ling. My own idea is that the more 
wealthy and intelligent natives should be 
given positions, such as provincial gov- 
ernors and district officers, and that a de- 
gree of local self-government be pro- 
vided for. In this way the aristocracy 




The ceuve of Via.tuaba.to, the entrance to the stronghold in the mountains of Bulacan province, 
Luzon, "where the insurrectos held the Spaniards at bay during the insurrection of 1897. 
The Spaniards lost many thousand soldiers here, and finally broke the rebellion 
. only by bribing Aguinaldo, the leader. 



ized. Their heads are so swelled by their 
success in arms, that they imagine them- 
selves to be great fighters, and even 
think they could whip the Americans 
should it become necessary. They want 
to rule, to confiscate Spanish and church 
property and collect taxes and exactions 
such as they have become accustomed 
to. Their idea of a government of their 
own is an opportunity to run things with 
a high hand and to do unto the Span- 
iards as was done unto them. The 
American idea of government and civil 



might be placaded and the backbone of 
opposition broken. 

Returning from the banquet to our 
host's residence, we indulged in the in- 
evitable siesta preparatory to attending 
the grand ball in the evening. With 
true native ease, we spread mats on the 
polished hardwood floor, and with heads 
on a wool pillow slumbered until a gen- 
eral alarm was sounded for dinner, an 
affair not much less elaborate than the 
banquet. 

The ball was held at the house of a 



182 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



wealthy planter, a spacious mansion, and 
was attended only by the president and 
his staff, the local officials and their fam- 
ilies, a few visitors from Manila and our 
party of four. The people generally 
were having festivities of their own at 
other houses. In every respect the ball 
was such as would be given at the home 
of a wealthy and refined American fam- 
ily. Aguinaldo and his staff and the 
American officers were in uniform. 



for bright colors was evident, but har- 
mony of color and artistic effect were 
characteristic of every costume. The 
native dress consists of a somewhat nar- 
row skirt of silk, with a long train, a 
waist of pina cloth, with very wide 
sleeves and a collar piece of the same 
material, covering the shoulders, reach- 
ing half way down the back and in front 
the ends fastened together with a brooch 
just above the waist. Pina cloth is as 




Company L, Second Oregon U. S. V. Entering Manila, Aug. 13, 1898. 



Other gentlemen were in black evening 
dress. The ladies were attired in cos- 
tumes of embroidered silk and pina 
cloth, made in the Filipino style, and 
decorated with diamonds. In all my 
similar experiences I have never seen 
such a display of diamonds as was made 
on this occasion. There were finger 
rings, ear-rings, brooches, pins, hair 
ornaments and watches studded with 
them, soltaires and clusters. But there 
was no vulgar ostentation. The taste 



fine as silk, but quite stiff, and is of na- 
tive manufacture from the fibre of the 
pine palm. Its stiffness causes the 
rolled collar to stand out from the neck 
and the large sleeves to stand entirely 
free from the arms, thus promoting the 
comfort of the wearer. In compliment 
to our hosts the lady of our party wore 
one of these costumes, and was justly 
complimented for her beauty and radiant 
appearance. President Aguinaldo es- 
pecially expressed his pleasure at the 



WITH AGUINALDO IN THE PHILLIPINES. 



183 



honor paid his people by the beautiful 
American, who was not only the first 
American lady in Pampanga, but the 
first to wear the national dress of the 
Filipinos. A little after midnight we 
withdrew from the ballroom and were 
soon soundly asleep on our palm mats 
on our entertainer's floor. 

There had been nothing except the 
style of furniture, the architecture and 
the color of the dancers to distinguish 
this from a ball in my native land. The 
Filipino plays the host and the guest 
with equal courtesy. He is refined in 
sentiment. He is spotlessly clean in 
person and raiment, and a thorough gen- 



tleman. Nothing but an unreasoning 
prejudice against color would prevent 
him from being a welcome guest in any 
American home. In color, he is very 
light, even when there is no admixture 
of white blood, especially the native of 
Pampanga. The tint is not that of the 
American mulatto, but a brighter brown 
or light yellow. Of 'course, as one pro- 
gresses downward in the social scale, he 
encounters less refinement and intelli- 
gence, and comes in contact with customs 
that do not charm; but in the main he 
finds personal cleanliness everywhere, 
associated, strangely, with an indiffer- 
ence of cleanliness of surroundings that 
it is difficult to comprehend. 



Adam's Mother. 



<Ey SMRS. W. L. WOOD. 



MRS. Gloon stood by the kitchen 
table mixing a sponge of brown 
breaa. The light from a single 
candle blended dimly with the fading 
light shining through the stove door, 
throwing shadows of her movements on 
the wall in long, blurred lines. 

The tall Seth Thomas clock, in the 
sitting-room, was striking nine, when 
Adam opened the outside door and came 
in. He looked tall and big-boned in his 
best suit of clothes. His boots creaked 
as he crossed the room and sat down by 
the stove, but they did not creak enough 
to drown the heavy sigh that escaped 
from his lips. 

His mother gave him a quick look. 

"What be the matter, Adam?" I hope 
nothing's wrong." 

Adam did not answer at once, but sat 
gazing at the toes of his boots which he 
moved restlessly. 

He must wound his mother's feelings 
deeply, and he shrank from doing it. 
Finally, he began to speak in sort of a 
mutter that grew clearer as he pro- 
ceeded. 

"What can I do? Mrs. Allee said, to- 
night, that Ellen sha'n't marry me, no 



way; and Ellen, she just cries and won't 
say a word." 

"Ellen Allee sha'n't marry you, eh! 
Why not, I want to know? Hain't you 
and me better'n the whole pack of shift- 
less Allees?" She lowered her voice as 
Adam raised a deprecating hand. "Well, 
perhaps, Ellen's better'n the rest, but 
what Mrs. Allee can object to Adam 
Gloon for is mor'n I can see." 

Adam struck his right hand several 
times, then, shaking his shoulders and 
straightening up, as if for an effort, he 
said : 

"Mother, can't you see, it's not me. 
It's — it's — well, she kind of thinks may- 
be Ellen wouldn't get what she ought to 
eat." 

"Heh! What she ought to eat! 
Well!" gulping to clear her throat, "You 
can say to Mrs. Allee with my best re- 
spects, that though I hain't ever had a 
running to silk dresses and no stockings, 
nor to dancing the whole night and let- 
ting my children go to school without 
their breakfasts, still I may starve folks 
what's my own kin; and that I hope 
Ellen won't ever set her foot inside this 
house again." 



184 



THE "PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



Adam groaned. His mother's strained 
voice softened to a crooning monotone. 

"They sha'n't treat you so, Adam. I 
know I'm right. If I should touch meat 
it would be struck from my hand. 
Hain't I tried it. I know butter'n meat 
are the killing of folks. Them that eats 
plenty of brown bread and takes a cold 
bath every day can live forever." Her 
face shone like a zealot's. 

Adam stifled another groan. He 
could not tell his mother that many peo- 
ple thought she had killed her three lit- 
tle daughters and her husband by her 
rigorous treatment. He could not tell 
her that, but Mrs. Allee had not spared 
him, when trying to save Ellen from a 
life under his mother's rule. 

He said nothing more, but took up 
his burden bravely. Nothing could 
shake his mother's convictions. 

One Sunday afternoon, several months 
later, Mrs. Gloon sat by the open front 
door, looking out over the fields that 
were almost ready for cutting. 

The wind gently swayed the tall tim- 
othy, shading it into a thousand tones of 
green. A narrow path ran from the 
doorstep up the sloping field to the road. 

Presently she saw a man coming. She 
could not see plainly over the tops of the 
bushes that grew thickly along the old 
rail fence, but when he reached the gate 
and turned down the path she saw that 
it was Adam, with his shoulders squared 
and the light of a great joy upon his face. 

Instinctively she arose, and a moment 
later Adam put his arms about her and 
said, with a sob in his voice: 

"Mother, she's going to marry me, 
after all. Her folks are going to Pa- 
louse to live ; and she will stay and marry 
me as soon as I like. 

"She doesn't care if she won't have 
what she likes to eat, she says, if she can 
be with me." 

Adam did not notice his mother wince, 
but she said, fiercely, to herself, as she 
prepared supper: 

"I know I'm right. Hain't the spirits 
told me time 'n time again." 

Adam and Ellen were married a week 
later. Mrs. Gloon had supper ready 
when they came home. She was heap- 
ing a plate with thick slices of brown 
bread. There were already on the table 



a bowl of apple sauce and a few dishes 
filled with steaming vegetables. 

Even these tasted flat, and Ellen 
loked for the salt. Then she remem- 
bered that Mrs. Gloon never used it. 
She made a wry face and looked across 
the table at Adam, but he kept his face 
bent over his plate. She smiled to her- 
self. What did she care about trifles 
with him to shield her from the real 
troubles? 

Indeed, the three lived very happily 
together for many months until Ellen 
began, gradually, to sicken. She had 
some fever, and, occasionally, a chill, but 
she always declared, each day, that she 
would be better tomorrow until, at last, 
a tomorrow came when she could not 
raise her head from her pillow. 

Mrs. Gloon nursed her assiduously 
with her vigorous cold water treatment 
in which she had most absolute faith. 
But Adam grew alarmed when day afte.- 
day went by and still Ellen grew weaker. 

He knew that his mother would not 
tolerate a doctor. He had ventured to 
propose bringing in Dr. Rummens, "just 
to sort of see Ellen/' and his mother had 
said: "So, you don't trust me, Adam? 
Me, as has nursed sickness for more 
years 'n you've been born. The day a 
doctor comes in I get out, for good." 

One day Adam started into the room 
just as his mother was preparing the 
daily cold plunge for Ellen. The blank- 
ets were toasting before the fire for the 
sweat afterwards. 

Ellen did not hear him open the door, 
she was pleading so earnestly in her 
weak little voice: 

"Oh, mother, please let the cold bath 
go for today. I feel like it will kill me." 

"There, there, child, it's just what yo 
need to get that awful fever out of you.' 

"But I'm so weak, I know it will kill 
me; it's so cold, so cold," Ellen wailed. 

Adam's, muscles grew tense and his 
jaw squared. "Mother," he said, trying 
to steady his voice, "Mrs. Kramer's aw- 
ful sick and they want you quick." 

Mrs. Gloon set down the bucket of 
cold water she was going to pour into 
the tub. 

"Mrs. Kramer? Dear me! How'm I 
going to leave Ellen, though? She seems 
powerful weak todav." 






cADAM'S SMOTHER. 



185 



"I can take care of her. Can't I, Ellen 
dear? You'd better hurry, mother." He 
drew his breath quickly. He felt as if he 
was choking. 

This was about ten in the morning. 
At two, Mrs. Gloon turned wearily in at 
her own gate again. Although it was 
October, the air was warm and she felt 
hot and dusty from her four-mile tramp. 

The fields had been harvested months 
ago, and were green again with soft 
young grass, among which the cattle 
were browsing luxuriantly. 

"I wonder where Adam could have 
heard that Mrs. Kramer was sick," re- 
iterated she, "when she never was bet- 
tern her life." 

She pushed open the door, and then 
fell back a step. The whole room was 
in confusion. She went in. Ellen was 
gone. Also, the covers and mattress 
from her bed. Other things were gone, 
too. Even a chair or two, a rug and 
some dishes. Mrs. Gloon stood par- 
alyzed. Adam, her beloved, had done 
this! Had deceived his own mother. 
Had told her a lie, and then stolen away 
like a thief. Her son, who was usually 
so tender to her. This was what she had 
slaved for, saving and working for such 
a son! 

Although tired from her long walk, 
she took no food during the rest of the 
day. In the evening the lowing of the 
cows aroused her. She let them into the 
barn and fed and milked them. 

This had been Adam's work, but she 
supposed for the rest of her life she 
would have to do it. She would not ask 
him. No. She would never let him 
come back. She noticed that the big 
wagon and the two horses were gone. 
When she went back to the house she 
could see the ruts where the wagon had 
been backed up to the porch. 

She could not sleep that night, al- 
though she laid down on her bed. She 
was right, she knew she was right. Ellen 
would have got well. She would not 
have let her die. 

At the first streak of dawn she heard 
someone on the back porch, but when 
she opened the door there were only 
two buckets of foaming milk standing 
there. 

Adam had remembered her, after all. 



Adam, who was not worthy of one 
thought, who had torn himself from her 
heart by one wicked act. She stood in 
the door with her hair wild from the 
sleepless tossing, a tiny shawl pulled to- 
gether about her throat and held tightly 
there, her whole body shaking from ex- 
haustion and suffering. She could see 
Adam as a baby crowing in her arms; as 
a boy upright and true; onward through 
the years always loving, always thought- 
ful, until now, a big strong man who had 
always been so good to her. For the 
first time her heart melted a little. He 
loved her, after all. 

Had she been too determined? Ellen 
had been brought up differently. Per- 
haps she could not stand the way they 
lived. She knew she was right, but, still, 
she may have been too set. Adam ought 
to ask to come back and she would let 
them. 

From the window she saw the smoke 
curling up from the little house down 
the creek, the house that her husband 
had built the winter after they came to 
Oregon, after that weary march across- 
the plains. Here they had settled in this 
beautiful Willamette valley, and in the 
little old cabin her children had been 
born. 

Twice during the day she forced her- 
self to gulp down some tea, but food 
choked her. Towards evening she felt 
weak and dizzy. 

At dusk, Adam came with the milk 
again. She thought, perhaps, he would 
come in, but he did not. She sat cold 
and still when she heard him, on the 
walk, coming nearer and nearer to the 
house. She held her breath as he set 
the buckets on the porch. Then, after a 
moment's pause, as if waiting for some 
sign from her, she heard his boots creak 
away again. 

She sat for several hours, quite still, 
but her eyes glowed in the dark like fire. 
Finally, she arose stiffly, and went into 
her room and laid down on the bed with- 
out undressing. Nothing mattered now; 
her life was dead. She had only lived for 
Adam. 

About two in the morning she got up, 
suddenly. She had been wrong! It came 
upon her like a flash of fire, flooding her 
soul with new light, burning strong and 



186 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



steadv, a conviction to last as long as 
life. 

In the future people could do as they 
thought best. She could not change, en- 
tirely, for herself, but Adam and Ellen 
could do as they chose. She would go at 
once and ask them to come back. She 
could not live without them. 

The moon was setting full and glorious 
as she started, but she did not notice. 
The way seemed long and she felt very 
weak. She found a stick to help her, 
but, even then, her progress was painfully 
slow. Her feet felt so heavy that she 
could scarcely lift them, while her head 
was strangely light. 

She did not see the beautiful silvery 
light upon the fields and creek, her light 
was inward, burning to the extreme 
point of limit. 

Before she was half way, she stumbled 
and fell. What a relief! She would 
crawl. But soon the heavy fatigue came 
back. When she reached the bars she 



dragged herself painfully through them. 

The night was cold and the grass 
heavy with dew. Her skirts were 
soaked and clung in a sodden mass to 
her, chilling her through and through. 
She could not go much farther. 

For the first time a fear came over her 
that she would never get there. She 
who had always been so strong and well, 
who expected to live to be a hundred. 
She went only a few feet at a time now, 
and her breath came hard and thick. 
She had no feeling in her legs; she 
dragged herself by her arms. 

The cabin at last! The first streak of 
dawn lighted the eastern sky as she 
touched the step. She could dimly hear 
Adam's step within. He heard her weak 
voice and opened the door. 

"Mother! Mother!" he cried, with a 
great sob in his voice, as he gathered 
her up into his arms. 

' ' I ' ve — come — for — you— and — Ellen . 
I — I — was — wrong," she whispered. 



The Scarlet Huntsman. 



Have you seen the scarlet huntsman 
Wave his arms and bare his head, 

Leading forth the Indian warrior 
To the wigwams of the dead? 

When the silent march is taken 
To the happy hunting ground, 

Leaves no trail that we can follow 
Or the echo of a sound. 

For the calm of night 's unbroken 
As the specters softly glide 

Passing through the stilly silence 
On beyond the "great divide." 

On beyond, to where the tribesmen 

Clothed in immortality, 
Reunited with his lost ones, 

When he plants his last "tepee." 



Through the gates of snowy splendor 

On the mountains' rocky crest, 
Where the smiling valley 's waiting 

For the Indian soul ..o rest. 

Walter Cayley c Belt SM. T>. 



Joseph Simon, 

Oregon's Junior Senator. 



THERE is not in the political history 
of the state of Oregon a more 
unique and interesting figure than 
that of the Hon. Joseph Simon who was 
recently elected to the United States sen- 
ate by the legislature of his own com- 
monwealth. 

Perhaps no one man, since the terri- 
tory of Oregon was admitted to state- 
hood, has exercised so strong an influ- 
ence, has played so important a part, or 
has shown so masterful a hand in shap- 
ing the political destinies of this quiet 
and conservative corner of the world as 
the subject of this brief sketch. 

Born on German soil, but so early an 
adopted son of America and American 
institutions that it is not possible he re- 
members his mother country, this man 
exemplifies the irresistible power of 
silence, of the subtle energy that moves 
unseen and unheard, acting with thought 
directed force upon the minds and mat- 
ters of men, compelling co-operation and 
obedience. Even his enemies, and the 
man of political strength must have 
many, admit his astuteness, recognize his 
ability and accord full measure of admir- 
ation to his extraordinary foresight and 
executive adroitness. 

"He sits in his office and men go to 
him, but he goes not to any man," re- 
marked one of the disappointed, com- 
menting upon the results of a recent 
campaign in local politics. "He under- 
stands human nature, and he knows 
every man's weak spot." 

It is this knowledge, this understand- 
ing, rather than a happy combination of 
circumstances that has helped him on to 
success. An ability to grasp the meaning 
of a situation in its entirety, to mold men 
to his will, and the material at hand to 
meet the exigencies of the hour, this con- 
stitutes no small factor in the upward 
progress of the man of public affairs. 
That Senator Joseph Simon possesses 
this ability is not doubted by either friend 
or political opponent. 



As years count Senator Joseph Simon 
is still a young man, having first seen 
the light of day in 1857, in the town of 
Bectheim in Germany. He had been in 
this world little over a twelvemonth 
when his parents brought him to Amer- 
ica to become in all essential things an 
American. He was elected to the state 
senate in 1880, and served continuously 
in that body for 18 years. In 1888 he 
was made secretary of the state repub- 
lican committee of Oregon, and in a 
short time the entire management of 
local political campaigns was left in his 
hands. 

The story of his career, if written out 
in full and up to date, would read like a 
romance, and it would, further, embody 
a large share of the political history of 
Oregon for the last twenty-two years. 
For since his first appearance in the 
arena in 1877, when he was elected to 
the city council of Portland, his finger 
has apparently never left for a moment 
the political pulse of his all but native 
state. From the city hall to the state 
house, from the state house to the senate 
chamber, it has been a careful, a thought- 
fully considered and uninterrupted prog- 
ress, illustrative of the thoroughly dem- 
ocratic possibilities of the institutions of 
this great American republic. 

It may be claimed with perfect truth 
of Senator Simon that he is almost 
wholly a self-educated man. Leaving 
school at the age of 14, he assisted his 
father in business for a few years, but his 
inclinations were not toward a com- 
mercial career. He had other tastes and 
ambitions, and when he was 19 years old 
he began the study of law in the office of 
Mitchell and Dolph, becoming in 1873 
a member of the firm of Dolph, Bro- 
naugh and -Dolph, Hon. John H. 
Mitchell having retired upon being 
elected to the United States senate from 
Oregon. In 1883 the election of J. N. 
Dolph to the same high place made yet 



188 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



another change in the firm, which now 
became known as Dolph, Bellinger, 
Mallory & Simon, and so stands today, 
though the junior member has followed 
in the footsteps of his illustrious prede- 



cupying a seat in the senatorial cham- 
ber in the capitol at Washington. It is 
expected that he will make for himself a 
reputation in national affairs correspond- 
ing to that which he has already won in 



cessors and is at the present moment oc- the political arena of his own state. 



The Voice of the Silence. 



By one of Portland's leading citizens, a prominent member of society, who for the present c wilt 
remain unnamed. The author, a close student of human nature, holds that character is 
stronger than circumstances, and undertakes to illustrate his theory in a decidedly novel and 
interesting manner. The hero and heroine, taken from real life, and undoubtedly well 
known to the majority of our Portland readers, are placed in a purely fictitious environment, 
<where they proceed to work out the "writer's ideas. — Ed. 



Chapter III. 

What is love but dream that, passing, 
Leaves the dreamer once more awake? 

What is love but a trifler, cruel, 

Bruising the heart he can not break. 



BEFORE the last rose-hued bloom 
had faded in the rhododendron 
thicket, just as the wind, strong 
and steady began to blow from the 
northwest Odin said good-by and sailed 
away. 

The sloop was a staunch little craft, 
but the growing trade on the river de- 
manded a larger vessel and one not alto- 
gether dependent upon wind and tide for 
her means of locomotion, therefore Odin 
was commissioned by the company to 
select and charter a small steamer to 
supplement the voyages of the sloop. It 
was decided rather suddenly to send him. 
Hanson was going, but Hanson was not 
on his own affidavit a competent man 
for the business, knowing more about 
the welding of iron and the forging of 
steel than about boats. The only other 
man who could be spared at this time 
was Odin, and Odin, in spite of his 
youth was a man in whom the company 
reposed the utmost confidence. 

"Going away!" echoed Elise in tones 
of incredulous amazement when he came 
down the night before he sailed to bid 
her good-by. "No, no, I will not believe 
it. You are not going." 

They were standing in the twilight 
in the cabin door, but now she turned 



and went in. She was dazed by his an- 
nouncement. She did not believe that 
he would go and leave her. He could 
not; how was she to live without him? 
And yet down in her heart something 
told her that he spoke the truth. 

He followed her in presently and stood 
silently regarding her in the dim light. 
He longed to throw himself at her feet 
and tell her that he would return never 
to leave her again, that he loved her and 
would make her his wife, but the stern 
sense of justice that had always dom- 
inated every act of his young life held 
him speechless. Perhaps if she had 
wept he would have so far forgotten his 
resolve as to have spoken the irrevocable 
words, for he could not resist the sight 
of a woman's tears, but she did not 
weep, she only sat there upon the fur- 
covered couch, leaning - back, her hands 
clasped in her lap and her eyes down- 
cast, waiting for him to break the silence. 
Instinctively she knew that his pain far 
outweighed her own, and woman-like, 
was glad that he suffered. 

"You will believe me," he said at last, 
in his slow, hesitating fashion, "when I 
tell you that it costs me more, far more 
than it can cost you to say good-by." 

"Then you do not mean ever to re- 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



189 



turn?" she asked quickly. 

"Yes, I shall come back. It is not 
likely that I shall be absent longer than 
a couple of months, but I cannot expect 
to find you unchanged when I return. 
Many things may happen in two 
months." 

She lifted her eyes, and he felt their 
soft glow through the summer dusk. 
"Odin," she said, her voice sweeter, more 
tender than he had ever heard it, "Odin, 
will you leave me, even for two months 
when I say to you as I say now, Be- 
loved, I cannot live without you? Oh, 
does my happiness mean so little to you? 
If you must go take me with you." 

She reached him both her hands, and 
as he clasped them in his own, drew him 
down upon the couch at her side, leaning 
her dark head against his shoulder. 
"Take me with you, take me with you, 
Odin," she begged. But he did not re- 
spond either to her words or to the ca- 
ress. She could not see in that dim light 
that his eyes were full of tears, or know 
that he dared not trust his voice, and 
she felt hurt at what she deemed his in- 
difference, hurt and surprised. How had 
she mistaken him so. All at once she 
remembered that in all their close and 
intimate companionship he had never 
once uttered a term of endearment, had 
never given her an unsought caress. 
Was it possible that he did not care, 
after all? A sudden fear gripped her 
heart, but she put it resolutely aside. If 
he did not care, he should. 

"Dear," she said, leaning nearer, "you 
are breaking my heart, and you do not 
seem to care." 

"No, not that; I would spare you pain 
if I could. It would have been better if 
I had not come into your lfie; I have 
only made you suffer, and I would give 
the world, if it were mine, to secure your 
lasting happiness." 

"And yet it is such a little thing I ask 
of you — only to stay with me, to go on 
as we have begun, to live always as we 
have lived since that day you came first 
and taught me what it was to be alone. 
I had not known the meaning of soli- 
tude till you made me understand what 
companionship was. If you are absent 
but a day I am restless and wretched. 
When you go I count the hours, the. 



minutes, till you come again. Can I live 
two months, not seeing your dear face? 
two long, weary, endless months? Oh, 
you cannot ask it, you cannot!" 

Odin drew away from her. He clenched 
his hands till the nails cut into his palms. 
His face was white with the intensity of 
his emotion. It seemed to him, in that 
brief moment, that he lived and suffered 
centuries of fierce physical pain, and 
still fiercer mental agony. He cursed 
himself for his weakness, and drained to 
its bitter dregs the cup of unearned re- 
morse. 

"Why do you shrink from me? Do 
you no longer love me?" questioned the 
girl, in her low, sweet tones. 

He found his voice then. "Yes, I love 
you," he said. "If you knew me as I am, 
you would know that I am not worthy 
to touch the hem of your dress, but you 
shall not be the worse for my love. I 
must go now." He stood up and 
reached her his hand. She put her own 
shapely white one in it, and rose too. 
She was beginning at last to realize the 
futility of words, of looks, of kisses. He 
was going, and nothing she could do or 
say would stay him for a moment. 
Therefore she was silent and still. She 
did not even offer her lips when he said 
good-by; she did not watch him down 
the path to the beach as was her wont, 
but stood leaning against the door which 
he closed behind him as he went out, 
conscious only of the magnitude of her 
disappointment. 

As for Odin, that night marked an 
epoch in his life. All through the sum- 
mer darkness and into the gray dawn he 
walked the beach below the pine grove 
and fought the battle which few men es- 
cape, but which alas, few men may win. 
But the victory brought him little joy, 
brought him, in fact, only bitterness of 
heart, and doubt and pain. Hope's 
smile he would not see, and the future 
held faint promise of happiness or even 
peace. But he knew that once for all he 
had vanquished the demons of the night, 
and might henseforth go on his way un- 
harmed by their red-lashing torments. 



It was perhaps a month after Odin's 
departure, that Elise, restless and lonely, 
wandered aimlessly along the river 



190 



THE TACIFIC ^MONTHLY. 



beach. The hours seemed to drag their 
weary length on leaden feet, the days 
were empty and the nights were dull, or 
disturbed by vaguely troubled dreams. 
The girl had tasted the sweet of human 
companionship and Nature no longer 
sufficed. She missed the clinging touch 
of hands, the light of loving eyes, the 
sound of a voice whose every note was 
a caress. She longed without the con- 
sciousness of the longing for some one to 
talk to. She recalled again and again, 
each incident of the past half year, re- 
membered every word and glance and 
tone, and wondered and questioned and 
aoubted. He was so strong, so kind, so 
cold; he said he loved her, yet seemed 
always to impose an impenertable bar- 
rier between them. Was it because, 
after all, they were of a different class as 
he declared? Elise knew little of classes 
and conditions. In her limited experi- 
ence there had been no room for such 
knowledge, but she felt instinctively the 
difference that separated her from the 
women in the village. They were farther 
from her in all things than the Indian 
girls whom she sometimes met on the 
beach or on the hills. The Indians, at 
least, had been taught by the same great 
Mother of them all. They had learned 
their lessons from the same book and 
saw and understood the hidden mean- 
ing of things. 

. "Of the people" he had named him- 
self, he who was so strong and noble, 
and so true, like the heroes in the old 
romances he read aloud to her those 
long rainy afternoons and evening last 
winter. Were the people then so su- 
perior? She wearied of this questioning 
in time and gave herself up to dreams, 
drifting upon the rose-pink flood of 
fancy until the realities of life became 
blurred and indistinct. She often 
climbed to the hill-top overlooking 
the bar where she would lie for half 
the day gazing out over the ocean, yet 
seeing nothing that was visible to the 
physical sight, because she was look- 
ing into the past, or trying to pierce the 
veil that hung like a silver sun-shot mist 
between the present and the future. This 
state of mental indolence might have 
continued indefinitely but for a timely 
interruption which had the effect of 



s artling the girl from her dreams and 
which gave her something less ■- ener- 
vating if less pleasant as an occupation. 

On that afternoon when Elise, stroll- 
ing beside the river, became suddenly 
aware that she was observed by a pair of 
sullen black eyes, she entered upon a 
new phase of existence. 

It was just where the current at low 
water bares the barnacled length of an 
old uprooted spruce, the beach ends ab- 
rupty, and the ebbing tide, deep and 
dark, sweeps passed the dead spruce with 
the velocity of a mill-stream. 

Huddled in an uncomfortable fashion 
upon the log was a girl, a girl with a 
handsome swarthy face and a wild tan- 
gle of raven hair. She was bare-headed 
and wore a gay-colored shawl drawn 
closely about her shoulders and trailing 
down upon the wet sands. 

For a full minute the two stared at 
each other in silence, the blue eyes wide 
with wonder and surprise, the black 
ones burning with hate and desperation. 
Then Elise smiled. 

"You are not from the town," she said 
in the musical Indian tongue. 

"No, I am not." the stranger replied 
in English. 

"And yet—" 

"I ain't white, and I ain't Indian. O 
God, I ain't nothin'!" Her head went 
down upon her out-flung arms and her 
ungainly figure shook with a passionate 
fury of dry, tearless sobs. 

Elise impulsively drew nearer and laid 
her hand upon the unkempt hair, wait- 
ing till the storm had passed. When 
the girl lifted her head it was not to look 
at her companion, but at the hurrying 
stream. 

"There ain't no use livin'," she said 
sullenly, "I'm goin' to drown myself!" 

"Oh!" cried Elise, "why should you 
do that?" Her voice was vibrant with 
sympathy and sweet and tender. "Why, 
oh, why, should you think of such a 
dreadful thing?" 

But the girl shook her hand ofl 
roughly. "You better not touch me!" 
she exclaimed. "I ain't fit; ain't nobod} 
speaks to me up town, but I don't 
care!" She slipped awkwardly from the 
log to the sands, clenching her hands in 
a sort of impotent dull rage. "I don' 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



191 



care," she repeated, "I don't care!" 

She was a head shorter than Eiise as 
she stood there, her handsome features 
distorted with passion. Noting the lat- 
ter's curious glance she ' instinctively 
drew her shawl closer, then with an 
angry gesture flung it aside. 

"There!" she cried fiercely, '.'I don't 
care; everybody knows." 

But Elise did not understand. The 
meaning of the speech was lost upon her 
unsophisticated ears. She only saw that 
the girl was unhappy, and her own dis- 
appointment inclined her to sympathy. 

"I am sorry people are unkind to 
you," she murmured softly. "Will you 
not come Home with me? I will be your 
friend." 

The girl eyed her suspiciously.. 
'"Friend!" she exclaimed, with bitter 
scorn, "friends don't count when you're 
in trouble. I ain't got any friends, and 
I don't want any; they treat you like a 
dog when — when your trouble comes." 

But Elise was not to be put off by 
rudeness. The dark wild beauty of this 
girl's face attracted her, and she could 
not bear the sight of pain. She caught 
the fringe of the gay shawl as its wearer 
turned away. 

"Tell me where you are from. Do 
vou belong to the river?" 

"No." 



"You live—" 

"Up there." She motioned toward the 
Point and Elise remembered that just 
around the bend there was an old cabin, 
long deserted, but for the last few 
months, occupied by a white man with 
an Indian wife and several half-breed 
children. The man was employed "by 
the company to provide wood for the 
cannery and the woman was given odd 
bits of work now and then by the femi- 
nine portion of the growing community. 

"Will vou come here tomorrow?" 

"What for?" 

"I wish it." The blue eyes looked 
steadily into the dark ones; there was a 
compelling force in their depths. Slowly 
the anger faded from the black orbs and 
they drooped wearily till the long lashes 
rested upon the brown cheek. 

"You will come." It was not a ques- 
tion this time, but a command. 

••Yes." 

"Good-by then, and remember that I 
am your friend." The two girls, both 
children of Nature, yet opposite as the 
poles, went their separate ways. In that 
brief meeting a long chain of circum- 
stances was set in motion that was des- 
tined to influence the life of each in ways 
it was not then possible to foresee or 
even to dream of. 

(To be continued.) 



Life's Elegy. 



I've wandered far o'er land and sea, 
I've seen the lighted festal hall, 

And heard the wail of misery 
Above the flaunting prompter's call. 

Upon the dark and silent street, 
Except the sound of quickened tread, 

Or ruthless whir of driven sleet 

There comes the cry — "Oh give me bread!' 

Who has not heard the robin sing, 

The burden of a matin lay? — 
Yet it has felt the talon's sting 

Before the song has died away. 

Why softly treads the timid deer, 

To startle at the rustling leaf? 
Why should with darkness, waken fear, 

And morning bring so often grief? 



The tiny motes within the air, 
The monarchs of the sea and plain, 

Live only to a life ensnare, 
Strive only to give pain for pain. 

"And is it so with man?" I ask, 
Once more retrace the lighted hall; 

Upon the street, a sullen mask 
Is penury — the sleet, a pall. 

"Of thee, world, why is it thus?" 
I ask, "Will this forever be? 

Must life be ever ravenous, 

And ever man know misery?" 

Thy answer is: — "We little know 
The workings of an endless time; 

Man's days may be for weal or woe; 
His portion, dreary heights to climb. 



Within a book of endless leaves, 
Is life the turning of a page, 

And happy he who well believes 
A fairer lot his heritage." 



Valentine e Bro c wn. 



Oriental Learning. 



'By). HUNTER WELLS, SM. <Z>. 



EDUCATION in the Orient, that is 
to say, in China, Japan and Korea, 
has its foundation, its structure 
and its pinnacles in Confucius and Men- 
cius. To know Confucius and Mencius, 
or Kong-Maing, as he is called in 
Korea, is to be educated. There are 
very few men who attain to the point set 
as a standard. The test is to repeat 
from memory long passages from the 
master, as Confucius was called. 

The Chinese classics which comprise 
some of the writings or sayings of Con- 
fucius and Mencius, besides those of 
other authors are translated into Eng- 
lish by James Legge, a professor at Ox- 
ford, England, who was for many years 
a missionary in China. The books in 
seven large volumes, are full of rich and 
pithy, terse and true sayings. Every sub- 
ject, outside of science or the Christian 
religion, though that is nearly paralleled 
in its morals, is considered. The schol- 
ars who have attained to a perfect 
knowledge of the Chinese classics do not 
always practice the moral precepts they 
have learned. What people do? 

The books are, of course, written in 
the Chinese characters. And these 
characters are symbols of ideas. They 
must be learned like pictures, though 
there is a very set and certain way to 
write them, and they are designated by 
strokes, i. e., so many strokes of the pen 
to the character. Boys old enough to 
walk or a little older are put to studying 
in classes, and the one that yells the 
loudest is the best student. A room full 
can be heard afar off, for the din is some- 
thing awful. They write and yell, and 
yell and write. They keep this thing up 
for years, though as they get on into 
thirties and forties they sing the charac- 
ters monotonously instead of shouting 
them as in their early youth. Since 
there must be a character for every idea 
there are consequently characters of 
characters, but it is surprising how few 
are absolutely necessary. There is more 



poetry in the classics of the Orient than 
will be believed until they are more 
widely scattered and better known. The 
philosophy of Emerson, with grander 
and more beautiful ideas still, is embod- 
ied in the Chinese classics. Every dis- 
covery of the past fifty years outside of 
strictly scientific lines has been known 
to the Chinese for ages. Everything, 
however, is now in a state of decay. The 
dismemberment of this great empire is a 
certainty of the immediate future. When 
the barriers of its deadly conservatism 
are broken down we shall learn much 
that will surprise and interest us. 

The system of education prevalent in 
China for hundreds, perhaps thousands 
of years, outlined as briefly as possible, 
consists in teaching the classics, and 
nothing but the classics. This barbar- 
ous fashion is not entirely absent from 
our own schools and universities. The 
difference lies in this only: The Occi- 
dent goes to the extreme in trying to 
teach each student everything under the 
sun — the Orient teaches but one. 

The introduction of "Western learn- 
ing," as it is called, by the missionaries 
is so small in proportion to the popula- 
tion, and its influence so very limited 
except in Japan, as to hardly deserve 
mentioning. The expensive methods in 
vogue, as compared with the native 
schools, are not commendable. The 
methods of Christian missions and mis- 
sion schools are open to question. 

Reverting to Confucius, it is interest- 
ing to note the subjects on which he 
most frequently conversed, viz.: the 
odes, the history, and the maintainance 
of the rules of prosperity, feats of 
strength, disorder, and spiriual beings. 
Since he was supposed to speak only of 
things worth while and to keep silent oh 
those not worthy of consideration we get 
an idea of what was important. "He 
said: "Shall I teach you what is knowl- 
edge? When you know a thing to hold 
that you know it, and when you do not 



ORIENTAL LEARNING. 



193 



Tcnow a thing to allow that you do not 
know it — this is knowledge." 

In any comparison of Job and Con- 
fucius or of Solomon and Confucius the 
latter must invariably suffer. For in- 
stance, Job says concerning the law of 
understanding and wisdom: "Behold 
the fear of the Lord that is wisdom: And 
to depart from evil that is understand- 
ing."~ 

Confucianism is not a religion. As far 
as it goes it is good, but it stops short of 
spiritual things. The secret of the stabil- 
ity of the Chinese Empire through all 
the past ages has not yet been discov- 
ered. It would be strange indeed if it 
could be proven that it was due to the 
system of education laid down by Con- 
fucius and Mencius. Their philosophy 
compares favorably, nay is even superior 
to that of Plato. One thing is certain, the 
Greeks of old had no monopoly on learn- 
ing, and it would not be surprising if 
those venerated old sages got many, if 
not most, of their notions from far 
Cathay, for the learning that we are con- 
sidering was at its zenith long before the 
"Glory that was Greece and the grand- 
uer that was Rome" was dreamed of. 

Education in the Orient then, is a 
looking-in rather than a looking-out. As 
before intimated, the western method 
has leavened Japan, and as a result Japan 
has now a system mainly due to the mis- 
sionary societies which made the educa- 
tional plan the principal feature of the 
work. In the great empire of China with 



its doubly, triply encased conservatism 
the outposts have as yet been merely 
touched. It is true they have a "uni- 
versity" or two at Pekin and important 
schools elsewhere — mainly on paper, but 
little influence is felt in the empire from 
western education. The character of a 
people determines largely the possibility 
of change, so when we reflect on the 
leading characteristic of China as a set- 
tled conservatism, that of Japan as mal- 
leability and that of Korea as mediocrity, 
we can draw some theoretical conclus- 
ions as to what may be. 

At any rate the educational system of 
the Orient comprised in these three 
countries and coming down through the 
ages has, it would seem, proven a good 
thing in the matter of preserving a gov- 
ernment intact for a longer period than 
that of any other country since time,* so 
far as history shows, began. Surely this 
is as important as the little learnings of 
Greece and Rome, which are over and 
over included in the philosophy of the 
Orient. A living language and a living 
people are more worthy of consideration 
than a dead concern. 

The average Chinese is a man of ideas 
and resources. There is in each individ- 
ual, as in the nation, a latent force that 
needs but the leaven of western educa- 
tion to awaken. And when once the 
Chinese -citizen is aroused to a sense of 
his situation China will become the na- 
tion of the future. 



O Love ! from out the great Profound 
If thou but once would stoop to read 

The prayer that's written in my heart — 
And from the ramparts of sweet heav'n, 

Lean out and whisper, "I forgive," 
Oh then the earth again were fair, 

And it were then worth while to live! 



Lischen £M. cMiller. 



The "Lettre dc Cachet" in California. 



<By "DAVID STARR JORDAN, President of LeUnd Stanford Junior University, 



IN the first week of January, 1898, an 
incident occurred in the state of 
California which deserves more than 
a passing notice, not for the fact itself, 
but for the light it throws on our local 
criminal processes. 

A professor of botany in one of our 
universities, a man known in his profes- 
sion throughout the world, a traveler of 
large experience, a director of the Sierra 
Club, and one of its leading workers for 
forestry preservation in the United States 
goes into the beautiful Santa Cruz woods 
with students on a camping trip. 

When the camp breaks up, the pro- 
fessor walks over to Santa Cruz. He is 
attired in woolen shirt and blue fatigue 
jacket, with coarse walking shoes. At 
the hotel he is recognized at once and 
treated royally. He carrLs a bundle of 
preserved plants, a carefully made chart 
of the roads of the count , a few dollars 
in money and a razor. He walks from 
Santa Cruz to Capitola station, taking 
the train there, but stooping over at 
Watsonville to study the fungus that 
lives in sugar refuse. 

It appears that some three weeks be- 
fore a stranger had passed from Santa 
Cruz to the village of Soquel and the 
neighboring station of Capitola. He was 
described as "about six feet tall, middle- 
aged, weight 160 to 175 pounds, wear- 
ing gray pantaloons, stout shoes, light 
flannel shirt, a brown coat, an overcoat, 
black hat, a beard about one inch long." 
At one saloon in Santa Cruz, and at one 
each in Soquel and Capitola, this strang- 
er had passed on the bartender a coun- 
terfeit ten dollar piece. This was a most 
clumsy counterfeit, half thicker than the 
genuine coin, made of tin and lead, with 
a thin gilding. To the end of securing 
this person, a blank "John Doe" warrant 
was issued by the justice of peace at So- 
quel, charging John Doe as above de- 
scribed of the general crime of felony. 
The description fits about 15,000 differ- 
ent men in California, and in all but four 



points it applied to the professor botany. 

Seeing a man in a woolen shirt, on 
foot,adeputy constable of Soquel jumped 
at once at the conclusion that this must 
be the desired counterfeiter. 

At the Watsonville hotel the professor 
was accosted, "See here, pard," by a 
rough-looking person, who insisted on 
knowing his name and location, and who 
with two others, claiming to be officers, 
took him into custody. The professor 
insisted on the right to telegraph to his 
friends, but the only answer from the 
Watsonville constable was profanity. 
The explanation that botanical explora- 
tion was the purpose of the professor's 
movements was considered by this man 
an insult to his understanding, and he 
departed from the "lock-up" at Watson- 
ville with a perfect torrent of oaths. 

The constables of Watsonville and 
Soquel were disappointed at the amount 
of money thev found on their captive. 
They acknowledged it to be good money, 
and the former said that he would keep 
it. He was a married man and needed 
it. He was anxious to make a bet with 
the professor that he was the counter- 
feiter. That the professor refused to bet 
on a sure thing was to this amateur de- 
tective evidence enough that he was the 
culprit. 

When the professor offered to bring 
any number of witnesses to show his 
whereabouts at the time the coin was 
passed, the Soquel constable said, 
"They all prove an alibi, but the best 
alibi in the world will count nothing 
against the identification of these Soquel 
complainants." They went on to say 
"they could arrest any man they chose 
and the law could not touch them." 

At Soquel, one of the complainants 
thought him the man, but could not 
swear to it. Another said, "Pratt, he 
doesn't look to me like the man I saw." 
But the constable took this as an abso- 
lute identification, and putting handcuffs 
on the professor drove with him to the 



THE "LETTRE DE CACHET" IN CALIFORNIA. 



195 



county seat, where he was placed in jail 
in a cell with two felons convicted of an 
unspeakable crime. 

At Santa Cruz, the constables hailed 
a notorious "jack-leg" lawyer and 
strongly urged their captive to employ 
him. 

After a night in jail at Santa Cruz, the 
fact of his presence became known to 
friends in the city. Notice reached the 
university, the chief of the United States 
secret service came from San Francisco, 



and the machinery of the real law was 
invoked to release the professor from 
jail. The United States officer found not 
a fact to justify even suspicion much less 
detention, the whole case resting on the 
assumption that a professor or a gentle- 
man would not wear a woolen shirt nor 
walk when he could afford to ride. 

The moral of the incident is in the 
light it throws on the dangers to which 
our loose criminal practice of "setting a 
thief to catch a thief" exposes those who 
are not criminals. 



" Little George." 



<Sy cADONEN 



IT was down at St. Louis, the great 
electric race track, that I first saw 
"Little George." . Weighing less 
than ioo pounds, with his clear-cut 
features, he looked under 30, though I 
was told he was nearer 40, and had been 
a hard drinker for the last 15 years. 

"He knows all there is to know about 
horses," one of the big stable owners 
said. "There isn't his equal on the turf, 
sir, if he'd stay sober; but you never can 
trust him, unless it is some big race that 
touches his professional pride. Twenty 
years ago he was great; I never knew 
what knocked him out, but fancy there 
was a woman in it, as he won't look at 
the pick of them now." 

I had noticed that George was kind 
to a degree to everything feminine, but 
a timid touch on the sleeve of a lady, if 
a kicking horse were backing toward 
her, or she was likely to come in contact 
with one of the innumerable buckets of 
water that are always in rapid transit at 
the racing stables, was the extent of the 
attention he would volunteer. 

I really admired his knowledge of the 
many phases of horseracing, and tried 
to draw him into a sort of friendship; 
but for a long time he was shy of me, 
and even after we had spent long even- 
ings together, any allusion to his past 



would end the conversation for that time. 
But the day he rode and won the fa- 
mous race, the race that kept the tele- 
graph machines ticking, changed the 
•fortune of more than one rich young 
blood, and filled with bank notes some 
hands that had almost forgotten their 
touch, "Little George" was cheered by 
the lucky ones, and that evening he was 
given a supper by his admiring, if noisy 
friends. But he managed to steal away, 
and came up to my room. "I don't 
want to get drunk," he said, "if only 
that tonight reminds me of a night long 
ago. I want to tell you about it, and 
you can put it in your old paper if you 
want to. I know there are many things 
we have to bless our sires for being bur- 
dened with, yet my father was as good 
a preacher as ever lived on a Massa- 
chusetts donation; and I've heard him 
say T hadn't an ancestor who ever 
thought of a horse except as a beast of 
burden. 

"I was sent to a good New England 
school, but before I was in the Third 
Reader, I knew every horse that had any 
speed for 20 miles round, and could tell 
whether you had to take a bone for the 
dog, or cider for the man, when you 
wanted to get a neighbor's horse out, on 
a moonlight night. My father was too 



196 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



busy with his sermons and the asthma to 
look very closely after me, but after his 
death I quieted down a bit. Mother 
was all I had, and I had her but a few 
months longer. Then with my little 
bundle I started for the big city, where 
every year hundreds of country boys 
come to ruin, who might have been hap- 
py on the farms where they were born. 
You say I've made a success of it? Why 
man, many times I've been ruled off the 
track for so long I've been glad to ride 
Indian cayouses for a blanket or pair 
of moccasins. 

"I've worked in haying, and herded 
hogs, and more than once I've asked 
for the piece of bread I did not get, and 
f>lept supperless, with no covering but 
a bunch of sage brush. Of course, I get 
back again, strike something like this of 
today, and have a big time while the 
money lasts; but it is soon gone, and 
I am worse wind-broke than if I had 
rode every day sober. Some day I'll get 
caught in a crush, and if I am crippled I 
shall hang round the stables as a swipe 
till the whiskey does its work. Lucky 
the old jock who gets done to a finish 
by a fall. But let me tell you how I 
got to this. 

"I had no special plan as to how I 
was to live when I reached the city. I 
hung round the livery stables, simply 
because I could not keep away from the 
horses. Curly, the man who had charge 
of one of the stables, let me share his 
iunches for doing nearly all the work 
for which he drew pay. By and by I 
was hired to help around the stalls. I 
was delighted to have found work, but 
it was not all sunshine, and often I've 
cried half the night with homesickness, 
and in the chilly mornings, forced the 
first oath from my aching throat, because 
the men said my eyes were red. I was 
known only as 'Little George,' for I 
shrank from owning my father's good 
old name, while I was living the life of a 
tramp. 

"Only once since I left the old home 
have I told my right name, and that first 
time shall be the last. I don't know 
how long I'd been with Curly, when the 

great racing millionaire M left 

some horses with us while he had a car 
repaired, I used to exercise them, and 



in two days I knew each horse's peculi- 
arities. Old M watched me pretty 

closely, as I rubbed down his high-step- 
pers, and when the car was ready, I be- 
longed to the great man's stables. I 
was soon his favorite, and was known as 
a crackerjack wherever we went. 

"I liked the life. Still, in the first 
years I might have quit and have led a 
different one, for the racetrack is like 
what the Chinese say about opium- 
smoking. A man may smoke and quit 
any time until he gets the "yin" or crav- 
ing. Then good-bye friends, hope, re- 
\ m ; he'll never fling the pipe away 
but to return to it. Yet after 10 years 
of racing, I would have sworn — no I 
did swear I had worn the colors for 
the last time. 

"It happened at a state fair. Some of 
the best horses in the West were there. 
I was riding Columbia then, the little 
black mare who carried everything be- 
fore her, year after year. I had never 
couched her with spur or whip, and her 
soft nose against my face, in the dark 
stall at night, was dearer to me than the 
smiles of all the girls I'd ever seen. But 
one day an old minister brought his 
pretty daughter to see the wicked rac- 
ers. And from the moment I looked in 
hei face, I thought I could give up ev- 
everything I held dear if I could win her. 
I got the morning off to show them 
round, and before night I had told them 
who my father was, and enough to make 
Nellie look at me as a hero, and her 
fc ther say he would save me like a bran- 
mash from burning, or something of 
that sort. They staid till the fair ended, 
an-1 when they left I went with them. 

Old M swore, and the boys thought 

I had consumption. 

"1 went to work on a farm close to 
Nellie s home, and though a young farm- 
er, who was a great exhorter, Lem 
L'lum by name, seemed to be the Rev. 
Turner's favorite, he wasn't Nellie's. At 
last the old man wrote to the pastor of 
the church at my old home, to know if 
T had left my character there. Jim 
Marsh was their elder then, and he wrote 
back giving me a grand-stand recom- 
mend. To this day, I never knew 
whether he did it becaus'e he was con- 
verted by my father's preaching, or be- 



"LITTLE GEORGE." 



197 



cause he won two dollars from me the 
night his white mule beat my yearling" 
steer. (The yearling lacked training 
and flew the track.) 

"After that Nellie and I were regu- 
larly engaged. We were to have a 
year's training, then if we kept our pace, 
we were to pull in double traces. Lem 
Drum grew pale and thin in those days; 
but my pretty girl said he could not feel 
as deeply as I would in his place. I cer- 
tainly felt considerably at that time, 
not only that I was in love for 
the first time, but that I was trying to 
make myself believe I was not only 
longing for a sight of the little.mare, but 
for anything on the track, even a rub- 
cloth. 

"The year had nearly passed, when 
Lem brought us a paper that told how 

clcl M had matched Columbia 

against anything west of the rockies. 

"There was a big field, but the writer 
prophesied the mare would find her 
Waterloo in an unknown, that was sup- 
posed to have been smuggled from the 
East for that very race. They were al- 
ready at the fair ground, and I was glad 
I had promised to take Nellie. 

"The day came at last, and while Lem 
and my father-in-law-to-be viewed the 
stock, Nell and I looked at embroideries, 
and furniture, ate ice cream, and were al- 
most too happy. Yet I was glad to leave 
her sitting with some friends, while I 
flew to the stables. Yes, flew. And 
Oh, the sight of the colors, the little 
boots, the caps with their tiny chin- 
straps, the mingled smell of horses, leath- 
er, cigar smoke and liniment, the banter 
and joshing of the swipes, the thin- 
faced crackerjack, talking so earnestly to 
the little group of elegant looking gen- 
tlemen. 

"But how can I make you, or anyone 
but us understand how the blood dashed 
through my veins as it had not for 
months; and old Columbia's joy when I 
went into her stable, is a thing to be re- 
membered. I thougnt old M would 

shake my hand off. His rider was all 
that had caused him anxiety. But I 
thought he had other cause to worry, 
when I saw the unknown. 

"I knew the big, long-limbed bay as 
soon as I saw him. He had a record 



that was hard to beat, but it was gained 
under another name. I told the old 
man there was trickery, but he said he 
would bar nothing; and before I knew 
it, I was trying on the boots, and look- 
ing at bridles all at once. I did run up 
to speak to Nellie, and for once was glad 
to find Lem Drum beside her eating 
peanuts. I told her I would be back 
in half an hour; and in 10 minutes I was 
in the stirrups, with the smooth track 
seeming to spring beneath the little 
mare's feet. Fifteen of us lined up, to 
start at the dropping of the flag. Races 
were not all fixed and jobbed as they are 
now days. And as I looked down the 
line till I saw the unknown with a knot 
of scarlet ribbons in his bridle, I knew 
that at last I was at a horserace. 

"I got off well, and kept the little 
mare close at the big bay's heels. The 
unknown was the best runner on that 
track. I knew it then; but his rider had 
been annoyed that we nad changed rid- 
ers, as he had studied the other lad's 
method. His temper irritated and ex- 
cited his mount. The mare kept her 
pace bravely, and then the unknown's 
jock began to get nervous and gain on 
us by spurts that were made too soon, 
and the little black was going steady as 
an engine. 

"Both the bay and his rider were 
showing temper, while I was bending 
over Columbia's neck, coaxing, petting, 
saving her by every trick my experience 
had taught me. 

"The pace was telling on the bay, but 
poor Columbia was calling in her re- 
serve strength, and I could feel her big 
heart thumping against my knee as 
though it would burst as we drew up be- 
side our rivals. 

"As the home stretch smoked behind 
our horses, I realized that I was not do- 
ing farm work. My breath felt clogged, 
and the red ribbons on the unknown's 
head spread into a blood-red bar across 
my eyes. Side by side we strained every 
nerve as we neared the wire, but neither 
could get an inch to the good. As the 
confusion of voices shouted, "The un- 
known wins." I drove the cruel spurs 
in poor Columbia's side, and with a con- 
vulsive spring we had won by a nose. 

"I held up my whip, and heard the 



198 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



monotonous voice call, "Columbia wins; 

time , but I don't remember any 

more till the boys were carrying me. on 
their shoulders trying to see how quick 
I could empty a champagne bottle. I 
have a vague rememberance of a big 
spread that night, and I stood on two 
chairs trying to make some one bet that 
the little black wasn't a world-beater. 

"But in the early morning I turned on 
a not pillow and wondered how I could 
haul fence posts with such a headache. 
1 thought if I could not work, I'd spend 
the day at Nel — I was awake in a flash, 
and soon out in the grounds inquiring 
for the sweetest face in the big crowd of 
yesterday. Poor child, she had refused 
to leave the grand stand till long after 



dark; then she suddenly begged Lem to 
take her home. I got a little box 
through the mail with every trinklet I'd 
ever given her; but it was not her little 
hand that addressed it. I subscribed for 
her home paper, till I read of the mar- 
riage of "Miss Nellie Turner and Mr. 
Lemuel Drum." I'd never drank except 
for the company before, but that day I 
stopped the paper, and bought me a 
flask. Well, I'd found where I be- 
longed, and from that day I have never 
willingly left the track. 

"Are you asleep pard? I am going 
down to see if the old horse finished his 
oats." And Little George passed out 
into the false electric sunshine. 



The Dynamics of Speech 

As Introduced by Philosophy. 



<By ROBERT W. TfOVTHAT, "Ph. C D., Trofessor of Latin in University of West Virginia. 



Second Paper. 



I WISH again to ask the reader's par- 
don for philosophizing before tak- 
ing up my subject in its special bear- 
ing; not because I am loath to begin the 
subject of Dynamics, but because I have 
found it necessary to establish the princi- 
ples on which expression, the interpreter 
of the mind, depends for its values, be- 
fore taking up a subject which has so 
often been discussed from the historical 
standpoint, but without any philosophi- 
cal groundwork. There is a history of 
language and there is a philosophy of 
language, and neither is complete with- 
out the other. Besides, as we have 
found, the categories established by Aris- 
totle, Locke, Ampere, Hume and Kant 
do not give us any principles on which 
to begin analysis: the former categories 
provide for investigation only, as a 
method of induction, leading us to the 
what, and then desert us at the very 
point where we most desire to know the 
-why. We have therefore been compelled 
too laborate a set of principles, by which 



to ascertain the why, not only in lan- 
guage, but also in all science; and be- 
cause these principles are new, we feel 
that it is necessary to state them fully 
and clearly, so that all our readers may 
get the conception we have of the 
dynamics of speech. 

It seems that this system which we 
have sometimes called "Induction by the 
Analysis of Production" is the only 
method by which to arrive at satisfactory 
results in either science or philosophy. 
By simple induction we may learn the how 
as well as the what in scientific subjects, 
subjects belonging to the material world 
only; but, by induction alone, we cannot 
advance far enough to ascertain the why. 
This last must come from the analysis of 
production, and this depends on the 
proper understanding of the four great 
principles by which all the universe in 
all its organisms, as well as in all its 
smallest molecules, has come to be what 
it is. 

We are not seeking to overthrow any- 



THE DYNAMICS OF SPEECH. 



199 



thing that has been built up on good 
foundations, yet we are not to be satis- 
fied until we know the why of all things 
in science, in philosophy, and in religion; 
until we know what the highest pinnacles 
of observation and the most powerful 
glasses, and the most comprehensive 
faith can reveal. These are some of the 
reasons for clinging a little longer to our 
philosophy, before applying its principles 
to a single branch of science. 



Additional Reasons for the four new cate- 
gories — Comprehension, Separation, Extension, 
and Limitation — suggested in last paper, and 
reasons for the order in which they are ar- 
ranged. 

i. Because comprehension, separa- 
tion, extension and limitation represent 
the four great principles on which the 
Creator has proceeded and still proceeds 
in all His operations throughout the uni- 
verse. Chaos as conceived by the an- 
cients was the Laplace nebular hypothe- 
sis, the great original physical compre- 
hension. Out of this separation came 
the different constellations or systems, 
each of which by extension moved out to 
its proper limitation or orbit. Again, 
gravitation is comprehension, the power 
which would bring the whole universe 
into one again; and the centrifugal force 
is separation, the tendency of all life and 
energy to reveal itself. Compression is 
comprehension, expansion is separation. 

2. In the vegetable world, the grain 
is a comprehension or combination, the 
chemical constitution of which we need 
not name, the biological process through 
which the germ passes we need not dis- 
cuss: we know there are at least two 
parts in every grain, and any two or 
more parts brought together in a prop- 
erly associated grouping are sufficient to 
constitute a comprehension. Out of 
this comprehension the germ begins to 
evolve, develop, as soon as proper en- 
vironment is afforded: this is the begin- 
ning of separation, and it is worthy of 
repetition, this is the tendency of all life 
and energy, — this disposition to reveal 
itself. Growth, in one sense, is the 
lengthening or prolonging process, but 
more correctly the plant's inherent pow- 



er to "gather in" (comprehend) the ma- 
terial necessary for its extension. 
Finally, cessation of growth constitutes 
limitation. Next, the completed growth 
becomes a comprehension; decay and 
dissolution become separation; the pass- 
ing of each individual element back into 
the soil or the atmosphere, an extension; 
and each individual atom finally combin- 
ing by affinity with its own, a limitation. 

3. All taking of food into the body is 
an act of comprehension; digestion is 
neither more nor less than separation 
into proper elements; circulation is ex- 
tension of food elements to their proper 
places; and deposition and assimilation 
are limitation. Then, the work having 
been completed in one direction, we have 
in the body even while living as a com- 
prehension, separation going on contin- 
ually; every pulsation, every breath, 
every opening of a pore in perspiration, 
every exercise of a muscle, every bath, — 
every effort of the organs of sight or 
hearing or other sense, every utterance 
of the tongue, — all produce more or less 
the effect called separation; and, finally, 
when for the body separations exceed 
comprehensions, tnen, as with the ma- 
tured plant, decay and dissolution must 
result in death. As there were two ex- 
treme comprehensions for the plant, so 
there are for the physical man, one for 
the germ out of which life was devel- 
oped, the other for completed growth, 
out of which came dissolution and death. 
Before the decay of the plant, as before 
the decline of the man, separation is, as 
we nave said, a continuous operation; 
but supplies of the material necessary for 
renewing the comprehension are equally 
continuous. 

4. The thought-process is very sim- 
ilar to that of generation. The mind is 
the matrix or suitable receptacle for 
holding not only the ovum of adaptabil- 
ity, but also for receiving from without 
through the senses such impressions as 
can affect this ovum. When the ovum 
of adaptability is affected by the outer 
object, then conception is said to take 
place; and, as in the development of the 
plant, suitable nourishment must be 
taken from without, so additional kin- 
dred objects or subjects of thought are 
added, perhaps rapidly, perhaps slowly, 



200 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



until a sufficient amount of investigation 
has satisfied the demand for accurate in- 
formation. This end of limitation, we 
call knowledge. Now, the reception of 
an impression from without was an act 
of comprehension; the first thought was a 
separation from the ovum of adaptabil- 
ity as it was offected by the impression 
from the outer object. Then, as mem- 
ory, the great storehouse, the almost in- 
finite comprehender of the mind, not 
only holds, but continually gathers facts, 
these facts by the power of abstraction, 
which is only another name for separa- 
tion from the comprehension, become 
suitable nourishment for the thought- 
plants, and these grow more or less rap- 
idly by extension through the kind of 
nourishment received, until belief is 
reached, and finally the completed 
thought becomes knowledge, a limita- 
tion of the thought-process. Now, the 
thought-process being completed, the 
thought, which we call knowledge, is a 
comprehension, and from the compre- 
hension will begin expression, only an- 
other name for separation, as what we 
have found to be truth affects our action 
toward ourselves or others. May be, we 
only speak, still we are separating from 
our comprehension. If we paint, we are 
still bringing out what properly belongs 
to a comprehension or connected whole 
within. If we are sculptors, all the prop- 
erly related forms, completed forms 
within, are being transferred to marble. 
The transferrence is separation and ex-' 
tension; and, when all that we know has 
come out in language, spoken or written, 
in painting, in sculpture, or music, then 
we have reached our limitation. Each 
individaul statement made by us is like 
some feature of a marble statue made by 
the sculptor. Think of Hart's working 
for nineteen years to shape his statue of 
"The Perfect Woman." This was a con- 
tinuous development of the idea of 
beauty possessed by himself. 

When the mind attacks any subject, 
the subject being no part of the mind, the 
mind takes it as it appears, and, for the 
time being at least, regards the subject 
as concrete, or a comprehension. Then, 
analysis, or separation of parts, is at- 
tempted; and, if analysis be found pos- 
sible, investigation by extension through 



all ramifications or concatenations is 
continued, until we have done all that 
the human mind is capable of doing, and 
then we have reached the limitation. 
This limitation becomes to us knowl- 
edge, our knowledge of that subject; and, 
until some other person can make for us 
a more exhaustive analysis, a greater 
number of separations, we must be con- 
tent with what we have done. Every 
analysis properly conducted by us in- 
creases our stock of knowledge, and, 
from this comprehension, we use, but 
never destroy, except by substitution of 
some other analysis, the comprehension 
we have made. Here is the philosophy 
of omniscience. All parts of the uni- 
verse, — each individual atom being thor- 
oughly examined before it went into 
comprehension, the relations among all 
being accurately known by the compre- 
hensions which have been made, — all 
parts are perfect mental comprehensions; 
there can be no substitutions in the Di- 
vine Mind ; and hence, all being perfectly 
comprehended, and the individual com- 
prehensions being infinite, the mind that 
comprehends must also be infinite. 

Kant said, "Give me matter and I will 
build a world!" The implication is, not 
that "I have the power of all the com- 
bined forces of the universe, but I have 
the knowledge of principles on which the 
world is constructed." Perfect knowl- 
edge, then, for which no substitutions 
can be needed, would give perfect power, 
or omnipotence; for all relations or ex- 
tensions being clearly apprehended, the 
touch of one would affect whatever other 
one we might wish to move or displace. 
But, as man's knowledge is imperfect, he 
cannot be omnipotent. God is omnipo- 
tent, because he is omniscient; and be- 
cause is he omniscient, he is also omni- 
present, being able by his omniscience to 
affect any part of the universe. 

Think of the one force called electric- 
ity. Man has gotten possession of a few 
facts about electricity and he makes this 
power over which omniscience has full 
control, because of perfect comprehen- 
sion of all its extensions, to work won- 
derful results ; but, because man does not 
know the one great comprehension of 
this force, nor its distinct forces or modes 
of separation from the one great com- 



THE DYNAMICS OF SPEECH. 



201 



prehension, in which all is stored, and to 
which all returns, nor the limitations to 
which all extensions may be made, — be- 
cause his comprehension of all facts is 
incomplete, therefore man's power is in- 
complete in the use of that by which 
omniscience can control all worlds. 



Definitions of the Categories. 

COMPREHENSION is to be 
thought of both as an act and a fact, both 
as initiatory or appetitive and as com- 
plete or realized. Prehension is only 
holding; comprehension is the act or 
state of like things together, as in groups 
or classes. This is the original and 
the present definite conception, but oc- 
casionally we find an expression which 
partakes more of the prehension than of 
the comprehension character of this no- 
tion. 

Chaos, we say, represents the original 
state of the universe, and we call that 
comprehension, simply because in the 
attenuated condition of the nebular 
mass the difference in constitution of 
atoms is overlooked. Now, since the 
distribution of the mass into systems and 
suns and planets, although we have rea- 
son to believe that each part contains 
more or less of the same cosmic ma- 
terial, still we, following nature's own 
separations, extensions and limitations, 
make more distinctions in the groupings 
and classifications. Iron and wood 
brought together in an implement of 
husbandy or even in a furnace will not 
constitute a comprehension in the proper 
sense, but any two or more metals capa- 
ble of forming a definite and an almost 
indistinguishable mass can be termed a 
comprehension. 

Animal and animal may be classed to- 
gether, but it is not because any two 
animals can propagate a species which 
shall combine the characteristics of both, 
but because anima, "life," is the charac- 
teristic of all creatures that have breath 
and voluntary motion. 

Plant and plant may be classed to- 
gether, but, as in the case of animals, it 
is not because any two plants growing 
side by side can propagate a species 
which shall combine the characteristics 
of both, but because plant, "vegetable 



life," is the charactertistic of all growth 
from the earth. 

Classification is always properly made 
when the things brought together can 
be named from a possible union and 
communion of qualities or modes of 
operation, or, as we would say under the 
new categories, of separation, extension, 
and limitation; for such things can form 
comprehensions. 

Hunger is initiatory or appetitive com- 
prehension, being nature's desire and 
need of elements properly belonging to- 
gether. 

SEPARATION is to be thought of 
both as an act and a fact, partial or com- 
plete, including all ideas of division, 
evolution, manifestation, revelation, de- 
rivation, — everything belonging to par- 
tition of original mass or deduction from 
the known to the related unknown, and 
suggesting a great antecedent compre- 
hension, out of which all have come. 
Mortality, for instance, suggests, implies, 
presupposes creation. Creation is com- 
prehension, and so exhibits a putting to- 
gether of like parts. That which is com- 
posed of parts can be divided; hence all 
visible or sensible combinations can be 
separated, not only by the chasm which 
would indicate lack of affinity in the con- 
densed state, but also as atoms from the 
same original comprehension. Mortal- 
ity is the possibility of dissolution; im- 
mortality is the impossibility of dissolu- 
tion, and hence immortality .can belong 
only to the spiritual state, — a state sub- 
ject to no changes, no separations. 

All phenomena of earth or air or sky 
are partial separations from a mass, of 
whose comprehension we have not def- 
inite information, — at least not enough 
of information to enable us to classify the 
operations and thus call them revelations 
or manifestations. 

EXTENSION, which should be 
thought of as an act and a fact, from 
comprehension to limitation or vice 
versa, represents in general the contin- 
uous process of development or the 
gradual reduction to original elements 
called decay. It is growth of the animal 
or plant, the development of any phy- 
sical, mental, or moral power, the ex- 
pansion of fluid or gaseous material, or 



202 



THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y. 



the reduction that may take place in 
bringing the atoms or parts of the com- 
pleted whole back to their original com- 
prehension. 

Putting a two-foot point of iron on a 
ten-foot wooden spear does not extend 
the wood. It may extend the line on 
which the spear was begun: it certainly 
cannot be said to extend the wood. Ex- 
tension is not the same as tension, any 
more than comprehension is the same 
as prehension or separation is the same 
as partition. Extension implies the draw- 
ing out either of one mass in length or 
breadth or the development of a germ by 
the addition or introduction of similar 
material, — material that has an affinity 
for the cell-structure already begun in 
the germ itself. 

Similar material, similar substance, 
similar conceptions of the mind, — these 
may be extended by the similar, but oth- 
erwise never. The law will ever be sim- 
ilia similibus. 

Out of this proper conception of ex- 
tension comes naturally that of parallel- 
ism so apparent in expression. 

LIMITATION, which should be 
thought of as an act and a fact, approach- 



(To be continued.) 

Will You Be My Valentine? 
i. 



ing and enaed, represents that condition 
of the physical and mental activities 
which is denoted by temporary or per- 
manent position, actual or assumed, as 
well as by full development from a germ, 
so far at least as the physical world is 
concerned. If vegetable life could be 
continued indefinitely, then in the torrid 
zone under favorable conditions one vine 
might cover a million acres, one tree 
overshadow a continnent; but each plant 
has its prearranged possibilities, and be- 
yond these it cannot pass. So in the 
animal world: none can exceed the lim- 
its of pre-organized possibilities. 

In the intellectual world, we find the 
same rule holds: man's powers are lim- 
ited. "Thus far" is not found decreed 
for the waters alone, but also for the 
workings of mind. 

In the spiritual world alone there 
seems to be no limitation. 

Former categories do not explain or 
even indicate a single act in the natural 
world. Language and Nature are thus 
divorced, and the man who has not made 
language a study does not understand 
the scientists who speak of the world 
immediately around our homes. 



Sweetest, dearest baby mine, 
Will you be my valentine? 

I will love you fond and true, 

I will kiss and cuddle you. 

Every night upon my breast 

I will rock you into rest. 

Sweetest, dearest baby mine, 
Come and be my valentine! 

II. 



Into Dreamland we will go 
Where the golden poppies blow. 
When the daylight fades and fails, 
In a boat with silken sails, 
We will cross the Slumber Sea, 
Where the winds are fair and free. 
Sweetest, dearest baby mine 
Will you be my valentine? 

III. 



All along the shores of sleep 
Dreamland children laugh and leap. 
Up and down and to and fro, 
With feet as light and white as snow, 
Bright locks tossing in the sun, 
Robes by fairy fingers spun — 

Hear them, see them, baby mine, 
Precious Dreamland valentine. 

Lischen M. Miller. 



The McEnery resolution, which was 
adopted in the senate, February 14, by 
a vote of 26 to 22, must commend itself 
to both those who favor "expansion" and 
those who oppose it. The resolution is 
a conservative, and, at the same time, a 
just and equitable solution of a very per- 
plexing problem. It is a statesmanlike 
document. The text is as follows: 
"That by the ratification of the treaty of 
peace with Spain it is not intended to in- 
corporate the inhabitants of the Philip- 
pines into citizenship of the United 
States, nor it is intended to permanently 
annex said islands as an integral part of 
the territory of the United States, but it 
is the intention of the United States to 
establish on said islands a government 
suitable to the wants and conditions of 
the inhabitants of the said islands, to pre- 
pare them for local self-government, and 
in due time to make such disposition of 
said islands as will best promote the in- 
terests of the citizens of the United States 
and the inhabitants of said islands." 

An organized effort is being made in 
California to free the Stanford Univer- 
sity estate from an obnoxious burden of 
taxation which is so large as to seriously 
cripple the work that the university is 
intended to accomplish. One of the pur- 
poses of Senator and Mrs. Leland Stan- 
ford in donating so freely to the cause of 
education was to establish a university 
from which no one would be shut out 
for purely financial reasons. With this 
object in view tuition was made free, and 
the University stood out as a public in- 
stitution open to the young men and 
women of the world — a unique monu- 
ment to the generous philanthrophy of 
its founders. As a result of this liberal 
and far-sighted policy men and women 
from nearly every part of the world went 
to Californai to attend the University. 
Then came the death of Senator Stanford 



and the long-drawn-out government suit. 
On the top of these misfortunes there 
was the burdensome taxation which, at 
this critical period, almost sapped the 
vitality of the institution. The income 
was insufficient to meet the demands 
upon it, and it became imperative to ex- 
act a registration fee of $20.00 per year 
from each student. Through the self- 
sacrificing devotion of Mrs. Stanford the 
University has struggled through a sea- 
sou of depression that would have dis- 
couraged a less determined and gener- 
ous woman. The condition is still such, 
however, that unless the taxation is re- 
moved the University will be compelled 
to adopt a tuition fee such as is in prac- 
tice at other universities. California is 
noted for her generosity in matters of 
education, and her people and legislators 
are not likely to permit such a blow as 
this to the cause of free higher education. 
This is a question in which not only the 
people of California are interested, but 
one in which the sons and daughters of 
other states and other lands are equally 
concerned, and a decision against the 
University will, in many respects, be a 
calamity to the Coast. 

Whenever a man becomes great either 
by reason of statesmanship or learning 
or accomplishments of any nature and 
posterity accords to him his just dues, 
there always rises the profound critic and 
investigator who undertakes to under- 
mine the belief of centuries and show us 
that we have been worshipping false 
idols. Homer, Shakespeare, Napoleon 
— indeed almost every great man whose 
name is on the pages of history has been 
subjected to such investigation. In the 
light of this modern criticism we are 
forced to recast our ideas of many great 
characters, but there is one whose glory 
time cannot dim nor whom investigation 
can dethrone from the lofty place which 



204 



THE "PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



he holds in the hearts of his people. 
Were it only for the moral effect of the 
example that he left of ideal Ameri- 
can manhood, Washington would 
forever stand as an unparalleled exam- 
ple and be worthy of the greatest rever- 
ence. For whatever American manhood 
and American ideals may accomplish 
they will find their initiative, their inspir- 
ation in the lofty example of Washing- 
ton's life and purpose. Under condi- 
tions which try men's souls to the utmost 
Washington maintained an equilibrium 
that few men are permitted to attain. 
Napoleon was a great leader, a skillful 
tactician, a remarkable organizer, but he 
lacked the manhood, the strength of 
character that distinguished Washing- 
ton and placed him far above ' any 
other leader of any other nation. It 
is not, however, on account of his man- 
hood alone that we look up to Washing- 
ton and honor his memory, though it 
was his example more than that of any 
other one man which laid the foundation 
of that character which we have in mind 
when we speak, with swelling hearts of 
patriotism, of an "American." His 
statesmanship, his generalship, and his 
foresight, which is being recognized to- 
day as it never was before, have all been 
accorded the highest terms of praise and 
recognition by the world. Just one 
hundred years have passed over the head 
of the young republic since Washington 
was gathered to his fathers. Other men 
mav come and go; they may leave an 
indelible impression upon their age on 
account of their statesmanship, their ex- 
ecutive ability, their learning; they "may 
stand forth as great benefactors of the 
race, or even of the world; but with the 
American people Washington will for- 
ever hold his place— "first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his coun- 
trymen." 

When the sleeping earth begins to 
waken, long before the first robin's note 
is heard or the flash of the first blue- 
bird's wing gladdens the hearts of the 
children, men's hopes are born anew, 
men's dreams take color from the prom- 
iced glory of the Gpririg. And that which 



seemed difficult or doubtful when Nature 
lay cold and passionless in the embrace 
of winter, all at once becomes a joyous 
possibility. The blood flows faster and 
the pulse beats strong — though there is 
yet but a promise; a blessed expectancy 
that may prove a disappointment when 
it comes to realization. But it is in an- 
ticipation that men's best joys lie, and 
better a promise unfulfilled than the 
deadly monotony of satisfied hope. 



The disgraceful scenes that are being 
enacted in so many of our state legisla- 
tures over the election of senators 
should be sufficient argument to con- 
vince even the most strenuous opponent 
of election by popular vote that it has at 
last become a necessity, if the dignity of 
our institutions is to be preserved. 
Charges of bribery have been flying from 
one section of the country to the other, 
and the work- which the representatives 
of the people were elected to do is being 
largely left undone. A demoralizing re- 
sult to the sections in which such scenes 
are taking place cannot but be the out- 
come. 1 his must especially be the case,. 
inasmuch as charges of bribery have in 
several instances been proven, if indeed 
not actually admitted by those offering 
the bribes, and nothing has been done. 
Those "elected" take their seats, and the 
people stand calmly by and allow such 
an outrage to be perpetrated. When our 
elections degenerate into such a dis- 
graceful farce as this it is time something 
was done. There is nothing to do in 
this instance but take the election out of 
the hands of the legislators and put it in 
the hands of the people, where it right- 
fully belongs. Until then there is no 
hope for a better condition of affairs, and 
unless the people compel legislation on 
this subject there never will be any. Cer- 
tainly under present conditions the sen- 
ate is not likely to champion the desired 
cause. 



One would hardly think that at this 
late day it would be necessary to say any- 
thing in defense of higher education. 
Tbe importance of preparing the mind 



OUR 'POINT OF VIEW. 



205 



as thoroughly as possible for the duties 
of life is so patent to even an ordinary 
thinker that it seems trite, if not quite 
out of place, to attempt any defense of it 
at this time. The day is rapidly ap- 
proaching when the young man without 
a college education will be so greatly 
hampered in the struggle for existence 
that he will be relegated to a position of 
a menial character, if he succeeds in 
holding any at all. 

The theory of "the survival of the fit- 
test" is truer when applied to this aspect 
of progress than to any other. In spite 
of what is said to the contrary, it is the 
young man whose mind has been sys- 
tematically trained who is best fitted to 
bear responsibilities and rise to emergen- 
cies, whether in business or professional 
life. In the face of all this the proposi- 
tion that has been made to diminish the 
usefulness of the University of Oregon 
is rather startling and, to speak frankly, 
inexcusable on the part of members of 
the legislature who are at least supposed 
to be in touch with advanced thought. 
The cry has gone forth that the Univer- 
sity is burdened with incompetent teach- 
ers. The legislature, therefore, propose 
to remedy the situation by reducing sal- 
aries ! Could there be any greater folly 
than this? If a man has incompetent 
clerks in his business does he reduce sal- 
aries if he wishes to improve the state of 
affairs? He raises the salaries so that he 
may secure good men. Oregon never 
can have a first-class university if such a 
spirit continues. Already hundreds of 
young men have been driven to other 
states because of the shortsighted parsi- 
mony of our legislature in matters of 
education. In direct contrast to the 
policy of Oiegon has been the practice of 
California, and more recently of Wash- 
ington. California has freely spent 
thousands on her University, and today 



there is nothing in California that the 
people point to with more pride than to 
Berkeley. The Stanford University es- 
tate has recently been taken out of the 
probate court, and the University will 
soon come into endowment of many mil- 
lions. Washington is reaching out in 
educational lines, and bringing strong 
men to its institutions. It has remained 
for Oregon alone to propose an en- 
trenchment in providing for its intellect- 
ual needs. 

"Now let us have done with a worn-out tale. 

The tale of an ancient wrong, * * * * 
Let us speak to each other face to face 

And answer as man to man, 
And loyally love and trust each other as only 
free men can." 

The feeling to which Alfred Austin 
gave expression last spring has been 
steadily growing through all the year. 
Scarcely a day now passes that some 
prominent personage either here or 
across the seas does not publicly voice 
the sentiment. An alliance between 
America and England is no longer in the 
realm of the merely possible. It has be- 
come a probability whose strength in- 
creases with every edition of an interna- 
tional press, and with every message 
flashed from shore to shore, from sea to 
sea. One language, one watchword — 
Freedom ! — one people indissolubl y 
bound together in a friendship that 

"Shall last long as love doth last and be 
stronger than death is strong." 

J* 

Kipling's command to ''Take up the 
white man's burden was not to England 
alone, but to the race that has drawn its 
strength from the soil of every civilized 
land; the great white brotherhood, the 
amalgamated millions who speak the 
English tongue. 



A RECORD OF THE WORLD'S PROGRESS. 



In Politics — 

In America the one subject of engross- 
ing interest to statesmen is "expansion." 
In England it is the Eastern question. 
In France the fear of impending social 
revolution leaves no room for anything 
else, and the czar of all the Russias, 
though bent upon convening his "peace 
congress," still finds time to increase the 
imperial military forces. As for "ex- 
pansion," those who favor it find no lack 
of authority for so doing. All the dead 
statesmen of eminence whose influence 
is supposed to live after them have been 
dragged from their graves to testify in 
behalf of the expansionists. Abraham 
Lincoln is quoted as having said in a de- 
bate between himself and Douglas in 
1858, "I am not opposed to honest ac- 
quisition of territory, and in any given 
case I would or would not oppose such 
acquisition according as I might think 
such acquisition would not aggravate the 

slavery question among ourselves." 

In response to a dispatch from London 
requesting an expression regarding 
Great Britain's imperial policy, Admiral 
Dewey is reported to have said: "After 
many years of wandering, I have 'come 
to the conclusion that the mightiest fac- 
tor in the civilization of the world is the 
imperial policy of England." Con- 
gress and the various legislatures now in 
session throughout the country are dis- 
tinguished for the good they are leaving 
undone. 

In Science — 

In the test of the hill-climbing ability 
of motor cars, recently made in France, 
a slope of 11 per cent and a distance of 
1800 kilogrammes was covered in three 
minutes and fifty-two seconds by the 
winner, who used an electric carriage. 
This, it would seem, effectually demon- 



strates the future utility of such cars 

In connection with the trial trip of the 
new first-class French battleship "Jaw- 
reguiberry," which has a displacement of 
19,824 tons and a speed of 18.07 knots, it 
is interesting to note that, according to 
the Scientific American, "Among the 
modern and accepted practices which are 
due to the French initiative may be men- 
tioned the mounting of heavy guns 'en 
barbette,' the use of electricity for hoist- 
ing ammunition and guns, and the use 
of water-tube boilers and triple screws; 
while to these may be fairly added 
smokeless powder, with its accompani- 
ment of guns of extreme length and high 
velocity and the use of high explosives." 

In Art— 

The reported discovery of a picture of 
the Madonna by Cima is to be taken with 
a grain of allowance. If true, it means 
a valuable addition to the world of art, 
for Cima was a Venitian colorist who 
ranked with Titian and Bellini, and there 
are only a few of his paintings known to 
be in existence The Russian Ambas- 
sador at Madrid has purchased the re- 
cently discovered bust of Christ, which 
is pronounced by those qualified to speak 
with authority upon the subject to be the 
work either of Michael Angelo or Don- 
atello. One remarkable feature of this 
bust is that the eyes are of blue rock 
crystal. Queen Victoria, to whom a 
photograph of the newly discovered art 
treasure has been sent, desires to have a 

copy of it made in marble Carlos 

Durand, one of the greatest artists in the 
world today, according to an enthusiastic 
admirer, arrives in New York during the 
month. His coming is hailed with joy 
by American artists. His mere presence 
is expected to act as a stimulus upon Art 

(with a capital A) in this country In 

Portland the Sketch Club, under the 



THE MONTH. 



207 



management of its able young president, 
is accomplishing a great deal in a quiet 
way. An exhibition of the year's work 
of this, the most important art organiza- 
tion in the state, is hoped for in the 

spring It was three hundred years 

ago in Florence that the first grand 
opera was produced. 

In Literature — 

Frederic Remington's "Sundown Le- 
flare" seems to be the literary sensation 
of the hour. It is distinctly American, 
and Mr. Remington is to be congratulated 
upon having made a discovery that en- 
riches the literature of his country 

According to Mr. Edward Garnett, an 
English writer of note, Stephen Crane is 
a "genius," but a "genius" with limita- 
tions. "A surface painter," Mr. Garnett 
calls him, who possesses the power of re- 
vealing the depths by a single stroke. 
Mr. Garnett thinks that in technique tie 
is Kipling's superior, and that America 
may well be proud of the young master 
of the pen, whose "genius for slang," 
whose exquisite and unique faculty of 
exposing an individual scene by an odd 
simile places him in the rank of great- 
ness — —Kipling's place in literature is 
universally recognized. He speaks and 
the whole world listens. He sings a 
song and the reading public of two hem- 
ispheres hears and heeds. "The White 
Man's Burden" strikes a higher note 
than did the "Truce of the Bear." 

"Take up the White Man's burden- 
In patience to abide, 

To veil the threat of terror 
And check the show of pride; 

By open speech and simple, 
An hundred times made plain, 

To seek another's profit 
And work another's gain." 

-There is much interest evinced in 



the new periodical which Lady Randolph 
Churchell proposes to establish in Lon- 
don, and which is to be called "The 
Roval Magazine." Among the contrib- 
utors to this high-class publication will 
be the Emperor of Germany, the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, the President of 
France, the Duchess of Marlborough 
and others of noble blood. It is to be 
the most costly periodical ever published, 



and will be issued by John Lane, of the 
Bodley Head. Nothing will be spared 
in the way of artistic embellishment. 
The royal contributors will illustrate 
their own articles, and the pages will 
bear embossed escutcheons of the writ- 
ers. It is to be printed upon vellum, 
bound in purple and gold and tied with 
white silk ribbons, and will utterly eclipse 
anything in the magazine world ever yet 

produced It has been predicted that 

the day of the short story is passing, but 
as yet there is no evidence of its decay. 
Some of the best work of the month is 
embodied in the still popular short story. 
Jack London's "White Silence," in a late 
number of the Overland, is a tragedy of 
the far north, and contains enough ma- 
terial for a three volume novel, yet is so 
perfectly handled that there is no evi- 
dence of crowding. The scene of the 
great novel of the future will be laid 
somewhere within or near the Arctic cir- 
cle, and it will be a story of human 
endeavor and human endurance such 
as the world has never yet had 
a record of. Another sketch pub- 
lished in the Gray Goose, remark- 
able for the tragic suggestions it 
contains, is "In the Twilight," the recent 
production of a Portland writer, Bessie 
May Guinean. It is an artistic study in 
effect, and the climax is so unexpected 
that it makes the reader gasp. Miss 
Guinean's work bears promise of future 

possibilities Edwin Markham's poem, 

which embodies the one great question 
of the age, is a work in keeping with 
Millet's masterpiece, "The Man With the 
Hoe," whose title it bears. The poet has 
caught the artist's — conscious or uncon- 
scious — meaning and voiced it in words 
whose strength and truth beat down the 
delusions of society. 

"For this man with the Hoe," 

"A thing that grieves not and that never 

hopes," — 
What is he but the products of man's selfish 

greed — 

In Education — 

That the standard and efficiency of the 
American public school system has 
greatly improved during the last 2q years 



208 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



is shown by R. H. Thurston, of Cornell, 
in the Scientific American. He says: 
"On comparing the work of our high 
schools of today with that of the colleges 
of fifty years ago or more, it will, I think, 
be discovered that the best of them are 
actually graduating their pupils with 
practically as extensive acquirements as 
did the colleges at that earlier time." 

Leading Events — 

January 1. — English papers reviewing 
progress of the past year express amazement 
at the expansion of America. "The domi- 
nant fact of 1898 has been the rise in position 

of the English-speaking people." Henry 

Watterson suggests Dewey and Lee for dem- 
ocratic nominees at the next presidential 

election. Orders are made for placing the 

navy upon a peace basis. Spain in Ha- 
vana formally cedes Cuba to the United 
States 

January 2.— Six regiments of infantry are 

ordered to the Philippines. Governor 

Roosevelt, of New York, is inaugerated. 

January 3. — The national committee of the 
democratic party decides that the issue of 
free-silver at 16 to 1 must be upheld in the 

campaign of 1900. Lord Beresford repeats 

his advocacy of an alliance between Eng- 
land and the United States. Gomez ad- 
vises Cuban soldiers not to disband. 

January 4.— Congress reassembles after the 

mid-winter holidays. A train between 

Omaha and Chicago travels 502 miles in 10 
hours. 

January 5.— In Idaho and Indiana legisla- 
tures meet. 

January 6.— Baron Curzon assumes tne 

viceroyalty of India at Calcutta. In Kar- 

toum the corner stone of the Gordon Memo- 
rial college is laid by Lord Cromer. 

January 7.— Aguinaldo in Manila, issues a 
proclamation protesting against the Ameri- 
can occupation of the Philippines. 

January 9.— Oregon legislature meets. 

January 10.— Charles Magne Tower, ol 
Pennsylvania, is named by President Mc- 
Kinley as ambassador to Russia; Frank 
Addison C. Harris as minister to Austria- 
Hungary. 

January 11.— Joseph H. Choate, of New 
York, is named as ambassador to Great Brit- 
ain. , 

January 12. — Commissary-General Eagan, 
in testifying before the war investigating 
commission, makes a bitter personal attack 
on General Miles. 

January 13.— The German government of- 
ficially denies that it is helping the Filipinos. 

j anU ary 14. — The largest steamship ever 
built is launched at Belfast and christened 
the Oceanic. 

January 15.— Upon the dissolution of the 



Central Labor Union and the Central Labor 
Federation of New York, the General Feder- 
ated Union is organized with a membership 
of 100,000 men. 

January 16. — The war department investi- 
gating commission having declined to re- 
ceive Commissary-General Eagan's testi- 
mony as at first presented, he strikes from 
his statement the abusive language and re- 
turns it. The Dreyfus-Picquart discussion 

is postponed for a month by the French 
chamber of deputies. 

January 17. — President McKinley orders 
the court-martial for Commissary-General 

Eagan. In the Irish elections the labor 

party is unusually successful. 

January 18. — Commissary-General Eagan 
is relieved from duty. 

January 19.— The United States transport 
sails from New York for Manila with the 
Fourth infantry and a battalion of the Sev- 
enteenth infantry. The United States 

cruiser Philadelphia is ordered to Samoa to 
protect American interests there. 

January 20. — In New York Croker declares 
that free silver is a dead issue. At a cab- 
inet meeting in Washington, D. C, island af- 
fairs are freely discussed. The amended 

Morgan Nicaragua canal bill passes the Uni- 
ted States senate. 

January 21. — In London a decree is signed 
appointing General Kitchener governor-gen- 
eral of the Soudan. 

January 22. — In New York a mass meeting 
of citizens is held in the Academy of Music 
tonight under the auspices of the Conti- 
nental League for the purpose of protesting 
against the policy of "imperialism." 

January 23. — General Lee, chief quarter- 
master of the department of the Lakes, in- 
vites proposals for the erection oi an ice 
plant at Manila 

January 24. — In the United States senate 
the Philippines and the peace treaty are dis- 
cussed. 

January 25. — The senate adopts a resolu- 
tion protesting against allowing Roberts of 
Utah to hold his seat in congress. 

January 26. — In Madrid the cabinet meets 
under the presidency of the regent. Premier 
Sagasta outlines the government's inten- 
tions relative to the peace treaty. 

January 27. — The United States senate 
passes the pension bill. The house debates 

the army bill. In Berlin the emperor's 

birthday is celebrated. 

January 28. — At the annual dinner of the 
Silversmith's Association in Birmingham, 
Right Honorable Joseph Chamberlain pre- 
dicts a "joint imperial destiny for England 
and America." 

January 28.— Right Honorable Walter 
Hume Long, president of the board of agri- 
culture, in a speech at Newcastle favors Eng- 
lish American alliance. 

January 30. — Fearful storms are sweeping 
the North and Middle West. At Vancou- 
ver, B. C, the Philippine commissioners are 
enthusiastically greeted. 



FOR FEBRUARY. 



The Century — 



Harnessing the Nile 

i> rederic Courtland Penfleld 

A Fairy Grave John Vance Cheney 

What Charles Dickens did for Child- 
hood James L. Hughes 

Franklin's Religion. .Paul Licester Ford 
A War Song of Tyrol.. S. Weir Mitchell 

Via Crucis F. Marion Crawford 

Sunsets Ida Ahlborn Weeks 

On the Way to the North Pole 

Walter Wellman 

The Reformation of Uncle Billy.... 

Ellis Parker Butler 

The Curing of Kate Negley 

Lucy S. Furman 

Escape John White Chadwick 

Henry George in California. Noah Brooks 
Alexander's Conquest of Asia Minor, 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler 

The Painter de Mourel 

Marie L. Van Vorst 

A Farewell Harriet Monoe 

Cole's Old English Masters 

John C. VanDyke 

The Sinking of the '"Merrimac," 

Part III Richard Pearson Hobson, 

N. C. U. S. N. 

How It Is Done in Other Countries. 

George McAneny 

Capture of Santiago de Cuba 

William R. Shatter, Major-Gen. M.S.D. 
The Orator. .George Edward Woodberry 

With due respect to General Shafter 
and other military men of note, I am in- 
clined to think that it is not only better 
taste but better policy to leave the telling 
of the story of great battles, heroic endur- 
ance and splendid achievement to the 
press correspondents. Richard Harding 
Davis, Stephen Bonsai, Stephen Crane 
and the rest have given us such vivid pic- 
tures of the thrilling events of the recent 
campaigns in Cuba and Porto Rico that 
General Shafter's matter-of-fact recital in 
the February Century seems common- 
place, and Lieutenant Hobson's "tell it 
all" series reads unsatisfactory. There is 
more in knowing what not to say than at 
first appears. It is the thing that is left 
unsaid that constitutes the charm of a 
story. The gallant hero of the "Merri- 
mac" evidently has not discovered this 



secret. He would never have painted 
that interior scene during the bombard- 
ment of Morro Castle if he had. "The 
Reformation of Uncle Billy" is a short 
story brimming with homely pathos, and 
"The Curing of Kate Negley" is a com- 
edy that may, or may not, disguise a 
moral. Frederic Courtland Penfield 
gives an entertaining description of the 
prospective damming of the Nile at As- 
suam by the British government, and 
Professor Wheeler continues "Alexan- 
der's Conquest." The illustrations which 
accompany these papers are beautiful, 
and lend an additional charm to an al- 
ready fascinating subject. The Century 
is the magazine par excellence when it 
comes to illustrations. 

Harper's — 

Lieutenant-Colonel Forrest at Fort 

Donelson John D. Wyeth, M. D. 

Ghosts in Jerusalem A. C. Wheeler 

A Trekking Trip in South Africa. . 

A. C. Humbert 

Anglo-Saxon Affinities Julian Ralph 

Maya, aPoem Emile Andrew Huber 

Their Silver Wedding Journey 

William Dean Howells 

Love Margaret E. Sangster 

The Astronomical Outlook.. C. A. Young 

Baldy Sarah Barnwell Elliott 

The Span o' Life 

Wm. McLennan and J. W. Mcllvaith 

The Clew Robert Monry Bell 

The Sick Child 

Henook-Makhewe-Kelenaka (Angel de 

Cora) 

His Talisman. .Martha Gilbert Dickinson 
The Spanish-American War 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge 

His Nomination. Margaret Sutton Briscoe 

Facing the North Star C. C. Abbot 

Remorse Artnur J. Stringer 

With Dewey at Manila 

Joseph L. Stickney 

Love's Insistence. Nina Francis Layard 
The United States as a World Power 

Albert Bushnell Hart 

"Ghosts in Jerusalem" just misses be- 
ing a strong piece of work. The Orien- 
tal vein which predominates in the story 



210 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



is fascinating, and the descriptions are 
treated in a masterly manner, and the 
characters of "Bish," the Arab servant, 
and "Bel Amish," the "Rabbi," are 
studies unmarred by a single false stroke, 
but the cold-blooded Americanisms in- 
troduced so promiscuously throughout 
rasp the reader's nerves. The calculating 
New EnglancTer does not form a har- 
monious part of the Oriental whole — and 
the effect of his presence m that dreamy, 
occult atmosphere is disastrous. How- 
ells in "Their Silver Wedding Journey" 
is more rapid than ever. His people are not 
interesting in books, and in real life they 
are simply unbearable. Oh yes, they are 
real. You meet them every day. That 
is the one thing I have against Howells 
— his characters are true to life. They 
are so insipid, so shallow, so intense. 
They agonize over trifles and spend 
whole forenoons in worrying discussions 
about shades of things, and always man- 
age to miss the meaning and the tragedy 
of life. Joseph L. Stickney tells, in a 
most entertaining manner of his experi- 
ence "With Dewey at Manila." There 
is a picture in Harper's this month that 
attracts me. It is the face of a little 
Indian girl silhoutted against the dusk 
of the desert, and it illustrates the story 
of "The Sick Child," told by Henook- 
Makhewe-Kelenaka. 



McClure's — 

The White Man's Burden 

Rudyard Kipling 

Under Water in the Holland 

Franklin Mathews 

Hitting the Trail Hamlin Garland 

Adventures of a Train Dispatcher. . 

..Capt. Jasper Ewing Brauley, U. S. A. 
Stalky & Co., (Ill) The Impressionists 

Rudyard Kipling 

Lincoln Gathering an Army 

Ida M. Tarball 

Marines Signaling Under Fire at 

Guantanamo Stephen Crane 

Life Masks of Great Americans 

Charles Henry Hart 

Between Two Shores Lllen -Glasgow 

The war on the Sea and Its Lessons 

Captain Alfred T. Mahan 

In the Third House Walter Barr 

Dewey at Manila Edward W. Hardin 



Admiral Dewey will ever remain en- 
shrined in the hearts of his countrymen 
as the hero who won a great battle and 
forebore to write about it for the maga- 
zines. The public is equally divided be- 
tween appreciation of his courage and 
admiration for the common sense that 
prompted him to decline the work of re- 
cording the glory of his achievement in 
cold print. Edward W. Hardin's ac- 
count in McClure's for this month of 
"Dewey at Manila" leaves little to be de- 
sired. ' It is comprehensive and com- 
plete, an epitome or history which proves 
the exception to McCaulay's statement. 
Stephen Crane writes in his usual graphic 
manner of "Signaling Under Fire at 
Guantanamo," where he lay in a trench 
with the four signalmen upon a hill-top 
through the long weary nights and wait- 
ed for the dawn. Speaking of these day- 
break experiences he says: "I, at least, 
always grew furious with this wretched 
sunrise. I thought I could have walked 
around the world in the time required 
for the old thing to get up above the 
horizon," which is forcible if not alto- 
gether elegant. This article of Stephen 
Crane's is, in its way, the best piece of 
work he has produced, and shows a 
strength and vigor unmarred by certain 
faults that distinguished the earlier ef- 
forts of the author of "The Red Badge 
of Courage." "Between Two Shores" 
is a tragic episode of unusual interest, 
and illustrates the futility of time's limi- 
tations. Hamlin Garland takes his 
readers with him out into the illimitable 
solitude of the desert. "Hitting the 
Trail" under his guidance is a pleasure 
not to be missed by any lover of Nature 
without regret. "The Indian laid his 
trail in conjunction with the stars and 
mountain peaks." And the trail, unlike 
a road, according to this poet of prose, 
"loses itself in Nature. It is a purple- 
brown ribbon in the grass, a silken strand 
on the hillside. The trail is poetry; a 
wagon road is prose; the railroad is 
arithmetic." But you must read to 
understand the charm of this gossamer 
thread," this looping, curving mystic 
path through the wilderness. "The 
White Man's Burden," the message, the 
command comes to us, as to England. 



THE MAGAZINES. 



211 



Scribner's — 

The Rough Riders. . .Theodore Roosevelt 
Four National Conventions 

, . . . George F. Hoar 

The Chronicles of Aunt Minervy Ann 

Joel Chandler Harris 

The Letters of.. Robert Louis Stevenson 

Sydney Colvin 

The Lepers William Charles Scully 

Asceticism Elizabeth M. W. Fay 

The Entomologist George W. Cable 

Riordan's Last Campaign.Anne O'Hagan 

Song Arthur Sherbune Hardy 

William Makepeace Thackeray 

W. C. Brownell 

The Washington Monument 

Julia Larned 

Theodore Roosevelt and his "Rough 
Riders" are always interesting regarded 
from any point of view. They are heroes 
of romance as well as war. "The Lep- 
ers" is a strong story, a tragedy, dark, 
yet with a gleam of heavenly light illum- 
inating its closing scene, like a ray of 
sunset glory breaking through the black- 
ness of a day of storm. W. C. Brownell 
writes delightfully of Thackery, and 
George F. Hoar gives an account of 
"Four National Conventions," that 
every boy should read — since it is a chap- 
ter, or, rather, four chapters of our coun- 
try's history. The letters of Robert 
Louis Stevenson deepen in interest as 
they proceed. There is, however, always 
that suggestion of physical suffering 
coming up to darken the record of his 
brightest days. Even as a boy he 
dreamed of a home in the summer islands 
of the Southern seas. The cold winds 
and dreary rains of the north chilled and 
oppressed him, and he hated above all 
things else, a storm at night. "Rior- 
dan's Last Campaign" is one of those 
stories that seem to be growing in pop- 
ularity of late, setting forth the general 
depravity of politicians and the corrupt- 
ing influence of politics upon the average 
man. Riordan was one of the rare few 
who have the moral courage (or was it 



cowardice) to break away from it all and 
bury ambition. 

The Cosmopolitan — 

The Emperor William in the Holy 

Land Samuel Ives Curtiss 

After the Capture of Manila 

Frank R. Roberson 

Her Guardian Angel Loyd Osbourne 

The New Organ Eliza Calvert Hall 

Mr. Cornelius Johnson, Offlce-Seeker 

Paul Lawrence Dunbar 

Among the Dyaks 

J. Theodore Van Gestel 

The Trek-Bokki of Cape Colony 

S. C. Cronwright Schreiner 

City Subways for Pipes and Wires.. 

Henry F. Bryant 

The Professor. James Gardner Sanderson 
The Haven of Dead Ships 

Sylvester Baxter 

How an Empire was Built 

John Brisban Walker 

The name of Mohammed is suggestive 
of the romance and mystery of the desert. 
Washington Irving and Carlyle have 
glorified the prophet, and now John 
Brisben Walker is repainting the 
always fascinating portrait anew in 
the pages of Cosmopolitan. Mr. 
Walker's story of "How an Em- 
pire Was Built," only begins in 
this number, but it enthralls the interest 
of the reader at once. Paul Lawrence 
Dunbar is loyal to his people always, 
whether he sings in resonant verse or 
writes in graphic prose. The story of 
the disappointment of an office-seeker of 
color is vivid and human. "The Haven 
of Dead Ships" is a thrilling tale of the 
Sargossa Sea that leaves the reader won- 
dering how much of it is fact and how 
much fiction. Among the faces repro- 
duced in that part of the Cosmopolitan 
devoted to the stage is that of Gladys 
Wallis, the. charming actress, who won 
the hearts of enthusiastic Portland aud- 
iences once upon a time, and whose sub- 
sequent difficulties with an unfeeling 
manager enlisted public sympathy. 



The noon of night — a night in June— 
A sense of roses drenched in dew — 
The mellow moonlight streaming through 
The vine-hung windows, and we two — 
Our warm hearts beating close in tune, 
Did pray it might be always June. 



Lischen M. Miller, 



Harpers have brought out Margaret 
Deland's "Old Chester Tales" in a 
charmingly bound volume. The "Tales" 
are eight in number, and are illustrated 
by Howard Pyle. Everyone who had 
the pleasure of reading these sweet and 
simple chronicles of quiet life in a coun- 
try town as they appeared from time to 
time in Harper's Magazine, will want to 
own this attractive-looking volume. 

John Kendrick Bangs is always en- 
tertaining after a fashion. We are all 
fond of delightful absurdities like the 
"House-Boat," and therefore we are 
ready to be pleased with "Peeps at Peo- 
ple" of note through Mr. John Kendrick 
Bangs' glasses, the lenses of which are 
so constructed that they show all things 
comically distorted yet pleasantly real. 
"Peeps at People" is also from the house 
of Harper. Still another book, a collec- 
tion of short stories under the title of 
"Moriah's Mourning and Other Half- 
Hour Sketches," by Ruth McEnery 
Stuart, gotten out by this house, is de- 
lightful reading. It is full of the fun 
and touched with the pathos of the life 
on the plantation. 

"Paul the Man, the Missionary and 
the Teacher" is by Orello Cone, D.D., 
and is published by the MacMillan Com- 
pany. Dr. Cone draws his conclusions 
not from what has been written by other 
people, but from what Paul himself 
wrote, and he has produced a work that 
is of incalculable value and interest to 
the student of Scriptural lore and not 
without attraction for the general reader. 

Copeland & Day publish Morris Ros- 
enfeld's "Songs of the Ghetto," edited 
and translated by Professor Leo Weiner, 
of Harvard. These are songs of the peo- 
ple who toil in the darkness that would 
be despair but for the sweetness of a 



taith that povc.iy did degradation are 
alike powerless to dispel. 
j* 

One of the remarkable books of the 
year 1898 was written by Henry Morris 
under the title of "Waiting for the Sig- 
nal." There are many things to criti- 
cise in the work, but there is much that 
commands the respect and admiration 
of the unprejudiced reader. The writer 
makes the mistake of mixing, or rather 
of trying to mix up a love story with an 
exposition on progressive politics, and 
the result is unfortunate. Still, cutting 
out the romance and sentiment together 
with those chapters that attempt to por- 
tray the evil that exists in the name of 
polite society, there remains a book that 
no man, interested in the social and po- 
litical problems of the day can read with 
indifference. In the chapters describing 
the dawn of the revolution and the de- 
struction of New York, there occur 
passages that closely approach the point 
of grandeur. 

vVilliam M. Stewart, of Nevada, is 
chairman of the convention which meets 
in Chicago for the purpose of reconstruct- 
ing the government, and Harvey, of 
"Coin's Financial School" fame is secre- 
tary. The constitution itself is not so 
bad perhaps, considering that Ignatius 
Donnelly is chairman of the committee 
of ninety appointed to draft it. This same 
committee is honored by the name of a 
former governor of Oregon and one time 
mayor of Portland, Sylvester Pennoyer. 
The other Oregon member is Mr. M. A. 
Miller. Mr. Charles A. Towne, of Minne- 
sota, W. J. Bryan of Nebraska, Altgeld 
of Illinois, Weaver of Iowa, Peffer of 
Kansas, Tillman of South Carolina, and 
last but not least, James Hamilton Lewis 
of Washington, all have a place upon 
this committee. 



Human nature is swayed by mixed 
motives. Even an act that appears dis- 
interested may be prompted by selfish- 
ness. An amusing - illustration of this 
/act is given in the following anecdote: 

An aged negro sat on one of the old 
wharves at Salem, fishing. A colored 
boy was sitting beside him, eagerly 
watching the bob as it danced up and 
down. Suddenly the bob went under. 
The boy in his excitement leaned so far 
over the edge of the whan that he lost 
his balance and fell into the water. 

Instantly the old man dropped his 
fishing pole and jumped into the water 
for the boy, and after a good deal of 
splashing and sputtering, with the help 
of several men on the wharf, both were 
hauled out, gasping for breath. 

One of the men, who had helped them 
expressed his admiration for the negro's 
courage. 

"That was a brave deed of yours, my 
man," said he. 

"What dat?" asked the disciple of 
Walton, as he went to pick up his rod. 

"Why, your jumping in to save that 
boy." 

"Dat boy! I doan keer nuffin for 
him! But he got all de bait in his 
pocket!" — Youths' Companion. 

"Hinnery Clay," said Mr. Dolan, "wor 
a great mon." "He wor that same," re- 
plied Mrs. Dolan. "He wor that great a 
mon," her husband went on, "that he 
had a cigar named after 'im." "Thrue 
for yez. Only 'twor no cigar. Twor a 
poipe." 

Washington Post 
J* 

By no means the least important of 
our new possessions is the Sulu Archi- 
pelago, a group lying south of the Philip- 
pines, and comprising about 150 islands. 
Like the Philippines, many of the islands 
are barren and uninhabited, but the 
larger are fertile and under the careful 



tillage of a most industrious people, who 
have the honor of being the first Moham- 
medan subjects of the United States. 
The ruler of Sulu is a devoted Mussul- 




The Sultan t>( Sulu.— Alter a Photograph in Harper's Weekly. 
Copyright. 1399, by Harper * Brothers. 

THK SULTAN OF SULU. 

man, and acknowledges the supreme au- 
thority of the Turkish Sultan, and the 
customs of our Mohammedan fellow-cit- 
izens differ but little from those of the 
same faith in other parts of the world. 
It is more than probable that the sultan 
will be a source of endless trouble to our 
country. The Spaniards, from all ac- 
counts, certainly found him unruly, and 
derived but little profit from their suze- 
raintv of the islands. 



"What are the things that touch us 
most as we look back through the 
years?" asked a lady lecturer, 'impres- 



214 



THE ^PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



sively. There was a moments' awful 
pause, and then a small boy in the audi- 
ence answered: "Our clothes." — Tid- 
Bits. 

Tid-BUs. 

When a Girl Really Loves. 

When a girl is not as sure of her affec- 
tion as she is of the shining of the sun in 
the heavens, it is well for her to pause, to 
give herself all the benefit of the doubt. 
She should wait until she is able to say 
with truth when she gives her word, "I 
would rather be your wife than do or be 
anything else in the world." If there is 
in the farthest corner of her heart one lit- 
tle doubt that the full revelation of love 
has come to her the chances are that it 
has not. This is not to say that doubts 
never arise in love. The happiest en- 
gagement in all the world is often not 
without a haunting fear attendant upon 
it. Indeed, it often happens that two 
singuarly honest and earnest young peo- 
ple have periods of exquisite self-torture 
during the engagement time, and the 
more mature and experienced they both 
are the more likely this is to happen, for 
then each sees more clearly than in early 
youth the perils that may come. Each 
realizes that though love is the greatest 
solvent of difficulties it is not the only 
one — that there are sure to be the gravest 
strains upon human nature in the delicate 
adjustments of married life. One may 
be able to trust one's self in the great 
crises of life, but it is the pettiness of 
every-day living that lays bare one's be- 
setting sins. A sensitive girl dreads, as 
cares increase, that the romance may de- 
part, that her husband may sometimes 
come to find the smaller and less bril- 
liant world in which the home-keeping 
wife dwells commonplace and sordid. 
The true-hearted lover fears that in some 
sudden blindness he may blunder into 
wounding the tender sensibilities that 
seem so exquisitely dear to him now. 
Often each dreams that he or she, or 
both together, may prove inadequate in 
the plain, practical, every-day affairs of 
life. 

Intimate acquaintance, congeniality of 
tastes and purposes, respect, admiration, 
material and social advancement — all 



these may appeal at some time to the 
young woman or the young man as fur- 
nishing the possible material for a pros- 
perous venture into matrimony. But to 
those of us who are on this side of mar- 
ried life, with years of experience to give 
us insight, there never was a greater fal- 
lacy. I would say to all young women 
(and I would I had the tongues of angels 
to say it as I should), "Love your lover 
or do not marry him." Respect and ad- 
miration may do for friendship; mar- 
riage absolutely demands love. You re- 
member that when the apostle Peter 
sums up the qualities that go to make the 
perfect Christian character he does not 
begin by urging the necessity of faith. 
He assumes its existence at the start. He 
says, "Add to your faith, virtue; and to 
virtue, knowledge." It is as if he would 
have us know that faith is not to be re- 
garded simply as an adornment to the 
Christian character. It is a prerequisite. 
It is the atmosphere in which the Chris- 
tian life has its breath and being. So it 
is with love when the time comes to set- 
tle the gravest question of life. 

I think one reason why the married 
life so often has too little romance in it 
is because the engaged life has had noth-. 
ing else. I know of no preservative of 
romance in married life so sure as good 
housekeeping, and I know of no profes- 
sion so serious, so absorbing, so demand- 
ing preparation and skill as the profes- 
sion of the housewife. When a young 
woman marries she as really enters upon 
the practice of a life profession as does a 
young man when he is admitted to the 
bar or puts out a little sign with M. D. 
upon it after three or four years spent in 
preparation. The man, you see, is will- 
ing to equip himself fully for his part of 
the partnership. Does it seem business- 
like and in good faith for a woman to 
take the place of the second partner with 
a most indifferent training or even none 
at all? I would have the young girl who 
has committed herself to an engagement 
undertake at once a course in practical 
housekeeping. — Helen Watterson Moody 
in February Ladies' Home Journal. 

Jt 

"1 had a strange dream last night." 
He leaned back in his chair and drew his 



T>RIFT. 



215 



hand lightly across his eyes, as if he 
doubted that he was even yet awake. 

"Yes?" said Lycia, half turning from 
her desk so that she faced him across the 
narrow strip of carpet. "Yes? what was 
it?" 

"By far the most remarkable — the 
most wonderful dream that has ever dis- 
turbed my slumbers." 

"Was — was it unpleasant?" timidly, 
half-hesitatingdy questioned Lycia. 

"Unpleasant! Well I should say not. 
On the contrary, it was the sweetest, the 
happiest experience that ever came into 
my life, sleeping or waking. 

"Tell me about it," she murmured 
softly, turning away her eyes and mak- 
ing unintelligible marks upon the blot- 
ting pad with her pencil. 

"I don't know whether I can or not," 
he replied. "It would be difficult to find 
words capable of describing the beauty, 
the joy, the ecstacy of that dream. And 
yet," he added, "it was so real that even 
now I am shaken with the memory of it. 
No I cannot express it in words." 

"You might try," she suggested, still 
engaged in decorating the blotter, and 
seemingly absorbed in the occupation. 

"All night long I seemed to be, no, I 
will say I was rocked in soft clouds of 
rose and gold, upon celestial heights, all 
night long I lay steeped in melody, light 
and fragrance. Every pulse was set to 
music, every heartstring thrilled with joy 
at the lightest touch — " He paused, 
and Lycia glanced up. 

"Were you alone?" She just breathed 
the question, but he caueht it clearly. 

"No," he said, "no, oh »io, I was not 
alone. He glanced at her then looked 
away, and the color crept to his forehead. 

"Who was with you?" her eyes still 
bent upon the blotter. 

"I cannot tell you that, I dare not, you 
would never forgive me." 

"Tell me," she insisted, her own face 
flushing and palling. 

"No," he said, "I must not." 

"You must," she whispered. "I — it 
may be that I already know." 

"No, you do not." 

"Then I insist upon knowing." 

"Will you forgive me then?" 

"Yes, yes, anything — " 

"It was you." i 



"I know — I know — I, too, dreamed 
last night, and my dream was the coun- 
terpart of yours!" 

They regarded each other with pale 
cheeks and questioning eyes. 

"What can it mean?" she said under 
her breath. 

"I do not know," he replied, "but I 
do know what heaven means, and I 
know " 

"No, no, you must nOt say it," she 
cried. He sprang up and came a step 
toward her. She rose, too, and the look 
in her eyes held him where he stood. 

"I swear to you — " he began, but she 
stopped him with a gesture. He would 
have taken her outflung hand, but she 
drew it back. "Only in dreams," she 
said with quivering lips, "only in 
dreams," and with bowed head, he 
obeyed her unspoken command and 
passed from the room and from her wak- 
ing life forever. But a man may barter 
his hope of heaven for a sweet dream's 
sake! 

Oraarv. 
J* 

"Liz," said Miss Kiljordan's young- 
est brother, "do you says 'woods is,' or 
'woods are?' " 

"Woods are, of course," she answered. 
"Why?" 

" 'Cause Mr. Woods are down in the 
parlor waitin' to see you." — Ex. 
j* 

The Horse to Become Extinct. 

Within the next dozen years, I feel 
confident, there will not be a horse in 
any of the large cities of this country. 
This statement may seem radical, but it 
is based on a growing fact and is not 
merely the declaration of an enthusiast. 
It is only ten years since the first electric 
cars were run in America. 

The passing of the horse, begun by 
the electric cars, will be completed by 
the motor vehicles. They will be im- 
proved as we go on, and even if we ad- 
vance no further than we have at present 
one result w'll be a general improvement 
in the pavements, which will be made 
firm and hard and can be kept as clean 
as the sidewalks. 

It will cost iust one-half the present 



216 



THE 'PACIFIC SMOOTHLY. 



rate to keep these pavements clean and 
in repair, and the sanitary value of them 
is not the least to be considered. 

Horses's hoofs tear up streets more 
than the wheels of wagons. The horse 
brings more filth, dirt and disease to 
cities than almost any other agency, and 
with the horse eliminated we shall have 
clean, even streets, which are a comfort 
and substantial, benefit to any place that 
possesses them. 

The horse will be relegated to the 
country, to those who love him well, to 
the plough and windrow, to the green 
meadows, far from the electric fever of 
great cities, where people are eager to 
benefit by the marvels of end-of-the- 
century science. 

It will be some time yet before motor 
vehicles become cheaper. They are ex- 
pensive to make, and the only factor that 
can act to cheapen them is the demand. 
People must buy them to diminish the 
price. 

The history of the bicycle will be re- 
peated on a gigantic scale in the develop- 
ment and use of the motor vehicle. I 
made my first bicycle in 1877. Only 92 
wheels were sold that year. We are turn- 
ing out 750 a day now, and, should the 
exigency arise, could increase the num- 
ber to 1,000. 

I have said the horse, who has served 
us well and against whom 1 have not the 
slightest personal feeling, will be relegat- 
ed to the country. But even in his green 
retreat will he be followed by his 
Nemesis, with a heart of petroleum or 
electricity. 

As the utility of the motor vehicles be- 
comes more widespread they will tra- 
verse country roads in sufficient num- 
bers to necssitate the placing of charg- 
ing stations in the principal country ho- 
tels. So it will come to pass that while 
you are sitting at your meal, instead of 
having horses watered and fed, your ve- 
hicle will be getting stored with the en- 
ergy to take you along the next stretch 
of your journey. 

In Europe the motor vehicle is becom- 
ing popular — it is very much so in Paris, 
where the condition of the streets is such 
as the motor will eventually bring about 



here. We recently received an order for 
100 vehicles for Berlin, which we will not 
fill. 

If the horse is finally forced from the 
country-side — and that is not likely to 
happen for many years- — I am not 
enough of a prophet to foresee just what 
will become of him. If indeed he at last 
becomes extinct he will exemplify a prin- 
ciple as old as civilization — that great 
progress is built upon the extinction of 
old forms. If he must go the horse will 
finish with the consolation of a race well 
run. — Colonel Albert A. Pope in the 
New York Sunday Journal. 



Manila is always interesting, the Ma- 
nila of the old days especially so, one of 
the most romantic, richest, and fairest 
cities of the sleepy East. Warmed by 
the tropical sun, cooled by the breezes of 
the Pacific, it was blessed with features 
of climate and commerce which permit- 
ted men to grow rich while at the same 
time thev lived lazv and contented. It 




A Bit of old Manila.— After a drawing In Harper's Weekly. 
Copyright, 1899, by Harper & Brothers. 

was the ideal home for the Spanish offi- 
cial or adventurer who wished to seek 
his fortune in distant colonies, and yet 
enjoy a life which forever reminded him 
of sunny Spain. The Spaniards did in- 
deed become rich, but only through their 
cruel oppression of the natives, and dur- 
ing their rule, lasting almost four hun- 
dred years, the islands remained practi- 
cally undeveloped. Apart from beauti- 



VRIFT. 



217 



ful Manila, with its Spanish buildings, its 
delicate Spanish architecture, a bit of 
which is shown in our illustration, taken 
from the current issue of Harper's Week- 
ly, the towns are and have been mere 
collections of straw huts, and the natives 
of the archipelago for the most part are 
as barbarous as when Magellan met his 
fate on the island of Cebu. 



Visitor: "What are you crying about, 
my little man?" 

Little Willie: "All my brothers hez 
got a vacation, and I hain't got none." 

Visitor: "Why that's too bad. How 
is that?" 

Willie (between sobs): "I — don't go 
— to school yet." — Life. 




A poor man lay dying, and his good 
wife was tending him with homely but 
affectionate care. 

"Don't you think you could eat a bit 
of something, John? Now, what can I 
get for you?" 

With a wan smile he answered, feebly : 
"Well, seem to smell a ham a-cooking 
somewhere; I think I could do with a 
little bit of that." 

"Oh, John, dear," she answered, 
promptly, "you can't have that. That's 
for the funeial." 

New Boarder: "What's the row up- 
stairs?" 

Landlady: "It's the professor of hyp- 
notism trying to get his wife's permis- 
sion to go out this evening. 

Spare Moments. 




t Dr Stork's Bill. 
Jh.Dr.Storh.tfiouQh I've ken ill., 

!J l I cant aFford/to pay your blH; 
5 1 haven't got a single penny. 

The duines-pig won't lend me any; 
Besides°<3ear maflthinK you're wrong 
rto mahe .your bill so_ verij Jong ■ * 



But still, I' 
Please call ag 



tell >)ou what to > So, 
a'in , ki^dsi-n Adieu' 



218 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 

Poems to Order. 



There once lived a gentleman, so I have read, 
Whose wisdom was something profound, 

And though I know naught of the life that 
he led. 
His teachings I know to be sound. 

"Protect me," said he, "from my friends, and 
I fear 
No stab from the hand of a foe, 
For I'll be on guard when my foe shall ap- 
pear, 
And quickly shall ward off the blow." 

And often I've thought of his wisdom so 
great, 
And often this thought have expressed, 
When bound as it were by the grim hand of 
fate 
And solemn defeat have confessed. 

The tailor can make you a garment to fit, 
Likewise the shoemaker a shoe — ■ 

But poems to order? Just think for a bit, — 
Great heavens! Oh, what shall I do? 



The poet woulu dwell where the lily-bells 
chime, 
He fain would reach hights that are grand, 
But if you would have him Parnassus to 
climb, 
At least let him lay off the land. 

He'd linger and wait where the primroses 
blow, 

And birds twitter soft in the trees, 
And list to the zephyrs in tones soft and low, 

Re-echo the songs of the seas. 

He'd linger and wait where the buttercups 
grow, 

And willows bend over the stream, 
And whisper a sonnet of long, long ago, 

When life was an unsullied dream. 

But if he be tied to a prosaic weight, 
Pray heaven, let's loosen the strings! 

Or else he will fall a sad victim to fate — 
No tune to the song that he sings. 

/. P. Brashear. 



^^.'^^^^^^^^^M^^^M^^^^^^^^^^^M^M^^^^^^^^M&M^I^^^^^^^&i^^ 




The Natural <& <* 
*& <£ Body Brace 

Cures ailments peculiar to Women. 

Simple in construction. Comfortable. Ad- 
justable to fit all figures. Endorsed by every 
Physician who has used it 

COSTS YOU NOTHING TO TRY IT. 



Why should you not walk and work as 
painlessly as the man whose wife, sweetheart 
or sister you are ? You are not a laggard by 
nature, but some bodily derangement or dis- 
placement has sapped your ambition and made 
you weak and peevish. Wherever you are, 
the miserable pain in your back or side or 
abdomen is ever present. Write for illustrated 
book, giving candid facts and conclusive tes- 
timony, SENT FREE, in plain sealed envelope. 
The brace has cured thousands just such 
as you. This letter is one of thousands : 
Health Brings Beauty; the Natural 

Body Brace brings Health. Pine Forest, Alabama, May 30, 1898. 

I was well pleased with my brace from the beginning. After wearing it four weeks, I am de- 
lighted with it; would not exchange it for money or anything else. I send you my heartfelt thanks 
for it. I had suffered a long time with falling of the womb, painful menstruation, constipation, heart 
disease, backiche, headache, bearing down pains, etc. Mrs. W. B. McCrary. 

' re l u D DR4s f ?. r rBox io, s 3 atisfactory - The Natural Body Brace Co., Salina, Kansas. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly enf jen The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Insure v^ith the 

Home Insurance Co, 

.♦...Of New York 
Cash Capital, $3. 000,000.00. 



The Great American Fire Insurance 
Company, 

Assets aggregating nearly $12,000,000.00, ALL 
available for American Policy Holders. 



J. D. COLEMAN, General Agent, 



JOHN H. BURGARD, 

..SPECIAL AGENT.. 



250 Stark Street, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 



ELOF JOHNSON 

Ladies' and Gentlemen's 

TAILOR 



Room 602 
Dekum Building 



PORTLAND, ORE. 



*4 

43 

3 

4* 

3 

s 

2 

43 

4* 
43 
4' 

4' 
« 

4 



NO HUMBUG NO SHAMS 

S* W* Aldrich Pharmacy 

.... Corner Sixth and Washington Streets, Portland, Oregon .... 

Carries a Complete Assortment of High- Grade Drags 
and Chemicals* By constant and careful attention the 
stock is kept fresh and up-to-date 

Direct Importer of French and English Perfumes, Soaps, Powders, Toilet Waters and 
Novelties. Particular Attention Given to Prescriptions and Mail Orders. Prices 
Lowest in the City on Same Class of Goods 



APPROPRIATE FRAMING A SPECIALTY 




307 Washington street 

Bet. Fifth and Sixth. PORTLAND, OREGON 



CLARKE BROS. 

FOR 

Fine Cut Flowers 

AND 

NEW AND BEAUTIFUL 
PLANTS 

289 Morrison Street 

rORI'LAND, OREGON 



MARTINEZ' 4* 4t 



LOUIS E. MARTINEZ 



PROPRIETOR 



Oysters 
Game 
Ice Cream 
Jrench Pastry 

Oregon Telephone 
Main 553. 



Portland's New and Only 



First-class^staurant 

and LADIES' LUNCH ROOM 



128 Sixth St., Bet. Washington and Alder. 



PORTLAND, ORE 



When dealing with our advertisers, ktndly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— AD VEBTISIAG SECTION. 



iSSSSSSSSSSSSS 



Quality Improved 
Price Reduced 

COLUMBIA 
HARTFORD 
VEDETTE 



*£ Bicycles «£ 



They arc Built to I^ide. 

They are the best Bicycles possible to produce, 
by the most skilled workmen, from the best ma- 
terials, in the largest and most completely 
equipped bicycle factories in the world «jt «>t jt 

They arc Handsome Bicycles. 

They are stylish bicycles, and they possess those 
niceties of detail that give an added value to 
the discriminating purchaser ■ & J. J, J, j. j. 




~~^^ I They are Built to Sell. 

POPP 

s 1899 Prices 

MFG. CO. | — y Jl rices :- 

\ Columbia Chainless, Lady's or Gents' . . . $75.00 

| Columbia Chain, Lady's or Gents' . . . 50.00 

J 32- \ 34 * Columbia, Model 49, with '99 Improvements . 40.00 

I Hartford, Lady's or Gents* 35.00 8 

Sivth ^trrpt i Vedette > Gents ' 25.oo I 
IXtn OTXeet j vedette, Lady's 26.00 I 

_ e Wc handle the best line of Juvenile Bicycles 

Portland, Oregon. 5 in the Market. 

.^ JOBBERS IN BICYCLE SUNDRIES. 

; Agents wanted in all unoccupied territory in Oregon, Washington, 
\ Idaho and Montana. 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SEC J JON. 

A.B.STEINBACH&Co. 



POPULAR PRICE 



Globs, Hatiers I Fi 




Cor. Fi^st 

and Morrison 

Streets Portland, ore. 

Devers' Blend Coffee j ft Ml 

TO INSURE GETTING THE GENUINE, BUY IN 
SEALED PACKAGES ONLY 

CLOSSET & DEVERS 

Coffee Roasters... PORTLAND, OREGON 

..The Barnes Market Company.. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 

Oysters, Game, Poultry and Fish 

OREGON, CALIFORNIA AND DOMESTIC 
FRUiTS AND VEGETABLES 

Manufacturers of 

Telephone 371 .. 105, 107, 1074 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 

*y]Vfl *N4« 4- -v*S Agents in every city and town in the Northwest to 

VL\r%dl itvV ♦♦♦ solicit subscriptions for the Pacific Monthly. Salary 
tf^tftftftftftftftftftftfiptf or commission. Write us at once for particulars. 

Address Subscription Department, The Pacific Monthly, 

Macleay Building, Portland, Oregon. 

VX/'e call for, sponge, press and deliver one suit of 
your clothing each week for $1.00 per month. 

Unique Tailoring Co., 124 6th St. 



Oregon 'Phone M. 514. 
Columbia 'Phone 736. 



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rii THE PA CIFIC MONTHL Y—A D VER T I SING SECTION. 

LADD & TILTON 

ESTABLISHED 1859 

•••Transact a. General Banking Business 

Special Attention Given to 
Collections 



PORTlvAND, OREGON 



THE PENN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE GO. 

OF PHILADELPHIA 

" The Policy Holders' Company " 

THE NEW POLICY of the Penn Mutual is absolutely non-forfeitable and. incontestable, and 
contains guarantees in plain figures for each year. 

1st A Cash Surrender Value. 2d A Loan equal in amount to the Cash Value. 
3d Extended Insurance for the Full amount of Policy, without the request of the Policy-holder, or 

4th A Paid-up Policy 

SHERMAN & HARMON, General Agents, Oregon and Washington 

727, 728 & 729 Marquam Building, Portland, Oregon 



o. Jr. 7/foorehouse de Co., yncorporated 

WaU ^aper, Sftoom 77?ouictin#s, Paints, 

Ofis, 2Sarnisnas, Jifouse, Sign 

and ^rosco Painting 

JOS jftder Street, tPortiand, Oregon 



Free Shine to All Customers 

KNIGHT <& EDER 

The Medium Priced Shoe Dealers 
292 Washington Street 

Opposite Hotel Perkins PORTLAND, OREGON 



Established 1872 



JOHN A. BECK 



Healer in 



Wcicties. Diamonds. Jewelry, Silverware, 

270 Morrison St., Bet. Third and Fourth, 

Repairing a Specialty PORTLAND. OREGON 



THE J. K. GILL CO. 

Finest Stationery 

Masonic Temple, Third and Alder Sts., Portland, Ore. 

ALL THE LATEST BOOKS 

Prices to Meet All Competitors 



For Delicious *$ «g 



Home Made Bread, Cakes, 
Pies, Graham, Whole Wheat 
and Biscuit Bread 

...TRY... 

ANN ARBOR HOME BAKERY, 




Telephone Red 1842. 



...OPTICIAN... 

Dr. A. A. BARR, formerly of St. Paul, has charge of 
the Optical Department for 

I. N. WRIGHT. 1 I0WR JEWELER. 

293 Morrison Street, PORTLAND, ORE. 

CONSULTATION FREE 
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347 Morrison Street, 

PORTLAND, OR. 



Telephone Pink 341. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



xiii 



F. E. BEACH & CO. 

Pioneer PaINT COMPANY 

Pure Paints, Oils and General 
Building: Material 

13C5 FIKST »~rrei£KT 

N. W. Cor. Alder 
PORTLAND, OREGON 



..HATTERS AND FURNISHERS.. 



i 



Sole Agents for 

94. THIRD STREET 
Portland, ore. 



PORTLAND GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 

[NE OF 

Electric Supplies 



CARRIES A FULL LINE OF 

MOTOR > from One-half Horse Power Up 

POWER for ELEVATORS and all kinds 
of Machinery. 

ARC and INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 

Electric and Bell Wiring a Specialty. 



SAMSON BATTERIES 

GENERAL OFFICES 

COR. SEVENTH AND ALDER STREETS 



TELEPHONES (Both) 385 



ELEPHONB 




..ARE NOTED FOR QUALITY OF WORK AND PROMPT SERVICE ... 

JAMES R. EWING 

..Bookseller.. 



Miscellaneous Books 
Bibles . . . 
Northwest Views 



267 Morrison Street 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Careful Attention to Special Orders 

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THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



i£llis IfrrintinG Co. 




Established in 1887 92 




PRINTERS 

PUBLISHERS 

STEREOTYPERS 

2lnEtbing in tbe printing line 

from a caro to a catalogue 



105 FIRST STREET 

Portland, Oregon 




PHOENIX bicycles <*#* 

"THEY STAND THE RACKET." 
PRICE, $40.00 &. $50.00. 



Golden Eagle Bicycles 

^KSS WHEEL Clipper Chainless Bicycles 

LIST PRICE $75.00 
A Superior Article in the Chainless Line. 



Call and examine, or send for Catalogues. 

MITCHELL, LEWIS & STAVER CO. 

First and Taylor Streets, PORTLAND, OREGON. 



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THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



WHITE COLLAR LINE 
Columbia River & Puget Sound Navigation Co. 

Portland and Astoria 
Steamers Telephone or Bailey Gatzert leave foot Alder 

Street daily (except Sunday), 7 A. M. 
Leave Astoria daily (except Sunday) 7 P. M. 

U. B. SCOTT, President 



i River R. R. Ti 



WINTER SCHEDULE-Daily 

Train No. 22 leaves Portland at 8:00 a. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 24 leaves Portland at 7:00 p. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 11:10 p. m. 

Return 

Train No. 21 leaves Astoria at 8.00 a. m., arrives in 
Portland at 12:15 P- m - 

Train No. 23 leaves Astoria at 6:30 p. m. and arrives 
in Portland at 10:35 p. nx. 

Train No. 22 runs through to Seaside, leaving Seaside 
on the return at 2:50 p. m. 

All trains leaving Astoria for Seaside or returning 
from Seaside run on the Flavel Branch. 

The Astoria and Columbia River R. R. Winter Sched- 
ule is now in effect. Trains leave Union Depot, Port- 
land, daily at 8:00 a. m. and 7:00 p. m., arriving at 
Astoria at 12:15 P- m and 11:10 p. m. Leaving for sea- 
side at 12:20 p. m. 



GO EAST VIA 



Oregon Short Line Railroad 



THE DIRECT ROUTE TO 



Montana, Utah, Colorado 
and all Eastern and Southern Points. 

Affording choice of two routes via the UNION 
PACIFIC Fast Mail Line or the RIO 
GRANDE Scenic Lines through Colorado. 

LOOK AT THE TIME 

1 1 DAYS TO SALT LAKE 
1\ DAYS TO DENVER 
3-i DAYS TO CHICAGO 
U DAYS TO NEW YORK 



Free Reclining Chair Cars, Upholstered Tour- 
ist Sleeping: Cars, and Pullman Palace Sleep- 
ers operated on all trains. 



For further information, apply to 
C. O. TERRY, W. E. COMAN, 

Trav. Pass. Agt. Gen'l Agent. 

124 Third St., Portland, Or. 



EAST ) * SOUTHERN 
v'a PACIFIC 

* COMPANY 



AND. 



0. R. & N. 



LEAVE 



* 6 oop. m. 



* 8 30 a. m. 

Daily 
except 
Sunday. 

4 7 30 a. m. 
I 450p.m. 



Depot, Fifth and I Sts. 



f OVERLAND EX-1 
j PRESS, for Salem, I 
I Roseburg, Ashland, | 

(Sacramento, Ogden, I 
San Francisco, Mo- f 
jave, Los Angeles, El j 
Paso, New Orleans | 
and the East. J 

Roseburg Passenger. . . . 
( Via Woodburn for") 
I Mt. Angel, Silverton, 
■{ West Scio, Browns- 
jville, Springfield 
t^and Natron. 
Corvallis Passenger... 
Indepei.dence Pass'ng'r 



ARRIVE 



TIME SCHEDULES 

FROM PORTLAND. 



* 9 30 a. m. 



* 4 30 p.m. 

Daily 
except 
Sunday. 

t 550 p.m. 

I 8 25 a. m. 



Salt Lake, Denver, Ft. 

Fast Mail Wonh, Omaha, Kan- 

8:00 p. m. j sas City, St. Louis, 

Chicago and East. 



Fast Mail 
7:20 a. m. 



Walla Wall , Spokane, 

Spokane Minneapolis, St. Paul, 

Hyer Duluth, Milwaukee, 

2:20 p. m. Chicago and East. 



* Daily. J Daily except Sunday. 

Direct connection at San Franci-co with Occi- 
dental and Oriental and Pacific Mail steamship 
lines for JAPAN AND CHINA. Sailing dates 
on application. 

Rates and tickets to eastern points and Eu- 
rope, also JAPAN, CHINA, HONOLULU and 
AUSTRALIA, can be obtained from J. B. 
KIRKLAND, Ticket Agent, 134 Third St. 
Yamhill Division: — Passenger Depot foot of 
Jefferson St. 

Leave for Oswego daily at 7:20, 9:40* a. m.; 
12:30, 1:55, 3:25, 5:15, 6:25, 8:05, 11:30 p. m., and 9:00 
a. m. on Sundays only. Arrive at Portland 
daily at 6:35*, 8:30, 10:50* a. m; 1:35, 3:15,4:30, 6:20, 
7:40, 9:15 p. m.; 12:40 a. m. daily except Monday 
and 10:05 &• *"• 0.1 Sundays only. 

Leave for Sheridan daily, exeept Sunday, at 
4:30 p. m. Arrive at Portland at 9:30 a. m. 

Leave for Airlie Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays at 8:40 a. m. Arrive at Portland Tues- 
days, Thursdays and Saturdays at 3:05 p. m. 

* Except Sunday. 

R. KOEHLER, C. H. MARKHAM, 

Manager. Gen. P. & P. Agt. 

When dealing with our advertisers, 



8:00 p. m 

Ex. Sunday 

Saturday 

10:00 p. m. 



6:00 a. m. 
Ex.Sunday 



7:00 a. m. 

Tues, Thur 

and Sat. 



6:00 a. m. 

Tues, Thur 

and Sat. 



Lv.Riparia 
1:45 a. m. 

Daily 
Ex. Sat. 



tn-ean Steam-hips. 

All sailing dates subject 

to change. 
For San Francisco — 
Sail December 3, 8, 
I3> 18, 23 and 28. 

Coin m hi n River 

St> rtmwv. 

To Astoria and Way 

Landings. 



Willamette Riv-r. 

Oregon City, Newberg, 
Salem & Way Landings 



Willatm tie and 
Yamhill Rivis. 

Oregon City, Dayton 
and Way Landings. 



Willamette, River. 

Portland to Corvallis 
and Way Landings. 

Snake Hirer. 

Riparia to Lewiston. 



Spokane 

Flyer 
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Frederick Warde on Shakespeare. 



ticri 



Volume t MAI^GH Number 6 

1899 

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The Pacific Monthly. 

(The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and articles must not be reprinted 

without special permission.) 

CONTENTS FOR MARCH, 1899. 
Frederick "Warde as ** Macbeth " frontispiece 

Photo taken b3' Edgar Felloes. 

The Genius of Shakespeare Jrederick Warde 221 

u How Knoweth This Man Letters, Having 

Never Learned?" William Bitile Wells .' 224 

As In a Dream (Poem) Marion Cook 230 

Kahwayo (Short Story) Lizzie G. Wilcoxson 231 

Columbus En Voyage (Poem) Lischen cM. cMitter 234 

Some Phases of Our National Life C. E. S. Wood 235 

"Mother and Mammy " Howard Weeden 238 

The Voice of the Silence 239 

Chapter IV. The writer will be unnamed 

for the present. 

Alaska George M. Miller 243 

Beauty (Poem) Jrancis M. Gill 244 

A Fantasy in E Minor Oraarv 245 

The "Kid" (Short Story) 'Bessie SMay Guinean 247 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Our Point of View (Editorial) 249 

The King's Oath (Poem) cAdonen 253 

The Month— A Record of the World's Progress 254 

In Politics, Literature, Science, Art and Education, with Leading Events. 

Mother Goose for Grown Up Folks 257 

The Magazines 258 

Books 261 

Drift 262 

Chess 264 



Note.— The third paper in the series on "The Dynamics of Speech" will appear in our next number. 

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Copyrighted 1S99 by William Bittle Wells. 
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Frederick Warde as "Macbeth/' 



•w. / 



The Pacific Monthly. 



8MARCH, 1899 



&Co- 6 



The Genius of Shakespeare. 



*By FREDERICK WARDE. 



A PREVAILING misconception of 
the social condition of the parents 
of William Shakespeare, the influ- 
ences of his childhood, his opportunities 
of education, his youthful environmnt 
and the surroundings of his manhood 
are, in a great measure, responsible for 
the doubts that are so frequently ex- 
pressed of the possibility of such a man 
having the ability or knowledge to con- 
ceive, develop, and write the plays and 
poems ascribed to his name. The pop- 
ular error being that Shakespeare, hav- 
ing been born in such humble circum- 
stances, had little or no education, and 
was of such a wild and dissipated char- 
acter that the proposition was absurd 
and untenable. 

John Shakespeare, the father of Will- 
iam, was not . a peasant, but a sturdy 
yeoman, and belonged to that great 
middle class of England which has 
always been, and still is, the very back- 
bone of the British Empire, and from 
whose loins sprang our own great Amer- 
ican Republic of today. He was a man 
of substantial means at the time of the 
birth of his eldest son (William); one of 
the chamberlains of the borough of 
Stratford, 1564, and shortly afterwards 
was raised to the dignity of an alderman 
and thereafter was entitled to the hon- 
orable prefix of "Mr." Mary, his wife, 
was the daughter of a wealthy Warwick- 
shire farmer, named Arden, whose family 



were afterwards ennobled. It was from 
such sturdy stock that William Shakes- 
peare came. 

It is but fair to assume that, under 
these conditions, the parents of Shakes- 
peare were not without some little edu- 
cation and refinement, and, with the 
natural maternal pride that a mother 
takes in her first-born son (William was 
her third child), that he received his first 
knowledge at his mother's knee, and from 
the Holy Scriptures, a copy of which was 
doubtless to be found in almost every 
homestead in the country. If we could 
have looked, therefore, through the 
diamond-paned windows of the old 
gabled house in Henley street, Stratford, 
on some summer evening, after the 
shadows, had fallen we might have seen 
a little fellow attired for bed, kneeling at 
the feet of his gentle mother, with his 
hands uplifted, repeating after her, with 
his infant lips, the Lord's Prayer, and 
imbibing the first knowledge of the di- 
vine principles of the Christian faith, 
which he so frequently and beautifully 
expresses throughout his plays. 

At the age of seven years Shakes- 
peare entered the village grammar 
school of Stratford, of which Wal- 
ter Roche, a man of considerable 
learning, was then master, and at- 
tended it for seven years. We have 
no absolute knowledge of the curric- 
ulum of study at that school, but the 



222 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



probabilities are that it consisted of Eng- 
lish, rudimentary Latin and literature. 
There is no record of Shakespeare's 
progress or conduct while at school, but 
from the subsequent genius he displayed 
it is but reasonable to suppose that he 
was an apt scholar. Seven years under 
the direction of an able tutor, at an age 
(seven to fourteen) when the youthful 
mind is most capable of receiving and 
retaining impressions would form the 
foundation of a pretty substantial edu- 
cation and probably a very sound 
one for the period in which he lived. 
Ben Jonson, himself a university grad- 
uate, speaking somewhat slightingly of 
Shakespeare's classical knowledge, said 
that "he knew little Latin, and less 
Greek," and a perusal of his plays shows 
us that the Latin quoted therein is of just 
about the quality that an intelligent boy 
would gain at a public school, while the 
scenes, between the French princess, her 
maid, and the king in "Henry V," would 
indicate that his knowledge of that lan- 
guage was of the same rudimentary qual- 
ity as his Latin. 

Of his life on leaving school (about 
1578) to assist his father, who, with a 
large family, was then in financial 
difficulties, we know little. In his mo- 
ments of leisure he doubtless shared the 
recreations of the youths of his own age 
in the neighborhood, for in his plays we 
find constant references to and quotations 
of the terms used in bowls, quoits, arch- 
ery, hawking, hunting, wrestling and 
other sports of the period. In his pas- 
toral plays, such as "A Midsummer's 
Nights Dream" and "As You Like It," 
we find ample evidence of his powers of 
observation, unconscious doubtless at 
the time, of the beauties of nature, the 
variety of the wild flowers, the habits of 
the birds, the insects, the animals, and 
the reptiles that he found in the meadows 
by the Avon's banks. 

"Where daisies pied, and violets blue, 
And lady-smocks all silver white; 

And cuckoo buds of yellow hue 
Do paint the meadows with delight." 

Also of his wanderings in the woods 
of Shottery and Charlecotte, where he 
found 



"Tongues in trees, books in the running 

brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

I can readily imagine that he, himself, 
saw 

"The poor sequestered stag, that from the 
hunter's aim had taen a hurt " 

augment the already swollen stream 
with his superfluous tears. It was, 
doubtless, from his own childish experi- 
ence with some village Yorick, that he 
placed in Hamlet's mouth the line — 

"He hath borne me on his back a thou aid 
times," 

And from the immature observations of 
his youthful days developed the phil- 
osophy of his maturer years. During 
the days of his courtship of Anne Hath- 
way it is not difficult to understand how, 
to the eyes of the youthful lover nature 
took on an added beauty, and the natural 
poetry of his mind developed under the 
influence of "love's young dream." His 
indiscreet, and (for him) premature mar- 
riage followed, when he was little more 
than eighteen years of age — Anne Hath- 
way was eight years older. With its 
realities and responsibilities, he awoke 
to the bitterness of an enforced cohabita- 
tion with a woman who, if not absolutely 
uncongenial, was certainly far inferior to 
himself in every quality of mind and im- 
agination. His escapade on the estate 
of Sir Thomas Lucy probably led to his 
subsequent flight to London to avoid its 
consequences. 

What a revelation to this country 
youth must have been the vastness of 
that great city, for it was great, even in 
the days of "good Queen Bess," with 
its life, its wealth, its palaces, its 
pageants, and its play-houses. It was 
to the latter that he naturally drifted, 
first finding employment outside its 
doors, then within as "call boy" or 
prompter's assistant, and finally as an 
actor. Here he found his proper and 
natural sphere, here the natural trend 
of his mind and heart found a congenial 
atmosphere, and here his natural amia- 
bility and intellectual accomplishments 
found speedy recognition, and secured 
lis rapid advancement to fame and for- 



THE GENIUS OF SHAKESPEARE. 



223 



tune. Then commenced his life's great 
work. Fired with ambition, and filled 
with emulation of the brilliant minds 
with whom he was brought in contact in 
that exceptionally brilliant period of the 
world's literary history, the genius of his 
soul gave to time and posterity that 
series of plays and sonnets that have 
never been equalled for exquisite poetry 
and sublime philosophy, and made him 
recognized as the greatest dramatic poet 
that the world has ever known. 

The works of Shakespeare! What an 
area they cover! What worlds of passion! 
What flights of fancy! What exquisite 
wit! What unctious humor! and what 
marvelous descriptions are to be found 
within them! There is not a single 
chord in the whole gamut of human 
passion that he has not touched, deli- 
cately, yet firmly, from the ambition of 
a monarch to the first faint flush of love 
in a young maid's heart. 

It is marvelous to contemplate that in 
the brief span of a human life so much 
knowledge could be acquired. And it 
was acquired; but how? Not by the 
systematic education of a school, col- 
lege or university, but by contact with 
men and manners, and by the mar- 
velous genius of observation that he 
possessed to an almost superhuman 
degree. The physician marvels at 
his knowldge of physiology and 
medicine, the lawyer at his cognizance 
of law and legal phraseology, the scien- 
tist at his possession of his secrets, and 
the philosopher at his familiarity with 
the mysteries of nature. But analyse 
his words, and you will find that they 
are the result of acute observation and 
philosophic reflection, and not of 
study or application. He clearly de- 
scribed the circulation of the blood, long 
before Harvey discovered it, but not its 
application and use in the treatment of 
disease. The principle of gravitation was 
clearly defined by Shakespeare in "Troi- 
lius and Cressida" before Sir Isaac New- 
ton was born, but I doubt if he realized 
its scientific value. His knowledge of 
legal terms and the general principles of 
law could easily have been obtained, but 
his application of law is very defective; 
in the "Merchant of Venice," for in- 
stance, the decision of Portia would 



hardly be upheld as "sound" by any of 
our courts. His skill in navigation and 
seamanship, together with his apparent 
familiarity with nautical phrases, as 
shown in "The Tempest," may be attrib- 
uted to his acquaintance and conversa- 
tion with the sailors that frequented the 
taverns, near the theatre at Bankside, 
while the adaptation of many of the old 
Italian stories upon which some of his 
plays are founded does not of a necessity 
imply a knowledge of that language, but 
may have been gathered from the narra- 
tives of persons who had read or heard 
them, and related them in the hearing of 
the poet. Shakespeare evidently pos- 
sessed the faculty of remembering every- 
thing he ever read, heard or saw, and 
preserving the same for use and refer- 
ence whenever occasion might require 
it. 

The three books that Shakespeare 
certainly did read are the Bible, "Plu- 
tarch's Lives" and "Holinshed's Chron- 
icles." Of the first we find evident fa- 
miliarity from frequent reference and 
quotations in all his plays. In "Julius 
Caesar" and other classic works he fol- 
lows Plutarch closely, in some instances 
almost verbatim; while in his historical 
dramas he has — with the poet's license — 
used Holinshed almost exclusively. 
There is nothing, in my mind, in Shakes- 
peare's use of the old stories, plays and 
poems in "Hamlet," "Romeo and 
Juliet," or his combination of them in 
"The Merchant of Venice" or "King 
Lear," etc., that is inconsistent with the 
suggestions I have made. Institutional 
education up to a certain point develops 
the mind; beyond that it contracts it. 

The works of Shakespeare show him 
to be a man of fairly good rudimentary 
learning, but with a mind unfettered by 
the discipline of systematic study, soar- 
ing with undipped wings to the heights 
of his own poetic imagination, and not 
confined by the dogmas of circumscribed 
thought or the orthodoxy of any phil- 
osophic sect or creed. We must con- 
cede Shakespeare's genius, and genius 
cannot be judged by the common stand- 
ards of ordinary humanity; it is not 
amenable to law, custom or rule; it soars 
where it lists, and is controlled by a 
power "greater than we can contradict." 



224 



THE PACIFIC 8M0NTHLY. 



I therefore cannot doubt the authenticity 
of the works of William Shakespeare, or 
find in them anything that is inconsistent 
or incompatible with the accepted facts 
that are in our possession of the birth, 
parentage, education, youthful environ- 
ments and the mature associations of the 
man. 



NOTE. — I am indebted for the confirmation 
of the facts stated above to a recent work 
entitled "A Life of Shakespeare," by Sydney 
Lee, whose patient and exhaustive researches 
into Elizabethian literature entitle him to be 
classed as an authority that should forever 
dispose of that absurdity — the Baconian- 
theory. F. W. 



" How Knoweth This Man Letters, Having 
Never Learned?" 



<By WILLIAM BITTLE WELLS. 



FOR those who are willing to meet it, 
the plays of Shakespeare present 
the most remarkable and perplex- 
ing problem in the history of the world's 
literature. Some put the question light- 
ly aside with an air of superior wisdom, 
while others give it a hasty and super- 
ficial consideration, or else scoff at 
investigation, however fair-minded it 
may be, as an insult to the master-mind 
which conceived the splendid Shakes- 
pearean drama. 

We have been prone to consider a dis- 
cussion of the problem profitless; and 
yet when one is willing to throw aside 
prejudice and preconceived notions, 
based upon anything but facts and in- 
vestigation, and look at the question of 
the authorship of the plays attributed to 
Shakespeare in a calm and dispassionate 
manner, he comes into touch at once 
with the most fascinating study in litera- 
ture, and faces a question in which no 
one who speaks the English language 
and who is conversant with its literature 
can afford to be unconcerned. 

The first difficulty which confronts us 
in accepting Shakespeare as the author 
of the plays attributed to him is that of 
"marrying the man to his verse." Ever 
since any serious study of the plays has 
been undertaken this difficulty has been 
recognized, and the more the plays are 
studied the greater it becomes. 

The lawyer who pores over his Shakes- 
peare finds unmistakable evidences that 
the author has at his finger tips the legal 



phrases and usages of the Elizabethan 
age, and must, at some period of his life, 
have studied law. Dr. Abbott, of Stan- 
ford University, one of the college au- 
thorities in this country on law, and a 
thorough student of Shakespeare, is of 
this opinion. Lord Campbell, the chief 
justice of England, wrote a book to 
show -Shakespeare's remarkable familiar- 
ity with the science of jurisprudence. 
Richard Grant White says: 

"Legal phrases flow from his pen as a 
part of his vocabulary and parcel of 
thought. * * * This could not have 
been picked up by hanging around the 
courts of London, 250 years ago." As 
to the correctness of Shakespeare's law. 
Lord Campbell, whose words should 
come to us with considerable weight, 
says : 

"While novelists and dramatists are 
constantly making mistakes as to the 
law of marriage, of wills, and of inheri- 
tance, to Shakespeare's law, lavishly as 
he expounded it, there can neither be 
demurrer, nor bill of exceptions, nor 
writ of error." 

The physician or surgeon who, after 
the weary rounds of the day, sits down 
by the evening lamp to refresh and com- 
pose his mind with "Hamlet" or "King 
John," or "Coriolanus," or "Julius Cae- 
sar," is lost with admiration and wonder 
at the remarkable knowledge of medi- 
cine that the pages display. He finds 
that the author of the plays was undoubt- 
edly acquainted with, and made known,. 



"HOW KNOWETH THIS MAN LETTERS, HAVING NEVER LEARNED? " 



225 



the circulation of the blood, — forestalling 
Harvey's announcement by many years, 
for Harvey's book was not published un- 
til 1628, and yet there is nothing in it 
more definite than the following from 
"Coriolanus," which appeared in 1623: 
"I send it through the rivers of your blood, 

Even to the court, the heart, to the seat o' 

the brain, 
And, through the cranks and offices of man: 
The strongest nerves, and small inferior 

veins, 
From me receive that natural competency 
Whereby they live." 

— Coriolanus, Act I, Scene 1. 

And again from "Hamlet," Act I, 
Scene 5: 

"The leperous distillment; whose effect 
Holds such an enmity with the blood of man, 
That, swift as quicksilver, it courses through 
The natural gates and alleys of the body." 

Dr. J. C. Bucknill, of London, whose 
book on the "Medical Knowledge of 
Shakespeare" appeared in 1860, says: 
"It is possible to compare Shakespeare's 
knowledge with the most advanced 
knowledge of the present day." Such 
testimony is not to be waved lightly 
aside. 

The theologian who seeks to brighten 
his sermon with gems from the great 
dramatist is amazed to find that the 
pages of the Shakespearean drama spar- 
kle with quotations and thoughts from 
the Bible, and John Rees, of Philadel- 
phia, was so thoroughly impressed by 
this fact that in his book on "Shakes- 
peare and the Bible" (Philadelphia, 
1876), he "assures us that the youth 
Shakespeare, on quitting his virgin 
Stratford for the metropolis, was scrup- 
ulous to avoid the glittering temptations 
of London; that he eschewed wine and 
women; that he avoided the paths of vice 
immorality, and piously kept himself at 
home, his only companion being the 
family Bible, which he read most ardent- 
ly and vigorously!" — (Morgan.) 

And Bishop Wadsworth, of England, 
on page 345 of his "Shakespeare's Use 
of the Bible," says: 

"Take the entire range of English lit- 
erature — put together our best authors, 
who have .written on subjects not pro- 
fessedly religious, and we shall not find, 
I believe, in them all, printed so much 



evidence of the Bible being read and 
used as in Shakespeare alone." 

So, too, the philosopher, the philolo- 
gist, the linguist, the scientist, and the 
1 istorian, who scans the Shakespearean 
page, finds that his learning has been 
largely anticipated, and comes to the in- 
evitable conclusion that the author of 
the plays must have been a thorough 
student of his branch of knowledge. 

"Shakespeare," says Alexander Pope, 
"must have been very knowing in the 
customs, rites, and manners of antiquity. 
In 'Coriolanus' and 'Julius Caesar,' not 
only the spirit, but the manner of the 
Romans is exactly drawn; and still a 
nicer distinction is shown between the 
manners of the Romans in the time of 
the former and of the latter. Mr. Waller 
(who has been celebrated for this last 
particular) has not shown more learning 
in this way than Shakespeare." And 
Mr. Morgan adds: "A philologist will 
scarcely need perusal of more than a 
Shakespearean page to arrive at this 
judgment. Wherever else the verdict of 
scholarship may err, the microscope of 
the philologist cannot err. * * It is 
infallible, because, just as the hand of a 
writer, however cramped, affected, or 
disguised, will unconsciously make its 
native character of curve or inclination, 
so the speech of a man will be moulded 
by his familiarity, be it greater or less, 
with the studies, learning, tastes, and 
conceits of his own day, and by the mod- 
els before him. He cannot unconsciously 
follow models that are unknown to him, 
or speak in a language he has never 
learned." 

What has puzzled the critics, there- 
fore, as much as anything else is to 
account for the knowledge of the mod- 
ern languages which the author of the 
plays exhibits. To have written "Romeo 
and Juliet," "Othello" and several other 
plays Shakespeare must have had a 
knowledge of Italian, since there are 
numerous illustrations of the author's 
use of Boccaccio, Cinthio, Belleforest, 
and Grotto, whose works were not then 
translated into English. 

To meet all this learning in law, 
medicine and theology, all this knowl- 
edge of literature, science, history and 
philology, we have but two terms in 



226 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



the grammar school at Stratford, where 
there was practically nothing taught 
but Latin and Greek. No serious 
attempt was made to teach English 
or any of the branches that today are 
deemed necessary. To meet it we 
have a man, who, after leaving his native 
town with the most superficial training 
of an elementary character, went to Lon- 
don friendless and alone, and there to 
eke out a livelihood was compelled to do 
whatever his hands might find to do; to 
meet it we have, again, the man whose 
time in London was so thoroughly used 
in acting and managing that it is im- 
possible that he could have found the 
leisure to prepare himself for construct- 
ing the splendid drama that goes by his 
name. May we not ask, then, with some 
show of reason, "How knoweth this man 
letters, having never learned?" 

The question is one which has per- 
plexed Shakespeareans and anti-Shakes- 
peareans alike. The latter, however, 
have found a solution which, they say, 
has at least the recommendation of com- 
mon sense — while the former continue 
to extoll Shakespeare's learning, and yet 
fail utterly to account for it on any rea- 
sonable basis. One of the most striking 
of these utterances was by Jean Paul 
Richter, who exclaimed: 

"Shakespeare spanned the ages that 
were to roll up after him, mastered the 
highest wave of modern learning and 
discovery, and touched the heart of all 
time, not through the breathing of living 
characters, but by lifting mankind up 
out of the loud kingdom of earth into 
the silent realm of infinity; who so wrote 
that to his all-seeing vision schools and 
libraries, sciences and philosophies were 
unnecessary, because his own marvelous 
intuition had grasped all the past and 
seen through all his present and all his 
future, and because, before his super- 
human power, time and space had van- 
quished and disappeared." 

Were we to admit all this there would, 
indeed, be no cause for doubting that 
Shakespeare wrote the plays, but to ad- 
mit it, as a writer says, is to assert that a 
miracle was vouchsafed to the Elizabeth- 
an age which the people could not 
understand or appreciate and did not 
recognize. 



The celebrated historian Guizot, in his 
"History of England," reinforces what 
has already been said. He says: 

"Let us finally mention the great 
comedian, the great tragedian, the 
great philosopher, the great poet, who 
was in his lifetime butcher's appren- 
tice, poacher, actor, theatrical man- 
ager, and whose name is William 
Shakespeare. In twenty years, amid 
the duties of his profession, the 
care of mounting his pieces, of instruct- 
ing his actors, he composed 32 tragedies 
and comedies, in verse and prose, rich 
with an incomparable knowledge of 
human nature, and an unequaled power 
of imagination, terrible and comic by 
turns, profound and delicate, homely 
and touching, responding to every emo- 
tion of the soul, divining all that was be- 
yond the range of his experience and 
forever remaining the treasure of the 
age — all this being accomplished, 
Shakespeare left the theatre and the busy 
world, at the age of 45, to return to 
Stratford-on-Avon, where he lived 
peacefully in the most modest retire- 
ment, writing nothing and never return- 
ing to the stage — ignored and unknown, 
as if his works had not forever marked 
out his place in the world — a strange ex- 
ample of an imagination so powerful, 
suddenly ceasing to produce, and clos- 
ing, once for all, the door to the effort 
of genius." 

The inconsistency of this statement 
never seems to have suggested itself to 
Guizot, though he had stated the 
Shakespearean problem in the most ex- 
act terms. Guizot, however, is only one 
of the many who have been likewise puz- 
zled. 

Coleridge exclaims: "In spite of all 
biographies, ask your own hearts — ask 
your own common sense to conceive the 
possibility of this man being the anoma- 
lous, the wild, the irregular genius of our 
daily criticism. What! Are we to have 
miracles in sport? or (I speak reverently) 
does Gad choose idiots by whom to con- 
vey divine truth to man?" And Hallam 
says: "If there was a Shakespeare of 
earth, as I suspect, there was also one of 
heaven, and it is of him we desire to 
learn more." 

Mr. Furness, of Philadelphia, whose 



"HOW KNOWETH THIS MAN LETTERS, HAVING NEVER LEARNED?" 



227 



great work, "The Variorum Shakes- 
peare," has attracted world-wide atten- 
tion, also says: 

"I am one of the many who have never 
been able to bring the life of William 
Shakespeare and the plays of Shakes- 
peare within a planetary space of each 
other; are there any other two things in 
the world more incongruous?" 

These are only a few of the conspicu- 
ous names in literature which have testi- 
fied to the same effect. Goethe, Schlegel, 
Carlyle, Palmerston, Emerson. Hallam, 
and Gervinus may be added to the list. 
Besides these a host of others, students 
and professors, who have made a spec- 
ialty of Shakespearean study, have found 
it impossible to reconcile the marvelous 
learning shown on every page of the 
Shakespearean drama with the meagre 
education and literary training which it 
is known that Shakespeare had. "Genius" 
may explain much, but it fails utterly to 
account for the learning that could be 
obtained only by years of incessant 
study, and no one yet has been so short- 
sighted as to offer it as an explanation. 

As Morgan says, "The question is not 
'Was Shakespeare a poet?' but, had he 
access to the material from which the 
plays are composed? Admit him to have 
been the greatest poet, the most fren- 
zied genius in the world; where did he 
get — not the poetry, but — the classical, 
philosophical, chemical, historical, as- 
tronomical and geological information — 
the facts that crowd these pages?" 

Granting that Shakespeare was as 
other men are — a mortal being not in- 
spired so that he might divine all knowl- 
edge without study, there is but one con- 
clusion to which this mass of testimony 
and criticism forces us, i. e., that Shakes- 
peare could not have written the plays, 
and that he did not is consequently the 
ground which the anti-Shakespeareans 
take. 

The second stumbling block in our 
effort to prove that Shakespeare was the 
author of the plays attributed to him is 
his will — and here again, if we insist on 
our belief in his authorship, the mystery 
becomes deeper and more inexplicable. 
If we adopt the new theory, however, 
which is given further on, the will ex- 
plains itself. Morgan has summed up 



the question so well that we quote him 
on the subject entire: 

"No Shakespearean has ever yet at- 
tempted to explain the fact that William 
Shakespeare, making his last will and 
testament at Stratford, in 1515, utterly 
ignored the existence of any literary 
property among his assets, or of his hav- 
ing used his pen, at any period, in ac- 
cumulating the competency of which he 
died possessed. The will is by far the 
completest and best authenticated record 
we have of the man William Shakes- 
peare, testifying not only to his undoubt- 
edly having lived, but to his character as 
a man; and — most important of all to 
our investigation— to his exact worldly 
condition. Here we have his own care- 
ful and ante-mortem schedule of his pos- 
sessions, his chattels real and chattels 
personal, down to the oldest and most 
rickety bedstead under his roof. And 
we may be pretty sure that it is an ac- 
curate and exhaustive list. But if he 
were — as well as a late theater manager 
and country gentleman — an author and 
the proprietor of dramas that had been 
produced and found valuable, how 
about these plays? Were they not of as 
much value, to say the least, as a dam- 
aged bedstead? Were they not, as a 
matter of fact, not only invaluable, but 
the actual source of his wealth? How 
does he dispose of them? Does Shakes- 
peare forget that he has written them? 
Is it not a fact, and is it not reason and 
common sense to conceive, that, not 
having written them, they have passed 
out of his possession along with the rest 
of his theatrical property, along with the 
theater whose copyrights they were, and 
into the hands of others? This is the 
greatest difficulty and stumbling-block 
for the Shakespeareans. If Shakespeare 
had written these plays, of which the age 
of Elizabeth was so fond, and in whose 
production he had amassed a fortune, 
that he should have left a will, in items, 
in which absolutely no mention or hint 
of them whatever should be made, even 
their most zealous plundits cannot step 
over, and so are scrupulous not to allude 
to it at all. This piece of evidence is un- 
impeachable and conclusive as to what 
worldly goods, chattels, chattel-interests, 
or things in action, William Shakespeare 



228 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



supposed that he should die possessed 
of. Tradition is gossip. Records are 
scant and niggardly. Contemporary 
testimony is conflicting and shallow, but 
here, attested in due and sacred form, 
clothed with the foreshadowed solemnity 
of another world, is the calm, deliberate, 
ante-mortem statement of the man him- 
self. We perceive what becomes of his 
second-hand bedstead, but what becomes 
of his plays? Is is possible that, after all 
these years' experience of their value — 
in the disposition of a fortune of which 
they had been the source and foundation 
— he should have forgotten their very 
existence?" 

One point, however, is not mentioned, 
so far as we have seen, by any of the 
critics, and the mystery is made much 
deeper by it. At the time of Shakes- 
peare's death — 1616 — some of the best 
plays that have been attributed to him 
had not been heard of. If we can, in 
any way, explain his failure to mention 
the plays that had already been pub- 
lished and from which it has been sup- 
posed that he made his fortune — though 
this view is gradually losing ground — 
how can we explain by any sort of jug- 
glery his failure to mention his owner- 
ship — if he ever did own them — of such 
plays as "Othello," "Tulius Caesar," 
-All's Well That Ends 'Well," "Henry 
VIII," and seven or eight others? Again 
the only sensible theory is, that not hav- 
ing written the plays, and never having 
owned more than a stage-right in them, 
he left them out of consideration in his 
will as a matter of course. 

A third stumbling-block, and one al- 
most equally difficult to overcome, is the 
fact that Shakespeare never, upon any 
occasion whatever, claimed that he was 
an author either of the plays attributed 
to him or of anything else, but persist- 
ently and consistently ignored the publi- 
cation of the plays just as any one would 
have done who had no interest in them 
and who was consequently unconcerned. 
The fact, also, that none of the plays 
were entered for copyright by Shakes- 
peare or printed for him is startling and 
significant. 

As for Ben Jonson's, Green's and 
Meres' testimony, they may all be put 
aside as of about the same value. Jon- 



son contradicts himself, and hence must 
be thrown out of court; Meres simply 
enumerates plays that had been printed 
as Shakespeare's, and Green calls 
Shakespeare a plagarist because his own 
lines had been appropriated. 

So facts might be piled up, nearly all 
of which would point to one inevitable 
conclusion — namely, that Shakespeare 
could not have written the plays, — 
but among them no one fact is 
more significant and suggestive than 
that the state of literary composi- 
tion in Shakespeare's day was such 
that anonymous and joint authorship 
was the most common occurrence. 
From this fact a new theory has arisen, 
and today it has come to be quite gen- 
erally regarded as the most probable 
solution of the problem. This theory is 
to the effect that arriving in London 
without employment Shakespeare com- 
menced life by holding horses at the 
theater door. By attending strictly to 
business he secured a position in the 
theater itself, and finally in 1599, became 
a partner in the Globe. The plays that 
were produced at the theater at this time 
became known as "Shakespeare's plays," 
just as today the plays given at Daly's 
and the Lyceum in New York are occa- 
sionally called "Daly's plays" and the 
"Lyceum's plays," though they have 
been written by different authors. The 
plays which were produced at Shakes- 
peare's theater proving a success, the 
publishers of that day made use of the 
fact by printing Shakespeare's name as 
the author of various plays which he 
never claimed and which, the new 
theorists assert, he did not write. 
In one case, "The Passionate Pilgrim," 
a vigorous protest was made by the 
real author, Dr. Heywood, of two of 
the poems in the collection, and in 
the third edition Shakespeare's name 
was removed. The other real authors 
did not protest, so the adherents of the 
new theory claim; first, because the plays 
might have been sold to the publishers 
with the understanding that they were to 
use them as they might see fit; this stip- 
ulation being made by the publishers be- 
cause they were accustomed to put on the 
title pages of their productions any name 
that might add to the sale; second, be 



HOW KNOWETH THIS MAN LETTERS, HAVING NEVER LEARNED?" 



229 



■cause literary composition at the time 
was in more or less disgrace, and those 
in high positions could not afford to be 
known as authors; anonymous author- 
ship was the natural outcome of this 
state of affairs, for "between the Station- 
ers' Company and the Star Chamber it 
was a fortunate author, printer, or read- 
er, who escaped hanging, disembowel- 
ing, and quartering, with only the loss 
of ears or liberty." — (Morgan.) 

London was full of playwrights, con- 
temporary with Shakespeare, some of 
whom we may be confident submitted 
their plays to him, and the plays were 
subsequently printed as Shakespeare's. 
"Henry VIII" is an example. The 
"Two Noble Kinsmen" and "Edward 
III" are others. These plays are today 
by the most learned critics admitted not 
to have been written by Shakespeare. 
Fletcher is most probably their true au- 
thor. Shakespeare, however, had made 
a success of his management of the Globe 
theater, and his name was one for the 
printers to conjure by. 

This theory is sustained up to this 
point by the actual fact that when 
"Romeo and Juliet," "Richard II," 
"Richard III," and other plays now at- 
tributed to Shakespeare were first pub- 
lished Shakespeare's name did not 
appear on the title pages as their author. 
As Morgan says again, "This theory 
seems to tally with the evidence from 
what we know as the 'doubtful plays.' 
In 1609, there appeared in London an 
anonymous publication, a play entitled 
'Troilus and Cressida.' It was accom- 
panied by a preface addressed, 'A never 
writer to an ever reader,' which, in the 
turgid fashion of the day set forth the 
merit and attractions of the play itself. 
Among its other claims to public favor, 
this preface asserted the play to be one 
'never stal'd with the stage, never clap- 
perclawed with the palms of the vulgar,' 
which seems (in English) to mean that 
it had never been performed at the the- 
atre. But, however virgin on its appear- 
ance in print, it seems to have very 
shortly become 'staled with the stage,' 
or at any rate, with the stage name, for, 
a few months later, a second edition of 
the play (printed from the same type) 
appears, minus the preface, but with the 



announcement on the title-page that this 
is the play of 'Troilus and Cressida,' as it 
was enacted by the king's majesty his 
servants at the Globe. Written by Will- 
iam Shakespeare. Now, unless we can 
imagine William Shakespeare — while 
operating his theater — writing a play to 
be published in print — and announcing 
it as entitled to public favor on the 
ground that it had never been polluted 
by contact with so unclean and unholy 
a place as a theater, it is hard to escape 
the conviction that he was not the 'never- 
writer' — in other words, that he was not 
its author at all — but on its appearance 
in print, levied on it for his stage, under- 
lined it, produced it, and — it proving a 
success — either himself announced it, or 
winked at its announcement by others, 
as a work of his own." 

If Shakespeare did not write the 
Shakespearean plays, who, then, did? 
Certainly it were foolish to maintain 
that Bacon, or any other one man, could 
have written them. "All honest com- 
mentators have confessed the difficulty 
of believing, from internal evidence, that 
but one single hand wrote the plays and 
poems" (Morgan), and when this is rein- 
forced by external evidence to the same 
effect, there is but one conclusion that 
can be reached. Fletcher wrote "Henry 
VIII." If he were capable of the sub- 
lime passages which end with — 

. "O Cromwell, Cromwell, 
Had I but served my God with half the zeal 
I serv'd my king, he would not in mine age 
Have left me naked to mine enemies." 

which it is now admitted that he did 
write, may he not have been capable of 
more of the great thoughts which fill the 
pages of the Shakespearean drama? 
May his not have been the master-mind 
which, aided by others of experience and 
learning, was at the back of the entire 
drama? Or, again, it is not reasonable 
to suppose that Marlowe, Bacon, Beau- 
mont, Greene, Nash, Ben Jonson, Dek- 
ker, Walter Raleigh, Edmund Spencer, 
Matthew, Southampton, Montgomery, 
or Essex submitted plays to Shakespeare 
as manager, and for reasons which we 
have already outlined preferred not to be 
known as their authors? Certainly this 
is the more sensible theory than to main- 



230 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



tain doggedly that they belong to the 
hiatus in the life of an uneducated and 
unlearned manager of a theater, who, to 
have written them, must have violated 
every law that has guided others in lit- 
erary composition since the dawn of 
literature. 

After all, we have the plays — that is 
the principal thing, — and were it not 
that such an inquiry as this arouses and 
stimulates interest in the plays them- 
selves it would be largely in vain. For 
it is only by understanding the environ- 
ment in which they were written, the 
wonderful knowledge which they dis- 
play, the philology, philosophy and 
learning which crowd the pages that they 
can be most thoroughly appreciated. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



"Shakespeare," Encyclopaedia Brittanica 
— Thomas De Quincy. 

Introduction to "Leopold Shakespeare" — 
F. J. Purnivall, London. 

Authorship of Shakespeare — Nathaniel 
Holmes, New York, 1866. 

Bacon and Shakespeare — W. H. Smith. 

Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare — J. O. 
Halliwell Phillips, London, 1848. 

The Variorum Shakespeare — W. H. Fur- 
ness, Philadelphia. 

The Medical Acquirement of Shakespeare 
— C. W. Stearns, M. D., New York, 1865. 

Shakespeare's Medical Knowledge — Dr. J. 



C. Bucknill, London, 1860. 

Shakespeare and the Bible — John Rees, 
Philadelphia, 1876. 

An Enquiry into the Learning of Shakes- 
peare — Peter Whalley, London, 1748. 

Shakespeare — Peter Whalley, London, 1848. 

Introduction to Shakespeare — Edward 
Dowden. 

Shakespeare and his contemporaries — Wil- 
liam Tegg, London, 1879. 

Studies in Shakespeare — Richard Grant 
White, Boston, 1886. 

Article on Shakespeare in The Forum — 
David P. Brown, Philadelphia, 1856. 

Was Shakespeare a Lawyer?" — H. T., Lon- 
don, 1871. 

Shakespeare's Legal Acquirements — Lord 
Campbell. 

Shakespeare a Lawyer — W. L. Rushton, 
London, 1858. 

Shakespeare's Use of the Bible — Charles 
Wadsworth, London, 1880. 

The Great Cryptogram — Ignatius Donnelly, 
New York, 1888. 

Shakespeare's Life, Art and Characters— 
H. N. Hudson, Boston, 1872. 

English History in Shakespeare's Plays— 
B. E. Warner, New York, 1894. 

The Citation of Shakespeare — Walter 
Savage Landor, New York, 1891. 

William Shakespeare, A Critical Study — 
George Brandes, London, 1898. 

Shakespeare, His Mind and Art — Edward 
Dowden, New York, 1881. 

The Shakespearean Myth — Appleton Mor- 
gan. Cincinnati, 1886. 

*The writer wishes to acknowledge his 
special indebtedness to the last named book, 
which has been freely consulted in the prep- 
aration of this paper. 



As in a Dream. 



As in a dream we hum an unknown air, 
A distant theme of gay or sad refrain, 

Yet when awake cannot — alas — recall 
One note of it nor bring it back again — 



So in our lives we fain would catch once 
more 
The key-note of a dead past's harmony; 
Would tune our hearts to passion's sweet 
dream-song 
And feel again the old glad ecstacy. 



It is in vain; — yet why regret and grieve? 
The fragrance lingers where was once the 
flower; 
And Memory's book still bears upon its 
leaves 
The perfumed impress of that long-lost 
hour. 

Marion Cook. 



Kahwayo. 



<By LIZZIE G. WILCOXSON. 



AGAINST a background of tall, dark 
hemlocks and firs, of slender 
maples, of underbrush and ferns, 
three bright-shawled Indian women 
slowly moved through a trail. They 
were followed by a half dozen children 
clad in a variety of parti-colored rags. 
Two of the squaws, in addition to a 
large, closely made pack on the back, 
carried each a pappoose bound up In- 
dian fashion. The third and youngest 
squaw supported on her shoulders a 
pack that in appearance would have 
been a load for a pony. In the rear of 
the procession a cayuse, loaded top and 
sides, was guided by a youth who sat 
perched on the top of the pack. 

The pappooses slept and their little 
heads hung and wagged out of their 
baskets with the motion of the steps of 
the squaws. 

The rising sun portended a bright, 
clear day, but the bushes and moss along 
the trail were heavy with moisture that 
fell in showers at the lightest touch, and 
the "flap, flap" of their wet skirts and the 
faint, soft "swish," "swash" of their wet 
moccasined feet and the "thud" of the 
pony's hoofs, made a mournful accom- 
paniment to their silent march. 

In spite of their stolid expressions, 
slow progress and unbroken silence — 
for Indians never carry on conversation 
— there was an air of alertness about 
them; an expression — if the poor crea- 
tures may be said to have any expres- 
sion but that of an animal long inured to 
cold, hunger and hardships — of antici- 
pation. This was, indeed, the case. 
They were journeying down the river to 
a piece of land where their braves had 
been quartered for two moons past 
slashing down timber. The slashing 
was now finished, and they were to be 
paid off — not in trade or store checks 
or orders — but in money. There was, 
therefore, ahead of them a journey to 
town, some twenty-five miles away; a 
high old time generally, a choice of cof- 
fee, and perhaps sugar, — if the money 
held out sufficiently after buying the 
bright bandannas, the new blue over- 
hauls, the flowered calico, and perhaps 



some new shawls — how many and how 
much of which would depend on the 
covetousness of the merchants; but still 
there would be a lot of money; a lot of 
new things to wear; a lot of whisky, and 
a big potlatch when they got back home, 
with perhaps something to eat for sev- 
eral weeks to come. 

What mattered the diet of fern-root 
bread, dried salmon eggs and sour ber- 
ries for two weeks past? Nothing; it 
was better than fern-root bread alone, or 
potatoes alone. It was but a month 
since that they had had a bear. For- 
tunate, they counted themselves. To be 
sure, it was but a lean old she-bear, and 
it was unlawful to kill her, but that 
counted for nothing with Kahwayo, who 
slew her with a pine pitch knot, as heavy 
as a great iron sledge. Kahwayo was 
the squaw with the big pack. She was 
exceedingly strong; and for temper, 
there was not her equal in many tribes. 
She did not brawl: that is not the forte 
of the squaw. But Hawk, who was 
once her brave, mysteriously died after 
having sorely beat her while he was im 
a drunken mood. Kahwayo looked stol- 
idly impassive as the Indians came and 
took charge of poor Hawk, examined his 
swollen form and emptied out upon the 
ground a pot of poisoned fish she had 
given him to eat. Hawk was buried 
and a feast was made and Feather took 
Kahwayo and, profiting by Hawk's fate, 
he treated her with due consideration, 
putting great value upon her enormous 
strength. 

That was many moons ago: perhaps 
as many as forty and more, for she had 
borne him several pappooses, the young- 
est of which was now being carried by 
one of the other squaws, who could not 
carry the heavy pack on Kahwayo's 
back. 

It was near the middle of the after- 
noon when they reached their destina- 
tion. All day they had plodded on; not 
stopping at noon. There was nothing 
in the way of victuals with them; the last 
of the bread and dried fish having been 
eaten very early that morning before 
starting out on their journey. Their 



232 



THE 'PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



plan was to stop a day or two at the 
camp at the slashing, and then proceed 
on the trip to town. 

"It is very warm," said Kahwayo, as 
they stopped at the bark tent built 
against a great tree near a clear 
running stream of mountain water. She 
was reeking like a horse pulling up a 
hill. They all unburdened themselves; 
• the babies were hung on a projecting 
pole. The dogs, five of which were fol- 
lowing, commenced to nose eagerly 
around the scattered pans and skillets in 
the tent hunting for stray bits to eat. 
But the attention of the women was 
drawn to a small group of men who were 
engaged in a hot dispute. They were 
two white men and three Indians. The 
older white man and the one who was 
doing the talking, was a large, bulky 
man, with much beard and thin hair. In 
the heat of the argument, he continually 
removed his hat and mopped his bald 
head quite fiercely. The young man 
was his son. He was a good-looking, 
happy natured fellow of not more than 
twenty. He was taking no part in the 
argument, and when the women and 
children arrived, he meandered around 
them, prodding the young ones play- 
fully with the end of his walking stick. 
The women sat down on the ground and 
paid attention to what was going on, 
though they said nothing either to the 
men or to each other. 

"Well, all I've got to say," cried Mr. 
Combs wrathfully, "you don't get a 
blessed cent of money till you do that 
job right. It's a blessed fine thing that 
I happened to come out instead of trust- 
ing to Bart to see to it. I'll pay you fel- 
lers when you've gone over this land and 
cut down them half trees. I ain't a goin' 
to stand a stump over six inches high in 
this slashin', though. You can just 
mark that. The stuff won't half burn, 
and I ain't goin' to stand it." 

The Indians refused to reslash the 
stumps which were left unreasonably 
tall, but which would have made but lit- 
tle difference in the burning of the slash- 
ing. Thus both parties were right in a 
measure and both wrong. The settlers 
for the most part were careless in slash- 
ing and the Indians are not more thor- 
ough than they are forced to be, and 



they felt that they were being hardly 
treated. 

"Bart," called Mr. Combs, "Bart, you 
come here. I've just laid the law down 
to these lazy, thieving brutes. I'm 
goin' on out to town an' I won't be back 
here till the first of the month. That'll 
give 'em plenty of time to do this job up 
right. I'm goin' to leave it to you to 
see after, an' if I can't get back, you can 
pay 'em off when its done." 

"Oh, all right," replied Barton Combs, 
who was tired of the discussion, and 
wanted to get on and complete his ar- 
rangements for a hunt through the 
mountains. 

The Indians had no recourse but to do 
the work demanded of them; and, since 
it had to be done if they would get their 
money, they picked up their axes and 
without so much as a word to their 
squaws squatting near, they sullenly be- 
gan to hack at the tall stumps of the 
vine maples and alders. 

No one marked the brawny, brown 
squaw, who sat a great carved thing so 
dumb and wooden and passionless; no 
one but a dog, who, looking into her hot, 
angry eyes, uttered a low growl and 
crouched at her feet, keeping his eyes 
on her face. 

Two weeks is not much in an Indian 
camp, where time is not reckoned as 
dollars and cents, and though at the end 
of that time but a small portion of the 
ground had been gone over, Barton had 
returned from his hunt, and desired to 
go on to the railroad and thence home. 

"Oh, bother," concluded the young 
man, after seeing what they had not 
done, "t'won't make a shakes difference 
unless the old man comes back. I'll 
take my chances on that." 

He paid them for the work, offering 
the condition that they would complete 
it. "Not that I expect for a moment 
they will," he thought; but more to up- 
hold his father's policy. 

"Now you fellows do what's right, and 
finish cutting those stumps. Tell you what : 
Father means to buy that forty just 
across the river; and if you do this busi- 
ness up in good style, I'll have him give 
you another job there. And, by the 
way, I've got to go over there. I guess 
I'd just as well this evening as any other 



KAHWAYO. 



233 



time. If you'll put me across opposite 
Haizlip's ranch, I'll stay all night there, 
and you can come for me in the morning 
if he hasn't got a boat. I'll be back in a 
couple of hours, and don't forget to have 
your boat ready," he called as he strode 
away. 

Shortly after he was gone, Kahwayo 
rose from the very dirty mat, where, 
lying propped on one elbow, she had 
been stemming the gooseberries piled 
around her. They were for sale to the 
white folks on the prairie : the Indians are 
not so particular as to require the bloom 
ends taken off the berries they eat. She 
went in the direction of the river. A big, 
lumbering skiff was tied to a little tree 
bending over the bank. Kahwayo un- 
tied and drew it upon the river bank. 
She climbed in and for two hours she 
bent industriously over a piece of work 
she was accomplishing in the bottom of 
the boat. When it was done she spread 
her shawl over it, and an expression of 
intense satisfaction was depicted in her 
face. The contrivance she had made 
was simply a great hole filled with a stop 
that could be jerked out by an attached 
thong. She pushed the skiff into the 
water and sat down in it. She waited 
for a long time, but having no engage- 
ments to interfere with her waiting, she 
waited without impatience. The sun set 
in a bank of yellow; the moon rose — a 
tiny crescent balancing on a twig of 
cedar — a dear little baby moon, so fine, 
so delicate, so innocent. It gave no 
light to speak of, but the sky was so clear 
and the stars came so bright, that when 
Feather- — or to speak his English name, 
Tom — came down with the young man, 
Barton Combs, their features were clear- 
ly distinguishable. Feather was not 
averse to letting Kahwayo do the labor 
of putting Combs across; he had in 
fact been inwardly wroth at the prospect 
of having to exert himself so unneces- 
sarily when he had a squaw; but Feather 
never raged at his squaw, even when she 
occasionally chose to be undutiful and 
leave him turns of this sort to do. . 

Barton seated himself in the boat and 
Kahwayo slowly swung out into the 
stream. Combs took off his hat' and 
threw back his head to enjoy the re- 
freshing breeze. He had been walking 



hard and was very warm, though the 
evening was almost cold, as most Wash- 
ington evenings are; especially on the 
Cowlitz river, whose waters are icy all 
the year round. 

The young man soon forgot where he 
was in the absorbing enjoyment of the 
beauty of the evening. The rugged, 
steep, rock walls of the riyer, the high 
dark hills, the clear studded sky, 
and the tiny moon! He did not realize 
that they had reached a landing till Kah- 
wayo moored the boat near a tree that 
had fallen and projected far into the 
river. Before he could question her 
reason for not approaching the bank, she 
had leapt suddenly out on the log, giv- 
ing the boat such a tremendous push 
with the oar that it snapped in two. As 
Kahwayo leapt upon the log a sharp re- 
port was heard like the firing of a pistol: 
she had in reality pulled the stop out of 
the hole. An icy stream of water spurt- 
ed through the bottom of the boat that 
was going straight to the bottom. 

Had he been a tolerable swimmer, his 
being violently thrown into the cold 
water and stunned by what had so unex- 
pectedly and inexplicably occurred 
would have been paralyzing; but as it 
was he was unable to swim at all, and 
was bodily fighting the waters, whose 
swift current it is impossible for a horse 
to tide at that point, before he could 
realize what had happened. 

On the bed of the river a few rotten 
planks was all that was left of the boat. If 
Feather resented its loss, the fact that 
Kahwayo was not disposed to discuss 
it prevented his being violently curious; 
or if he was angry he swore inwardly 
and did not strike. He remembered 
poor Hawk. 

For days and weeks and months the 
woods and waters were searched for the 
missing Combs boy; but no living eye 
saw an Indian woman secure the body 
from a drift of brush five miles down the 
river and bury it deep in the woods, and 
hide well the grave. 

Only the stars could tell of the white 
face raised to heaven from the black, 
rocking water, the dispairing call of 
agony, and the dying gurgle that was 
the last breath of a brave young life. 



Columbus En Voyage. 

<By LISCHEN SM. SMILLER. 




WHAT lies beyond and still beyond 
That far dim line of sun-kissed sea? 
Lie there the golden shores of Ind, 
The isles of spice and clove and balm, 
Soft-cradled in a sea of calm, 
Or fanned by perfume-burdened wind? 
Oh for wide wings and strong and free — 
To sweep, and sail, and seek and see ! 

wind-swept waste of tossing sea! 
Beyond thy limitless, profound, 
And voiceless depths, Hope reaches hands. 
I cannot rest, I cannot rest! 
In all my own, or other lands 
There is not any rest for me 
Till I have pierced thy mystery. 

O wild Atlantic! whose broad breast 
No daring prow has ever pressed, 
Beyond the bounds of dark and light 
How many leagues thy billows roll! 
What mighty secrets must be thine! 
Yet something whispers in my soul, 
Aye, thrills through all my daytime thoughts 
And echoes in my dreams at night, 
That all thy secrets shall be mine. 

They say my hopes are wild and high, 
They tell me I am mad with dreams. 
Oh give me ships, but ships, and I 
Will leave no sea unsailed, or prove 
The verity of that I speak. 
I will find all I sail to seek, 
Unlock the ocean's gates, and pour 
The wealth of India at their door; 
On every shore, in every land, 
Wherever God's fair sunlight gleams, 
Will plant the cross, the cross shall stand. 



What, Cosa, ho! Who murmurs now? 
(The men are sullen, sick witn dread 
Of unknown dangers. Ah! they fear 
We sail so far we cannot find 
The homeward way.) What do I hear? 
Turn back? Turn traitors at Lie last? 
No, no. Sail on! Sail hard and fast! 
Obey the promise-laden wind, 
And leave all thought of fear behind. 

The smooth sea like a river runs. 
We sail into the autumn sun's 
Warm place of dreams. Upon my brow 
I feel the spice-breatu of Cathay, 
And feel anew, my soul arise. 

Away! We claim no cowards here! 

Curse-laden lips and angry eyes 
Divert me not. Forward, forward ! I say. 
This is no time to turn or stay. 
Brave men of Arragon, Castile, 
And from Cantabrian summits blue, 
Stand staunch and steadfast, firm and true! 

Within my soul I know — I feel 
We draw anear the looked-for land. 
With every mile my hopes increase. 
The sea, the air is full of signs. 
The dove, white-breasted, weary-winged, 
The dog rose' briared branch of bloom, 
The soft air laden with perfume 
Give welcome. Your avowed despair 
With our high purpose ill inclines. 
Back to your places ! Foul or fair 
We turn not till we toucn the strand 
Of some rich, ocean-cradled land. 

Is that a star? Low down and dim 
It seems to kiss the ocean's rim. 
And yet — it moves! 'Tis gone. Alas! 
Did I but dream I saw it pass? 
My eyes are grown so worn of sight 
With this long watching day and night 
I know not when I see aright. 
At times my very senses reel, 
My heart turns faint with hope deferred. 
Weary and worn, day after day 
I watch the great sun rise and wheel 
Across the hollow of the sky 
In awful splendor — flushed and red 
Lie rocked in his great ocean bed. 

Night after night, in silentness 
Upon my tired heart seems to press 
The solemn solitude of these 
Unfathomed, vast and trackless seas. 
The very stars above my head 
Grow pale, and fade, and fail in aread. 
And then, it is as if I heard 
God's voice whisper to my soul 
Through the still night; and at tfae word 
Grim doubt and darkness seem to roll 
To nothingness. 

Lo, faint and far, 

Again that trembling, tossing star. 

Ho, Pedro! here, your eyes are true; 

What gleams athwart the gloom of night? 

It is no star! O God, a light! 

Land, land at last! Ho, comrades, land! 

Upon your knees! Lift heart and hand! 



Some Phases of Our National Life. 



<By a E. S. WOOD. 



I AM in general an optimist, in partic- 
ular a pessimist. I believe the 
world is growing better, kinder, as 
a whole. But politically and as regards 
the destiny of the United States I am a 
pessimist. By pessimist I understand 
one who refuses to believe there is an 
individual God seated on a golden 
throne, with a harp in one hand and a 
trident in the other, keeping both eyes 
steadily fixed upon the United States 
and warding from this new children of 
Israel all the consequences of its follies. 
I deny that the United States can do 
safely because of God-given impunity 
and destiny those things which in the 
past have led to the wreck of nations. 
I believe that in state life, in man life, in 
morals, in physics like causes will still 
produce like effects as from the begin- 
ning and so to the end. I believe the 
duty of the state to its children is not to 
furnish a free education in Latin, Greek, 
French, German, drawing, botany, etc.; 
that the public school system as a sys- 
tem of free education has its sole reason 
for being in making better citizens, more 
intelligent voters and mothers of voters; 
that more constitutional history show- 
ing the why and the wherefore of the 
downfall of the Roman Republic and 
Empire and of the French Empire and 
Republic — more study of English con- 
stitutional history and of political econ- 
omy and less of the "accomplishments" 
free gratis from the taxpayer is what is 
needed. I believe a closer study of 
Bryce's "American Commonwealth" and 
Von Hoist's "Constitutional History of 
the United States" is what is needed and 
less attention to the yawp of the cam- 
paign stump speaker, as a rule as ig- 
norant as his hearers and not so honest. 
I believe all nations have lives as the 
tree has, and as the man has, and the 
seeds of death are in them all. I think 
this great nation will rise as others have 
through struggle and simplicity to lux- 



ury and corruption from the rule of the 
people to the rule of obligarchy, and so 
to tyranny, call it by what name you 
please — president, cabinet, senate or dic- 
tator. Be sure, the name will never 
again be harsh; we are too well posted 
for that now and too well pleased with 
our rattles and toys to notice we are 
tied in the chair. And then on the ruins 
or readjustment of the United States will 
arise a new young giant, and so on till 
the sun cools. The very life of the 
world is change, and change leads up- 
ward to the perfect fruit and downward 
to the rotten fruit and the new seed. We 
cannot escape this change as a nation 
any more than a man can escape youth, 
manhood, death. 

All we can do, in my belief, is to 
so wisely adjust ourselves to true prin- 
ciples as to make the growth to ripe- 
ness as long and healthy as possible. 
That is best done, in my opinion, by 
heeding the errors of past nations and 
adhering to principle irrespective of 
momentary expediency. For example, 
the question of the hour is imperialism — 
the Philippines. It did not seem well to 
us to say we waged war because of the 
destruction of the Maine, for it has been 
our boast that we originated and fostered 
the new international science arbitration. 
And as to the two questions: First, Was 
the Maine destroyed intentionally by an 
outside force? Second, Was Spain mor- 
ally the culprit? no verdict was rendered 
by an arbitration jury, although Spain 
called for arbitration. If the act was 
found to be the crime of some fanatic 
fiend Spain would still be legally liable, 
but not morally, and by the rules of 
modern international and private law the 
satisfaction would be in full damages, 
with punishment to the real offenders. 
Had this course been adopted, it is prob- 
able that with all of the civilized world 
on their track and the temptations to be- 
trayal the miscreants would have been 



236 



THE PACIFIC MONTHL Y. 



hung long ago, and one cannot but feel 
out of the vengeance of the human heart 
that this "would have been more satisfac- 
tory than the destruction of Cervera's 
fleet and its brave and in this respect in- 
nocent complement. 

War ought righteously to have some- 
thing of hatred in it. It ought to savor 
of the bitter fight to the death rather 
than the theatrical bout in the prize ring. 
This righteous hatred existed in the 
Revolutionary war and the war of 1812. 
It even existed in the Mexican war be- 
cause of massacres and reprisals along 
the border. Though the Indian has been 
a plundered being from the beginning, 
still our actual conflicts with him have 
been brought on by his own bloody out- 
rages calling for repression and revenge. 

But the Spanish war laid aside the plea 
of vengeance because the cause was 
weak. No one believed the Spanish 
government had even tacitly counseled 
the barbarism of blowing into eternity 
hundreds of men resting in a peaceful 
and friendly harbor. So admitting that 
the force was an outside torpedo, just 
who was in morals responsible for it we 
could not fix — and Spain, disclaiming 
the act in horror, offered to submit the 
whole matter to arbitration. In this 
condition and in the modern atmosphere 
we ourselves have been so proud of pre- 
paring this was not yet casus belli. So 
we said we would war for humanity in 
general, but limiting our liability to 
those next our own doors. Making 
haste to assume no knightly duty to the 
Armenians, with the holy fervor and sin- 
cerity of the Crusader who prayed to 
God before he slew the Moslem (and no 
one doubts the sincerity of the Crusader), 
we announced this was no war of con- 
quest, no war to acquire territory, but 
we should on taking the burden from our 
brother's back return to our own homes 
and leave him to his. I think too much 
has been made of this early promise, for 
it may well be with nations even more 
than men that the tremendous march of 
events makes futile promises given in 
utmost good faith. Still the pride of na- 
tion more than the pride of a man 
should make it bend every energy and 
endure every sacrifice to keep its reputa- 
tion as a nation of its word, for if it be 



admitted promises mean nothing pro- 
vided a good excuse can be found for 
the breaking, and excuse will never be 
lacking. I believe with nations as with 
men the occasion when the promise truly 
cannot be kept is a rare one. I think it 
has been unfair, too", to laugh at our in- 
tent to help the reconcentrados, those 
unhappy devils not having been once 
thought of after the war began, for what 
we were striking at was not the op- 
pressor of those particular wretches, but 
a system which made wretches in per- 
petuity. 

If those reconcentrados for whom we 
fought found sudden graves, still there 
will not be any more reconcentrados. 
At the time we declared war against 
Spain, Cuba and the Philippines were, 
and for a long time had been, in revolt 
against that country. We made these 
rebels our allies. We ourselves secured 
and reconveyed Aguinaldo back to the 
Philippines, and we made common 
cause against the common enemy. The 
result was victory over Spain, peace, and 
instead of indemnity to us from Spain we 
paid her twenty millions for her sover- 
eign rights in the Philippines. 

If we as a people choose to do this as 
a means toward peace and present the 
Filipinos with purchased instead of con- 
quered freedom, very well. But if be- 
cause we have bought or conquered we 
step into the shoes of Spain and hold the 
Filipinos in vassalage, it seems to me a 
violation of principle, good faith and 
good morals. They can justly exclaim 
we did not expect to exchange one mas- 
ter for another. We can imagine their 
feelings if we suppose France, after help- 
ing us to shake off the yoke of Great 
Britain, had said now you may look to 
us for protection and government; you 
are now our colony, not England's. Our 
proud boast has been that we have 
taught the world there can be no just 
government save by consent of the gov- 
erned. Against this declaration of inde- 
pendence, against our solemn promises, 
we assert sovereignty over the Philip- 
pines and shoot our late allies as rebels. 
Of course, the end is easily predicted. 
That is not the point. The bad morals 
and logic of our position is felt so clearly 
that it is avoided rather than met, and 



SOME PHASES OF OUR NATIONAL LIFE. 



237 



canting phrases like "benevolent assim- 
ilation" are coined. The trouble with 
such benevolence is that the whole ques- 
tion is decided by the benevolor, and the 
benevolee has nothing to say. When 
the wolf ate the lamb for muddying the 
water below him, he gave reasons for his 
benovelent assimilation — but the real 
reason was he liked spring lamb. So 
here the real fact is we are drunk. Every 
soldier and sailor of the late war deserves 
the name of brave man. We have added 
deeds of gallantry and courage to our 
record. He would be a sorry American 
who would belittle the record; yet the 
truth remains, speaking comparatively 
with our own wars and late European 
wars, this war of ours was a pic-nic. It 
was the cuffing of a ragged newsboy by 
a well-fed man. But it has been so long 
since we had that greatest intoxicant ever 
known or that will be known — victory in 
war — that we became in all things a lit- 
tle drunk. 

The Philippines are fertile and un- 
touched. Our trade is ready for them, 
and our ringsters, concessionaires, 
grafters and franchise-grabbers water at 
the mouth. It is our spring lamb, and 
we forget that the water flows down 
from us, so we talk of benevolent assim- 
ulation. 

I am a doctrinaire, theorist, old wom- 
an, granny, or some other of the polite 
names given in intelligent discussion to 
people who do not agree with your 
views. And what is most hurled in our 
gums is we offer no suggestions. There 
are several that could be offered. One, 
a radical mode — as reconstruction treat- 
ed the freedmen. Do it; and let the con- 
sequences take care of themselves. If 
the gutters are uncleaned I notice the 
disease germs, alas! do not seek out the 
board of health or the street commis- 
sioner. They take my baby from me or 
your wife from you. A 'law has been 
violated, and Nature drives her jugger- 
naut car recklessly over innocent and 
guilty till the error is adjusted. 

We could reserve coaling stations. 
Say to foreign residents: "The Filipinos 
have succeeded in their rebellion, you 
can go or stay as you please. We are 
going to leave them to work out their 
destiny." Say to foreign nations: "This 



was our scrap; you keep out of it or we 
will have a war in which all America 
will join till the last son be slain if neces- 
sary." Say to the Filipinos: "Sail in; 
do the best you can, and may God have 
mercy on your souls." 

That would be in keeping will all our 
promises, all our principles, but it would 
not be keeping much territory, and 
here's the rub. There would be trouble, 
of course. But a tidal wave does not 
swallow itself because a fisherman must 
drown. Or we could say: "You Fili- 
pinos get together and let's see how you 
manage. But any revenge, any sav- 
agery, and we will be right here to take a 
hand ourselves. Meanwhile as before, 
say to the other nations: " 'Keep off.' 
This is not at our 'own door,' but still 
we shall make it our business." Or we 
could say we will exercise temporary 
power over Manila only, and we solemn- 
ly say it is temporary only, till we see a 
civilized government in being. 

My own theory is to put matters ex- 
actly where they would have been had 
the Filipinios succeeded unaided in their 
rebellion. That is radical, simple, true 
to our promises, our principles of self- 
government and our doctrine of non-in- 
terference in foreign affairs. I should 
let results take care of themselves as 
God lets the pestilence eat itself out. 
There is no doubt, however, that we are 
being influenced not by morals or princi- 
ple, but by mercenary motives of trade, 
plantations, etc. This is hardly a path 
that can be trusted.. It may be the right 
one. Chances are, not. 

Speaking for the selfish interests of 
the people, and not for the bosses, I be- 
lieve this distant aggrandizement bad. 
By this outside weight broke Rome. 
Colonies are fruitful of corruption. They 
are removed from the usual restraints. 
They are the natural prey of the carpet- 
bagger and the schemer. Representa- 
tion from them is impossible; yet we 
fought the Revolution because of "tax- 
ation without representation." They 
necessitate a large army and larger navy 
— non-producing classes, a drag on the 
taxpayers. 

Republics (even the Dutch) have never 
been good colony makers. To have 
colonies there must be a constant and 



238 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



efficient military force. Only mon- 
archies or single-head executives given 
long tenure can be trusted to keep al- 
ways an efficient military force and to 
keep a single eye on the colonies. There 
must be the iron hand at home always 
stretched out to the baby. 

We are not a concentrated govern- 
ment. We are not, in my opinion, a 
strong government except as we now 
exist. We are already, in my opinion, 
tending toward a government of classes. 
This assertion is generally met by 
howls of derision, and it is pointed that 
such groaning Jeremiahs have lamented 
since the first formation of the govern- 
ment. Yet, nevertheless, in spite of de- 
rision, the commonest man feels in his 
bones that this is less and less a govern- 
ment of and for the people. The senate 
represents not the plain people, but the 
concentrated wealth of the country. That 
seats in the senate are as surely and reg- 
ularly bought as was the imperial chair 
sold by the Praetorian guards is notor- 
ious. If the people, and only the people, 
were considered, would Oregon have 
passed through an entire session with no 
business done and no election? — a feat 
Utah has just imitated. No business is 
done in Pennsylvania because the bosses 
struggle together. The same in Cali- 
fornia, the same in Delaware, Nebraska. 
Wherever and whenever a senatorial 
election comes on, unless the incumbent 
has stacked up the legislature with mere 
tools, you can depend upon the people's 
interest being set aside while two rich 
men or men backed by wealth struggle 
in bids for the seat. 

I think the very difficulties of chang- 



ing our written constitutions is a weak- 
ness, not a strength. The Oregon con- 
stitution meddles with all sorts of details 
that have no business in an organic law; 
yet it requires four years to even start 
the preliminaries to a change, and the 
consent of two successive legislatures. 

Senator Hoar, in order to obviate the 
scandals now incident to every election 
of United States senator, is advocating 
that after a certain number of ballots the 
candidate receiving the plurality shall be 
declared elected. I hope the measure 
will fail. It will still leave the matter 
with the few and make the boss of the 
state more powerful than ever. I want 
the matter to become so rotten it will 
compel a change and send the election 
directly to the people. This is only one 
of many suggestions to show we are not 
by system nor in fact fitted for govern- 
ing outside nations. 

We do not want to increase our mil- 
itary power, a power which necessarily 
is at the call of the executive, and under 
which as a master France groans today. 
We do not want to increase the plunder 
for the political bosses and adventurers. 
As for trade, we can get it if we deserve 
it by buying where we can buy cheapest 
and selling where we can sell dearest, 
and letting others do the same. Alliances 
can be by treaty as well as by force. 

These remarks are useless, for they 
come from a mere theorist, one of a class 
who has never helped the world a particle. 
Christ and Luther, and Voltaire, Tom 
Paine and Washington, Jefferson and 
Garrison and Phillips were theorists. 
Captain Kidd was, and Croker and Sena- 
tor Hanna are men of action. 



11 Mother and Mammy." 



Among the ranks of shining saints 
Disguised in heavenly splendor, 

Two Mother-faces wait for me, 
Familiar still and tender. 



One face shines whiter than the dawn 
And steadfast as a star; 

None but my Mother's face could shine 
So bright and be so far! 

The other dark one leans from heaven, 
Brooding and still to calm me; 

Black as if ebon Rest had found 
Its image in my Mammy! 

Howard Weeden in "Shadows on the Wall.' 



The Voice of the Silence. 



By one of Portland's leading citizens, a prominent member of society, <rvho for the present <wili 
remain unnamed. The author, a close student of human nature, holds that character is 
stronger than circumstances, and undertakes to illustrate his theory in a decidedly novel and 
interesting manner. The hero and heroine, taken from real life, and undoubtedly ivell 
knenvn to the majority of our Portland readers, are placed in a vurely fictitious environment, 
'cohere they proceed, to tvork out the 'writer's ideas. — Ed. 



Chapter IV. 

Love seemeth such a wondrous thing 
When hearts are young and hopes run 
high, 

But thoughtless baby love takes wing 
When hearts grow old and fond hopes die. 




A MAN may live without talking, a 
woman will not. The need of a 
listener sent Elise early to the ren- 
dezvous. In consequence she spent an 
impatient half hour upon the beach 
waiting - for her companion of yesterday. 
The wind, blowing steadily and strongly 
from the northwest, lashed the river to a 
foaming fury. There was always rough 
water at the Point when a good breeze 
met the ebb tide as it did today. Be- 
yond the tossing white caps the sand 
dunes stretched away to the south, gold- 
en in the glorious sunlight, and the over- 
arching sky gleamed hard and bright as 



burnished steel. The rush of the wind 
and the sweep and surge of the waves 
deadened the heavier sound of the surf. 

As Elise neared the Point she saw a 
little skiff drawn up on the sands and a 
sudden longing came upon her to be out 
upon that heaving tide. Since Odin's 
departure she had not gone much upon 
the water. Though restless and discon- 
tented, she was not inclined to physical 
exertion — and this was the more surpris- 
ing because hitherto in exercise of the 
most vigorous sort she had always found 
a keen delight. As she stood there 
watching the flashing white caps, one 
shapely foot upon the gunwale of the 
boat, her elbow upon her knee and her 
chin resting in her hand she forgot her 
loneliness — forgot the tragic half-breed 
girl, and Odin, and the past half-year, 
and was for the moment the Elise of 
former days who missed nothing from 
her daily life, having known only soli- 
tude and the companionship of Nature. 
The gold of the sun, the blue of the sky, 
the lift of the waves, the strong steady 
push of the wind against cheek and 
breast — these thrilled her once more 
with all the old-time joy. It was as if 
she had suddenly awakened from a sick- 
ly sweet and troubled dream to the glor- 
ious realities of a healthful daytime ex- 
istence. She stood up, straightening 
her lithe figure to its full height and 
turned her face to the wind, lifting her 
lips to meet its kiss and her breasts as to 
the welcome pressure of a lover's vigor- 



240 



THE PACIFIC mONTHLY. 



ous embrace. And no human suitor ever 
wooes with the inspiring passion of the 
north wind, no kisses stir the heart and 
set the inmost chords of being aquiver 
with the echoed music of the spheres 
like its kisses upon cheek and lips and 
brow. 

She looked around presently with a 
start of surprise. The handsome half- 
breed was standing close beside her. The 
girl laughed. She was neatly dressed 
today and her black hair hung in two 
shining heavy braids almost to her knees. 

"I did not know you were near," ex- 
claimed Elise. 

"Did I scare you?" asked the girl, 
showing her white teeth in amusement. 
"That is the Indian in me. I can go soft 
like a panther." 

Elise glanced down at the skiff. "Can 
you row?" she said. For answer the 
girl laid her brown hands upon the gun- 
wale and shoved the light craft down 
the sands into the water, where it rocked 
perilously. 

"Let us cross," cried Elise, pointing 
to the opposite shore. The noise of the 
wind and waves all but drowned the 
sound of her voice, but the girl under- 
stood and held the boat steady for Elise 
to step in. It was the work of a mo- 
ment — that embarking — but a moment 
fraught with difficulty and danger. For 
the wind caught the prow of the skiff 
and swung it round and before they 
could get hold of an oar they were in 
the trough of the sea and drenched to 
the skin. A flat-bottomed boat is never 
a safe sort of a vessel in which to navi- 
gate rough water, and in a sea like this 
— both girls knew what would happen if 
the wind caught them broadside on the 
crest of a wave, and each instinctively 
grasped an oar and fell to work with set 
teeth and tightened muscles to avert the 
catastrophe. When they were at last 
head to the wind they found themselves 
far out in mid-stream, tossed up and 
down on the great white crests and show- 
ered by the salt spray with shattered 
rainbows. They said no word, but as 
they exchanged swift glances they 
laughed for very joy. They were be- 
come a part of that splendid tumult of 
wind and wave, summer sunlight and 
leaping color. Fear! One loses the 



sense of it in moments such as these, and 
is intoxicated, held in thralls by the 
triplicate of motion, sight and sound. 

The tide carried them seaward and the 
wind beat them back. But they landed 
wet and glowing on the yellow sands, 
and drawing their boat up out of the 
reach of the tide which might turn be- 
fore they came back, set out across the 
shifting dunes toward the white surf 
line. It was a good* two miles, and by 
the time they had covered the distance 
their wet garments were effectually dried 
by the sun and the wind. They sought 
out a sheltered spot in the lee of a 
mighty redwood brought in mid-winter 
storms from the south and flung here 
high and dry upon this desolate shore to 
whiten under a northern sky. 

They threw themselves down upon the 
warm sand and gazed at each other in 
silence. After all there was not much 
between them that could be put into 
speech. A certain kinship of spirit, a 
sympathy and an understanding that 
went deeper than words, drew them to- 
gether. Therefore though they spent 
the whole afternoon together, they ex- 
changed no confidences and knew as lit- 
tle of each other's history when they 
turned their faces from the setting sun 
and loitered homeward in the gathering 
twilight as if they had not met. The 
wind had fallen and the tide was running 
swiftly in wide, flattening waves. Their 
boat was already lifting on the ground 
swell, and they stepped in and pushed 
off. It was the work of a few minutes to 
row to the further shore, and Elise 
helped to draw the skiff up across the 
narrowing beach and secure it for the 
night. There would be a high tide, for 
the moon was near its full. 

"Good night," said Elise when, their 
task concluded, they reluctantly sep- 
arated. "Come tomorrow." 

"Yes," was the reply. "Yes, tomor- 
row." 

But it was not to be. Just before noon 
of the next day an Indian woman mount- 
ed the steps to the pine grove and 
knocked at the cabin door, which Elise, 
wondering, opened to her. She wore a 
gaily colored shawl about her head and 
shoulders, holding it close under her 
chin with one small brown hand. Both 



THE VOICE OF THE SILENCE. 



241 



the hand and the chin were richly 
tatooed, but the broad blue bands, and 
anchors and stars were not able to alto- 
gether obliterate the symmetry of the 
one or the womanly beauty of the other. 

"You know my girl Nanita?" she 
queried, her voice as low and soft as the 
breath of summer. "She cannot come. 
She cry because you told her to come 
and she cannot." 

The Indian woman's eyes fell; the 
shadow deepened upon her face. "She 
sick,'' she said sadly. "The baby come 
last night. The poor little baby that no- 
body wants, and Nanita turn her face to 
the wall and cry." 

A wave of color swept up over the 
face of the young girl and fled, leaving 
lier pale with the sudden revelation of 
the nearness of a great mystery. The 
mystery of life, of maternity. Some- 
thing in her own breast awoke and 
•claimed recognition. Yet she felt rather 
than understood the meaning of it, for 
lier thoughts were but confused, half- 
lights just then. 

"Why do you say that?" cried Elise, 
"and why does Nanita cry?" 

The Indian woman shook her head 
slowly. "Nanita not want him," she 
sighed. "I not know what to do." 

"Oh!" exclaimed Elise — and then was 
silent. Here was a greater mystery still, 
and by this she was vaguely troubled. 
But the baby — there sprang up in her 
heart an instant yearning for the little 
new-born waif whose mother did not 
want him. And Nanita was ill. When 
people were ill they died; at least it had 
been so in her limited experience. She 
remembered her father and Satla — both 
of whom had sickened and "gone away," 
and now it was Nanita, her companion 
of yesterday. Oh, it was cruel — not to 
be borne! She leaned against the rough 
frame of the door and covering her face 
with her hands burst into a passion of 
tears. 

The Indian woman regarded her with 
a certain quiet sympathy which expressed 
itself in her great softly luminous black 
eyes. She could not weep. The hard- 
ships of semi-civilization, coupled with 



the natural stoicism of her race, preclud- 
ed the possibility of tears, but a woman's 
heart, the mother-heart is always the 
same, be the breast beneath which it 
beats black, or brown, or white as the 
driven snow. 

"Don't cry," she said, her voice ten- 
derly cadenced — a mingled murmur of 
the wind and the waves in summer twi- 
light. 

Elise lifted her tear-stained face. "It 
is for Nanita that I weep," she mur- 
mured. "For Nanita because she will 
die." 

"No, I think she will not die." 

"Not die!" cried Elise. "Oh, I am so 
glad, so glad." She clasped her hands 
impulsively and her eyes through her 
tear-hung lashes, shone like stars in a 
mist. "Tell her not to be unhappy. 
Tell her I am her friend, and I am glad 
about the baby! Do you think" — tim- 
idly — reaching out her clasped hands 
and then drawing them back against her 
breast, "I might see it? Would Nanita 
object?" 

"No, I think she not care. Some day 
you come. Good-by." 

The Indian woman moved away swift- 
ly and silently as a shadow. As she 
reached the top step of the flight leading 
down to the beach, Elise called to her 
and came running down the path. 

"Wait!" she cried. "Take this; it is 
for the baby." 

It was a small square shawl of some 
soft Oriental weave heavily wrought in 
scarlet and gold — a gorgeous bit of 
color, and fit to wrap an infant prince for 
fineness. But to Elise it was only a bit 
of bright cloth that might please the 
young mother. It had been among her 
possessions ever since she could remem- 
ber, and she occasionally during the past 
winter had worn it about her bare 
shoulders when she sat in the firelight 
with Odin. The woman took it with a 
murmured word of thanks. Her face 
lightened with gratitude and pleasure. 
She was touched by the kindness that 
prompted the gift, and the gift itself ap- 
pealed to her barbaric love of color. 



242 



THE PACIFIC 8M0NTHLY. 



Chapter V. 



Love, crimson-throated, sang to him, 
Through golden days and nights, 

He steeled his heart, he would not hear, 
Or heed love's dear delights. 



Then Love spread wide his purple wings, 

And hushed his silver soug, 
And he who would not listen hears 

Its echo all day long. 



EARLY in October Odin returned. 
With him came Hanson and Han- 
son's daughter Nellie. From her 
father first and later from Odin, when 
she questioned him, Nellie heard much 
about the beautiful white girl in the 
cabin in the pine-grove. She guessed at 
the truth of the situation as a woman is 
apt to do when her own heart is in any 
way involved. And while it was not 
within the bounds of nature not to feel 
resentment, she was altogether too sweet 
and fair-minded to lay it up against the 
stranger. And she had a not unfeminine 
curiosity to see this "Moon-child" of the 
solitude. 

Odin's first thought on landing was of 
Elise. Indeed, during these three long 
months she had not been out of his mind 
for many consecutive moments. He 
had not written. There was, he felt, 
nothing to say that could be put upon 
paper, — but he had yearned in every 
fibre of his being to see her, to feel again 
the touch of her hands, her lips, the 
yielding pressure of her form, warm and 
strong. When he recalled, as he did a 
thousand times, the tenderness of her 
words, the music of her voice, her loving 
glances, and the lavish unsought caress- 
es, he cursed his own seeming coldness, 
and the stern sense of duty that had held 



him in its iron grasp,unresponsive. It came 
to him, too, that he had been unneces- 
sarily cruel, had hurt her when he might 
have been kind. If she loved him as she 
said, and the conviction grew upon him 
that she did, he would throw prudence 
to the winds — and marry her at once. 
Fortune seemed inclined to smile upon 
him now. He stood well with the com- 
pany. There was no reason why he 
might not take a wife if he desired. As 
for the future — he put the thought of it 
resolutely away. If he failed to make 
her happy, if she should come in time 
to regret having married him — but he 
got no further than that. It was enough 
that he could secure her present happi- 
ness. The picture that presented itself 
when he recalled their parting and her 
pleading cry, "Beloved, I cannot live 
without you! If you must go, take me 
with you!" tortured his overwrought 
conscience with scorpion whips. He 
thought of her loneliness, her helpless- 
ness, her unprotected days and nights in 
the little cabin. No, it was not right — 
not to be endured. She should hence- 
forth ask nothing of him that he would 
withhold, and when they met again he 
would take her in his arms and tell her 
all that he hitherto had left unsaid. 

Hungering for the sight of her, he 




cALASKA. 



243 



watched with eager eyes from the deck 
of the schooner as they came swiftly in 
upon the flood that breathless afternoon, 
past the pine grove that sheltered her 
■cabin. But he saw nothing save the rus- 
tic gable, the flight of steps and the path 
losing itself in the shadows of the trees. 
The sun was sinking into the sea, a globe 
of molten gold that seemed to tip and 
spill its liquid splendor upon the dark- 
ening purple of the ocean's rim, when 
free at last from the confusion of. disem- 
barking, Odin hurried along the beach 
and mounted the steps to the cabin. He 
half-expected to find her waiting and 



watching for him — but the door was 
closed. It was not until he had knocked 
a second time that he observed that the 
place wore an air of unwonted desola- 
tion. He knocked again, and his heart 
sank when no welcome voice bade him 
enter. Evidently she did not know of 
his arrival. She might be out upon the 
hills, or over on the ocean beach. He 
tried the door; it was not locked and he 
went in. The bare floor echoed to his 
tread. It was almost dark in there, but 
still light enough for him to see that the 
place was empty — uninhabited. • Elise 
was gone. 



(To be continued.) 



Alaska. 



"By GEORGE €M. FILLER. 



THE district of Alaska embraces the 
most northwesterly portion of the 
western continent. It has a front- 
age on the Pacific ocean of 2,178 statute 
miles, beginning at latitude 54^ degrees 
north and longitude 130^ west and ex- 
tending northwesterly to 6o£ degrees 
north and 146 degrees west; thence 
southwesterly to 52 degrees north and 
175 degrees west. Its frontage on Beh- 
ring sea extends from 52 degrees north 
in a northerly direction to 72 degrees 
north and 165 degrees west a distance of 
1,390 miles, and on the Arctic ocean 
from 165 degrees west easterly to 141 
degrees west, which parallel forms the 
•division line with the British N. W. Ter- 
ritory. The above lines embrace both 
land and water, of which about 600,000 
square miles is estimated as land. These 
measurements do not include the numer- 
ous shore indentures formed by bays, 
inlets, sounds, etc., which, if added, in- 
crease the shore line of Alaska to some- 
thing like 25,000 miles. 

The area of Alaska is more than twice 
that of Norway, Sweden and Denmark 
combined, where nearly 9,000,000 per- 
sons, or 29 to the square mile, find sup- 
port. I make comparisons between 



Alaska and the above three countries 
because they are situated in the same 
northern latitude, and therefore subject 
to similar climatic and other natural con- 
ditions. We find the warm ocean cur- 
rents of the Pacific washing the north- 
ern shores of this continent just as the 
gulf stream of the Atlantic flows against 
the northern shores of the eastern con- 
tinent, and similar climatic conditions 
result, so that it is not surprising that in 
southern Alaska bloom the bluebells 
and purple heather of Scotland. 

Possessing the same natural condi- 
tions as Norway, Sweden and Denmark, 
Alaska is probably capable of sustain- 
ing an equally dense population. As il- 
lustrating the adaptability of this zone 
for human habitation, I cite the fact that 
in Russia, the great city of St. Peters- 
burg, containing over one million popu- 
lation, is situated on latitude 59 degrees 
56 minutes north, which is 330 miles 
farther north than the southern limits of 
Alaska, present population of which ap- 
portions to each man, woman and child 
an area of fifteen square miles. Fully one- 
half of the inhabitants are natives, bear- 
ing a close facial resemblance to the 
Japanese race, of which they are sup- 



244 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



posed to be an offshoot. Those living 
along the coast have excellent board 
houses, usually painted white. They 
are strong, well-built fellows, excelling 
the average Anglo-Saxon in endurance. 
They are superstitious to a degree, and 
easily demoralized by contact with civil- 
ization. 

Alaska's magnificent stretch of sea- 
shore is indented at conventient inter- 
vals by bays and inlets of sufficient depth 
to accommodate the largest of our men- 
of-war. Many of these deep-water chan- 
nels extend inland far beyond the range 
of an enemy's guns, where cities may be 
built with fortifications as impregnable 
as those of Gibralter. This whole coast 
line has a climate that is but a trifle more 
severe than that of the Washington and 
Oregon, and many degrees milder than 
that of the Dakotas, Northern Michigan 
and Wisconsin. The hardy vegetables, 
clover, timothy, oats and barley flourish 
and there are stretches where many thou- 
sands acres of arable land are still un- 
claimed. 

From the foregoing it will be seen the 



need of Alaska today is more people. 
The political importance of the territory 
is apparent when we reflect that it affords 
room for at least twenty millions of men, 
with latent resources sufficient to make 
them a thrifty people. If, in the course of 
human events, Canada and the United 
States come under one government the 
possession of Alaska will assume an im- 
portance not now appreciated. When we 
consider the fact that from 1881 to 1890 
more than 392,000 Canadians immigrat- 
ed to the United States, thus showing 
their preference for our government, it 
seems not improbable that in due course 
of time, the whole coast from Mexico to 
Behring Straits may be united under one 
flag. The Canadian people are our first 
cousins and next-door neighbors. We 
have been playing in each other's back 
yards for lo, these many years. To tear 
down the fence and make one big play- 
ground might make even the "Czar of 
Peace" open his eyes. The resources of 
Alaska are almost wholly untouched. As 
a field for the expansion this territory 
certainly has a hopeful future. 



Beauty. 



(A thing of beauty is a joy forever. — Keats.) 
A color on the evening landscape fell, 
A rosy flushing, as in northern night 
The aurora paints the pole-star's citadel; 
It touched the wintry mountain's vestal 
white 
With tints from petals of the summer's rose 
And softly bathed the vales with ruddy 
light, 
And wrapped the forest where the deer re- 
pose. 

Up floated from the west a golden mist, 
And broadened in the east a zone of blue, 

Above lay stretched a veil of amethyst 
And clouds, the setting sun to hide from 
view, 

In gold and ruby blent, did draw anear, 
But more than color must a scene imbue 

E'er it shall grow to be a mem'ry dear. 



Oh not well ordered scenes, not light and 
shade, 
Not flowing rivers, .not the waterfalls — 
Resounding through the far-extended glade 
Not high up-lifted distant mountain walls 
Bathed softly in the glowing sunset's dyes, 
Not objects of themselves, where beauty 
thralls, 
Can bring the soul up in the straining eyes. 

Some subtle influence shines out through it 
all- 
Some secret ray unseen to corporeal eye, 
Is yet revealed through Nature's outward 
wall 
To spirit seeing. This can never die, 
For what is beauty but soul harmony 
Once seen, forever held in memory. 

Francis M. Gitt^ 



A Fantasy in E Minor. 



<By ORAARV. 



THE light was out, and the moonlight 
shining softly through the half- 
opened windows, harmonized with 
the music. And ah, such music! — a 
young soul, sweet and strong, thrilled 
with the beauty and meaning of life, 
speaking in melody, unrestrained and 
free, the thoughts, the feelings, the as- 
pirations, the lofty purpose, the tender- 
ness, the vaguely defined passion that 
words are inadequate to express. 

I listened there, leaning back upon the 
pillows, and was lifted and borne upon 
the silver tide of that imprisoned wailing 
voice. Beneath a summer sky, where 
sunny foot-hills run down to the wooded 
banks of a crystal river, I drifted and 
heard the birds singing sleepily and soft, 
and the ripples kissing the pebbled shore 
in the golden afternoon. All was peace. 
There was a sense of brooding calm, the 
absolute content of the spirit that is 
merged in dreams: 

"In dreams rose-misted, golden, full of odor- 
ous delights." 

Down the river of Youth, long since 
forgotten, I drifted through a blissful 
eternity: 

"For they care naught for heaven who are 
rocked upon this tide, 
Who have caught the golden gleaming 
Of that amber light, far-streaming, 

Ah they indeed, have little heed 
For aught -n life beside!" 

Then the theme changed, the melody 
deepened, a tender chord crept in with 
a wailing, ever-increasing insistence. 
Then — then it was no longer the strings 
of the violin, but the strings of my heart 
that quivered beneath his bow, — a rap- 
ture that was pain, a joy that was ex- 
quisite torture, the pleasure that stings 
to the touch — I caught my breath at 
times as his strong wrist swept the bow 
across the bare and bleeding strings with 
merciless power. But just when the 
ecstacy became too intense to be longer 
borne, the music mellowed and softened. 
The senses, keyed to the keenest ten- 
sion, were now steeped in a langourous 



sweet calm that seemed 

"To sap the soul's vitality, 
To rob life of reality, 
To heal the smart of the torn heart 
With honey-fragrant balm." 

Softer and more sensuous grew the 
strains, — persuasive, suggestive, irresist- 
ably sweet. 

But, — O the exaltation of the notes 
that followed ! A voice calling from the 
mountain tops, clear, unfaltering, vibrat- 
ing with a passion not of earth but of 
heaven, a command before whose trum- 
pet tone the baser nature dissolved into 
nothingness, and only the divine long- 
ing that is our claim to kinship with 
Deity remained. And as I listened the 
voice grew stronger, swelled into a ce- 
lestial chorus that swept up from the 
moonlight-misted mountain crest to the 
ramparts of Paradise and floated back, 
clear and sweet, a strain so pure and 
strong that from the first note to the last 
it was sustained, unbroken. 

Other moods succeeded, full of deter- 
mination, and of the vigor of youth 
whose enthusiasm is undimmed, and 
daunted at no difficulty, breathing some- 
times of disappointment, of doubt, but 
never of despondency. 

After the music we had coffee, sitting 
in the dim light dreaming and talking. 
When he went away he left the violin in 
its case, leaning against the chair by the 
window. And I, when I had said good 
night, went back to my cushions upon 
the couch. It was not a night that was 
conducive to sleep. Moonlight is too 
precious to be wasted. 

Sitting there, still shaken with the joy 
of the music which had glorified the 
room, and seeing all things, past, present 
and to come, through a silver moon-lit 
radiance, my eyes 'chanced to fall upon 
the violin-case leaning against the chair. 
I swept my hand across my eyes and 
looked again. Was I awake or dream- 
ing? 

The case was open (its owner had 
closed and locked it before he went 
away), and the violin glowed with a 



246 



THE TACIFIC MONTHLY. 



faint, but steadily increasing white light 
as if it were gathering and drawing into 
its luminous strings all the moonbeams 
of the warm winter night. 

Gradually as I looked the case faded 
from sight. A long-drawn quivering 
sigh breathed through the room. I 
started and glanced half-fearfully about. 
When my eyes again sought the lumi- 
nant violin it had disappeared. In its 
place a slender shaft of dense white light 
gleamed and wavered, and opened as the 
leaves of a book are opened, revealing 
a form so graceful, a face so exquisite 
in its loveliness that my very heart stood 
still for wonder of it. 

Victor Hugo says there are times 
when the soul kneels, no matter what 
may be the attitude of the body. My 
spirit went down in reverence before that 
lovely vision and my eyes filled with 
sudden tears, for the beauty of that per- 
fect face was softened, not dimmed, by a 
nameless sorrow. 

Again that low shivering sigh shook 
the silence of the narrow room, and 
though I uttered no word my whole be- 
ing went out in sympathy to my unbid- 
den guest. She smiled — oh the raptur- 
ous tenderness of her smile! 

"You are a woman and you can under- 
stand." Did she speak the words? I 
do not know. I only know that I caught 
the meaning of the soft music that stole, 
low and still, upon my ear. 

"You have listened, and you have felt 
my pain and thrilled with my joy when 
my lover played upon the living strings 
of my heart. Only a woman who has 
loved and suffered as I love and suffer 
can know, only a woman who has been 
swayed by the leaping flame of a fruit- 
less passion, who has beaten with bruised 
and bleeding palms against the prison- 
bars of relentless fate, who has staked all 
for love's sake and lost it through time 
and eternity, can see, or hear, or under- 
stand. I strive to speak to him. He 
said — I heard him tell you — that often 
when he held me close and told me all 
his thoughts and feelings, his hopes and 
fears and aspirations, I seemed to re- 
spond, I was for him no longer a violin, 
but a human soul who answered mood 
for mood and hope for hope, who under- 
stood and sympathized, a friend whom he 



could trust, who never failed him. 

"But, ah, he does not dream of all I 
am, all I would be to him. He is young, 
aglow with the fire and passion of youth. 
He goes where I do not. Warm rose- 
white bosoms, warm gold of "perfumed 
tresses, loving glances and tender clasp- 
ing arms — ah how shall I weave a spell 
potent enough to preserve him from 
temptations like these? Could he but 
see me once, as you see me now, but for 
one moment taste the sweetness of my 
lips and feel the radiance of my smile no 
other woman, though beautiful as day, 
could have the power to hold him for a 
single instant. All kisses after mine 
would be as wormwood after the balm of 
wild honey in the comb. Nearest and 
dearest of all the world to him I am, and 
must ever be; but you are a woman and 
you know when a woman loves she must 
have everything or nothing. I am a 
jealous mistress. And alas, I have but 
one charm to hold him against a world 
of womankind. Only my voice answers 
when he touches my heart-strings, and 
others may lure him by a thousand 
graces. What is the strength of a tone 
compared to lips that kiss and arms that 
twine? Can a man's craving for com- 
panionship be satisfied with a sound 
alone? 

"I am a prisoner, and he, only, can 
unlock my prison doors. In the name 
of your own fruitless love, and ill-spent 
passion I implore you to help him find 
the key. Save me from a fate like yours 
and in the sight of heaven and the angels 
it will be counted in your favor. So you 
may win, in some dim far-off fashion, a 
reflex happiness for your own." 

The music ceased, dying away in a 
tender cadence. The light began to 
fade. 

"I promise," I cried. "Oh, my sister 
— ior love and pain have made us kin — 
I promise, but tell me how. Oh, do not 
leave me yet ! Your story is half-told" — 

But before the words had left my lips 
the beautiful vision vanished. I rubbed 
my eyes and sat up. The moonlight 
shone in at the window and showed me 
the violin-case closed and leaning 
against the chair just as its owner had 
left it. And yet — I am sure I was not 
asleep and dreaming. 



The "Kid." 



<By BESSIE MAY GUINEAN. 



HIS own name was Frank Templeton, 
but in that wild, Western country 
it seemed the most natural thing 
in the world that he should be known 
simply as the "Kid." He won this 
sobriquet from his extremely youthful 
appearance. In reality he was not 
young. He had long ago passed the 
meridian of youth and ran the gamut of 
the world's excesses and pleasures. He 
had come West to recuperate his shat- 
tered health and fortunes; to get away 
from every one who had ever known 
him in the old days; that is the reason 
he had chosen this new mining camp as 
his stopping place. There was another 
reason, too, which had been largely in- 
strumental in inducing him to make the 
change. Back "home," in "the states," 
he had a little sweetheart who watched 
and waited for his return. She had had 
faith in him when every man's hand had 
seemingly been turned against him. It 
was for her sake that he struggled to re- 
form. 

He did not have capital enough to 
buy a mine, and the hard, poorly paid 
life of .the average miner did not appeal 
to him. So he hung around camp, mak- 
ing friends with the boys, doing such 
odd jobs as came his way and waited 
patiently for an opening. It came soon- 
er than he anticipated. The night clerk 
of the only hotel in camp was one night 
killed by a member of the lawless ele- 
ment which infests suck places, and the 
"Kid," having a superior education, was 
asked to take his place. The work itself 
was not hard, but the danger was great. 
Large sums of money were daily de- 
posited in the hotel safe by the miners, 
and unless he kept a sharp lookout he 
was liable to share the untimely fate of 
his predecessor. 

He entered upon his duties with many 
grave misgivings, but as time wore on 
and nothing happened he gradually for- 
got his fears. In case of an emergency 
he kept his pistol close at hand. "If the 



time ever comes to shoot, shoot quick 
and without mercy," he had been told. 
But he never felt that he would like to 
do that. Deep down in his heart was a 
settled conviction, but where he got it he 
never knew, that there was a soft spot in 
every man's nature that could be ap- 
pealed to. He was always a little bit 
ashamed of this thought because he con- 
sidered it an evidence of weakness on his 
part. Nevertheless so strong a hold did 
it have on him that he privately resolved, 
should the time ever come, to make a 
test case of it, and then, if necessary, 
shoot afterwards, for the "Kid" was not 
a coward. 



The day had been intolerably hot. It 
was 2:30 in the morning, and the "Kid," 
tired, sleepy and exhausted from the un- 
accustomed heat of the day, sat blinking 
on a high stool behind the counter and 
yawning sleepily. He was the sole oc- 
cupant of the office. Even the lusty- 
lunged miners, who used to bear him 
company, had succumbed and turned in 
His eyes wandered to the hands of the 
office clock, and he noted the lagging 
hours with growing impatience. He 
took out a book and tried to read, but 
could not concentrate his thought on the 
printed page before him. A feeling of 
impending disaster, which he could not 
shake off, crept over him. That day an 
unusually large sum of money had been 
deposited in the safe by one of the min- 
ers who had "cleaned up," and was go- 
ing home. "Going home!" The words 
rang like a knell in his ears. When 
would he' see his dear old home again, 

and Doris -? He closed the book 

hastily, jumped from the stool and 
started for the front door ; the cool, fresh 
morning air would no doubt dispel his 
illusions. He had his hand on the low, 
swinging gate which would admit him 
to the outer office, when he was sudden- 
ly stopped and found himself gazing into 



248 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



the gleaming muzzle of a revolver, while 
a gruff voice commanded : 

"Stand right where you are, pard!" 
Then he was told to open the safe. He 
did it with trembling fingers. 

"Now hand out your money and be 
quick about it!" was the robber's next 
command. The "Kid" hesitated; for the 
first time the full measure of his respon- 
sibility rested upon him. With a mut- 
tered imprecation, the robber told him 
to hold up his hands and then went 
through the safe himself. When the 
"Kid" saw the money intrusted to his 
care stolen before his eyes his blood 
boiled, he forgot all about his senti- 
mental ideas of appealing to the robber's 
better nature — 

How it happened no one knew, but a 
few hours later the "Kid" was found on 
the office floor with a bullet wound in his 
side, surrounded by every evidence of a 
struggle. 

Tender hands carried him upstairs, but 
the veterinary surgeon, the only doctor 
in camp, shook his head ominously when 
he saw him. 

The "Kid" lay in the best bedroom 
with closed eyes. and a smile upon his 
lips. During the day he had been de- 
lirious and had spoken constantly of 
"Doris"; when the heat of the day had 
spent itself the fever wore away and he 
lay in a sort of stupor. 

All was quiet in and about the house; 
the noisy voices of the miners had sunk 
to an awed whisper. No man about the 



camp had been more universally ad- 
mired for his never-failing good nature 
and accommodating disposition than the 
"Kid." During the afternoon a meet- 
ing behind closed doors was held in the 
hotel parlor; when it was over a handful 
of sturdy, determined looking men is- 
sued forth, mounted their ponies and 
rode away. 

Some time later one of the watchers 
beside the "Kid's" bedside arose softly 
and stepping over to the window drew 
aside the curtain and raised the sash; as 
he did so a smothered exclamation es- 
caped him; then the other watchers 
hurried toward the window and looked 
out, then stepped back hastily, carefully 
readjusting the shade as they did so. 

The man on the bed lay perfectly mo- 
tionless. So quiet was he that had it 
not been for his fitful, irregular breath- 
ing they would have thought him dead. 
All at once he stretched out his arms, 
and half rising to a sitting posture, 
called out in a loud, clear voice: "Doris, 
I am coming!" and fell back — dead. 

At that moment the men who had 
gone forth that afternoon tip-toed into 
the room, and saw the motionless form 
on the bed with the sheet drawn over the 
face. 

"Boys, we did a good job that time," 
whispered a big, red-shirted miner, in a 
voice rendered hoarse from emotion as 
he nodded toward the window, and his 
companions gave silent assent. 



jfk 



* 



:2r^ 






*vj' 



m 






Our Point of View 



For a world as old and experienced as 
ours, there is a surprising lack of com- 
mon sense in the educational theories of 
today. And yet it is granted at once that 
there is no question which should have 
more fully occupied the minds of the 
greatest philosophers and the clearest 
thinkers of every age and community than 
that which has to do with education. It 
is impossible to overestimate the im- 
portance of such a question. In its 
varied aspects it involves the successful 
prosecution of every form of human ac- 
tivity, the happiness of the individual and 
the welfare of the state. Yet the world 
as a whole has always been strangely 
unconcerned and apathetic in the matter. 
No great international convention has 
been called to discuss and decide the 
proper studies to be pursued, nor indeed 
have the nations themselves taken that 
serious interest in the question which its 
character warrants. Educational prog- 
ress has been the result of spasmodic at- 
tempts to improve the condition of af- 
fairs. Consequently it has been very 
slow. Today we are teaching the same 
subjects that were taught five hundred 
years ago — a little Greek, a little Latin, 
a little Mathematics* It is true that some 
considerable advance has been made in 
methods during this century, but when 
we compare it with the hundreds of years 
during which .educational progress was 
practically at a standstill, it sinks into 
insignificance. In spite of the attempts, 
however, that have been made to im- 
prove educational systems, the vital 
point, a practical education — one adapt- 
ed to real needs — seems to have been al- 
most wholly lost sight of. There were, it 
is true, leaders here and there who saw far 
more clearly than their contemporaries the 
faults and weaknesses of the system, but 
no concerted movement was made to get 
at the real purpose of education and ap- 
ply it to the growing mind, or if any at- 
tempt was made by a small coterie it died 
an ineffectual death. The history of edu- 
cation shows, then, that a haze has ob- 



scured the minds of men in regard to 
one of the most important influences in 
molding the world's character and prog- 
ress. Stranger to relate, the haze has 
not entirely lifted even today. What is 
the purpose of education? We say it is to 
prepare one for the duties of life. Unfor- 
tunately it falls very far short of this. 
The young man or young woman who 
completes the entire educational system 
as it exists in our country today has sim- 
ply been systematically trained to do 
clear thinking. So far as this is adapted 
to practical needs so far is our education 
practical. The greater part of the sys- 
tem, however, is of an aesthetic nature. 
And yet with all its deficiencies, the 
man with a college education is three 
thousand times better off than the man 
without it. But the conviction is forc- 
ing itself more and more persistently 
upon thinking men and women that 
eight years of academic and collegiate 
study should have a more tangible re- 
sult than merely a cultured and well-or- 
ganized mind. While the cultivation of 
the aesthetic side of things should never 
be lost sight of, our educational system 
should be, and is capable of being, made 
far more effective than it is today. Let 
us come to some definite agreement as 
to the purpose of education, and then 
arrange our curriculum accordingly. Is 
it to make good citizens? Then let us 
have more economics, more civil gov- 
ernment, more discussions on national 
issues in our high schools and academies 
and less botany, less language, less math- 
ematics. Is it to fit the student for the 
duties and responsibilities of life? Then 
let us brush aside some cobwebs that 
have obscured the light these many cen- 
turies, and force common sense into the 
question. Let us stop cramming the 
mind with absolutely useless stuff from 
the primary school to the post-graduate 
couse. Let us teach the student those 
things that have direct and vital relation 
to the activities and responsibilities of 
life. English should be so taught that 



250 



THE 'PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



the student will, after twelve years of 
study in the grammar and high schools, 
have at least a good knowledge of Eng- 
lish literature, with more than ordinary 
ability to express himself. Let thorough- 
ness be the watchword instead of super- 
ficiality. 

Of all the faults of our educational sys- 
tem, however, none stand out so glar- 
ingly as those which have to do with the 
education of women. It is here that we 
find our system most inconsistent and 
most ineffective. The eight years that a 
man spends in academic and collegiate 
training, whatever they may really ac- 
complish, are intended ostensibly to pre- 
pare him for the duties of life — his 
chosen profession or calling. The four 
years that he spends in the medical col- 
lege or in the study of law or dentistry 
or the ministry or in any definite branch 
of learning finish his education. What- 
ever he may think of the other years 
spent with this end in view, the last four 
are certainly efficacious. He is prepared 
to do something. There is nothing 
in the education of women, as we 
seem to conceive it today, to cor- 
respond to this. Her education is 
almost purely aesthetic. The few at- 
tempts that are made to teach her 
something of household duties and re- 
sponsibilities may be laughed to scorn, 
since the few colleges for women which 
have attempted anything of the kind 
have generally limited their curricula 
in this regard to washing dishes and 
making beds! The weighty questions in- 
volved in the matter are put lightly aside 
without consideration, and the minds of 
the young women are filled with stuff 
than cannot possibly be of practical 
value. And yet to the woman who pro- 
poses to undertake the responsibilities of 
married life what can be of more import- 
ance than a thorough understanding of 
household management and a grasp of 
the intricate problems of domestic econ- 
omy? The happiness of a home, the suc- 
cess of the entire experiment of marriage, 
as well as the foundation of the family 
and hence the security of the state are 



dependent upon these things far more 
than we may be inclined to admit. And 
yet there are women today who prate 
about "women's rights" as if such were 
the panacea for all the wrongs that are 
existent, when our educational system is 
so poorly adapted to the needs of women 
that it is becoming a menace to our 
homes, and a cry is going up for women 
— leaders — to reform the state of affairs. 
For it is a serious and startling fact that 
as a rule the young women of today 
know less and care less about domestic 
problems than those of any other gener- 
ation in our history. Whether this alarm- 
ing tendency to belittle the home is the 
result of our educational system (in that 
it may, by neglecting its proper sphere, 
bring about that result), or whether it 
is the outcome of social conditions which 
follow the degeneration of democratic 
simplicity to "imperialism," is a question 
too involved to be considered here. The 
remedy, however, is not hard to find. 
Change the curricnlt* of studies in 
seminaries, girls' high schools and col- 
leges so that the things of practical value 
will be taught and an interest aroused in 
the questions which must be met and 
decided in the home. The field is large 
and inviting. There is nothing that has 
more fascination for a woman when she 
once becomes interested in the subject. 
Appeal to this natural interest, and by 
teaching household management and its 
kindred subjects to the young women 

who are to rule our homes, thev can be 

• 

made brighter and more comfortable, the 
family more prosperous and the nation 
more stable. The practical elements are. 
therefore, what we believe to be most 
needed in our educational system; for it 
is by the introduction in our curricula of 
those subjects that appeal to our com- 
mon sense that not only our young 
women can reach the true ideal of Amer- 
ican womanhood, and in large measure 
be the preservative factor in our nation, 
but that our young men can be made 
much more efficient in business and pro- 
fessional life and better and wiser citi- 



OUR "POINT OF VIEW. 



251 



Kipling, Kitchener and Dewey! The 
men of war and the man of letters ! We 
worship our heroes, but we love our 
story-tellers. We fire salutes over the 
graves of our victorious warriors and 
heap them with gorgeous floral tributes, 
but where sleep beneath the sod our 
Stevensons, our Byrons and our Fields 
we plant sweet violets and water them 
with our tears. When the author of the 
immortal Jungle Books lay ill in New 
York and very near the brink of that 
dark river which divides this land of 
mortality from the great Unknown, the 
love of the English-speaking people 
went up in one unbroken prayer to Om- 
nipotence to leave, us yet a little longer 
the companionship of this singer — this 
seer who is still too young to have deliv- 
ered his message in full. America, no 
less than England, pays loving tribute to 
this genius of the age. Kipling belongs 
not to any one country or people, but to 
the world — to humanity. He has been 
charged with saying unkind things of 
America and Americans. The accusa- 
tion is unjust. He has simply written 
of us as he found us, and because he saw 
us as we were, as we are, and said so, we 
cried out and complained. The truth 
is often bitter, and when we sit for our 
pictures we want the photographer to do 
a deal of retouching. Kipling's photo- 
graphs of men and things are pitilessly 
exact. He never goes to the pains of 
transforming a mole into a dimple. But 
there is no evidence of ill-nature, no sign 
of malice in this truthfulness to nature. 
There is rather a large-hearted, rugged, 
fraternal affection. For he accepts as 
"brothers in blood" the strong and the 
true, no matter what their faults may be. 
To him — 

"There is neither east nor west, 

Border nor breed nor birth; 
Where two strong men stand face to face 

Though tbey come from the ends of the 
earth." 



' 'Tis the way the good Lord has in 
makin' us cowards continted with our 
lot, that he never med a brave man yet 
that wasn't half a fool," remarks Mr. 
Dooley, discoursing upon the interesting 
subject of "Me Frind Hobson." But 
just now We are strongly impelled to call 



Mr. Dooley 's attention to, at least, one 
exception. Admiral Dewey, in refusing 
to allow his name to be used as a candi- 
date for the presidency in 1900, seems 
determined to leave the world one hero 
without a flaw. The title of president 
could not add lustre to a name already 
crowned with martial glory, and Admiral 
Dewey is a greater man upon the deck 
of his flagship than he could possibly be 
in the presidential chair. Indeed, it does 
not always follow that a great general 
and a brave warrior make a good presi- 
dent. , 

Just how far the responsibility of the 
state should operate in matters of educa- 
tion has always been a fruitful subject 
of speculation. While the more thought- 
ful and intelligent men have, as a rule, 
favored an increase of this responsibility, 
there has always been a class which has 
vigorously opposed it. The latter have 
maintained, though unsuccessfully, that 
it is not the function of government to 
provide for the higher education of its 
future citizens, or to undertake any re- 
sponsibility toward the youth other than 
the training which the "grammar" 
schools give. It has stood for a mini- 
mum of responsibility in all matters. An 
exponent of this theory was discussing 
the question editorially a few years ago, 
and in the course of his remarks ex- 
claimed: "We shall soon see the state 
usurping the duties of parents, and 
washing the faces and combing the hair 
of the scholars." This he considered the 
ne plus ultra of irony, but it has actually 
come to pass that in one of our larger 
cities the ragged, unkempt urchins who 
attend the public schools have their faces 
washed and are put in a respectable con- 
dition before they are permitted to enter 
the school room. The resolution, recent- 
ly adopted in Bavaria, which proposes to 
provide for the care of the teeth of chil- 
dren whose parents are too poor to at- 
tend to it is a step in advance of this, and 
one that has the recommendation of 
common sense. It strikes directly at the 
root of one of the greatest evils 0/ our 
day — the improper mastication of food. 
It is probably true that no other one 
cause produces so much ill health as this, 
and it is to be earnestly hoped, there- 



252 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY. 



fore, that the Bavarian experiment will 
prove a success. After all, the question 
which we must face and answer is not so 
much one of responsibility or duty as it 
is of means. Most of us will admit the 
responsibility of the state to the poor, 
the necessity of a change in the terrible 
conditions of the crowded tenements of 
large cities where ignorance and crime 
go hand in hand, but it is how to meet 
these conditions which puzzles our wis- 
est philosophers. 

jt 

The authorship of»"The Voice of the 
Silence," the serial now running in The 
Pacific Monthly, has been attributed to 
every man of any social prominence in 
Portland. The name most frequently 
mentioned in connection with it, how- 
ever, is that of a well-known member of 
the bar, who is distinguished for his dis- 
criminating taste in art and literature. 



The French have no verb which can 
serve as the equivalent of the English 
"to kick." Happy French! Not having 
the word, they escape the horror of its 
misuse, its abuse, which afflicts English- 
speaking America from Cape Cod to the 
Golden Gate, from Maine to Mexico. If, 
however, this single inelegant word were 
the only one of its kind subjected to the 
indignity of being made to do duty as a 
sort of verbal football, we should have 
little cause for complaint. Alas, it is 
but one of a thousand, bruised, and buf- 
feted about, and torn, and tossed from 
tongue to tongue by educated men and 
women. For it is, we say it with regret, 
the college graduate who excels in feats 
of this nature. The man who is, sup- 
posedly, well instructed in the correct use 
of English is, invariably, he who most 
pointedly and persistently refrains from 
any practical exhibition of his knowl- 
edge. Indeed, it is not far from possible 
to estimate the amount of schooling a 
young man has received by the exten- 
siveness of his vocabulary of "slang," 
and by the attitude of lofty indifference 
which he assumes toward grammatical 
construction. In this connection the 
question re-occurs: Does any language- 
lend itself so readily to the requirements 
of "slang" as our own beloved, contin- 



ually mutilated and cruelly maltreated 
mother tongue? The most alarming fea- 
ture of this linguistic epidemic which, by 
the way, partakes of the nature of a dis- 
ease, is its insidious power of infecting 
all who come within the radius of its in- 
fluence. It is a contagion from which 
there seems no possible avenue of escape. 
Where is the physician who can pre- 
scribe for such a plague, or who can 
check, at least, its destructive progress? 
We have reformers of every sort. Why 
should not some philanthropic scholar 
inaugurate a movement to reform the 
abuse of the English language before it 
is destroyed and utterly obliterated by 
modern "slang." Such an one would 
confer an inestimable benefit upon hu- 
manity — for in rescuing his mother 
tongue from assailing dangers he would 
at the same time, so subtle is the relation 
between speech and action, improve the 
manners and the morals of his time. 

Arnold White, in his London corres- 
pondence in Harper's Weekly, paints a 
dismal picture of the social conditions 
among the poor and lower classes of 
London, which furnishes much food for 
thought. Among other things, he says : 

One-fifth of the inhabitants of London still 
occupy dwellings unsanitary from over- 
crowding. Within a mile of the Mansion 
House are masses of men, women, and chil- 
dren who are more truly barbarian than the 
Basutos, Sudanese, or the aboriginal tribes of 
the Himalayas. * * * * * Myriads of 
children produced in reckless disregard of 
parental responsibility and plunged into an 
environment of villany and vice, with no' 
play-ground but the streets, is a feature in 
English city life which attracts little atten- 
tion, but it is as much a reality as the Soudan 
victories. The social reformers are no more 
in agreement than theologians themselves, 
though there is a general conviction that a 
great deal requires to be done Although 
there is no country in the world where the 
social revolution is less likely to take place 
than in England, there is national weakness 
and shame in the social condition of masses 
of our countrymen, and until a new Savon- 
arola arises to rouse the national conscience, 
the tendency will be to go from bad to worse. 

Apart from the facts which Mr. White 
has given us, the striking thing about 
his correspondence is the view which he 
takes of the social revolution as if 
its coming were an assured fact. 



OUR 'POINT OF VIEW. 



253 



which is postponed only on ac- 
count of a lack of a leader. With 
the dissemination of knowledge on 
these important topics, doubtless not 
one, but many leaders will arise the 
world over to better the condition of 
humanity. In one respect General Booth, 
of the Salvation Army, is a pioneer in 
this field, and much as some people are 
inclined to scoff at his work it has ac- 
complished and is accomplishing a world 
of good which the future alone will be 
able to fully recognize and appreciate. 

Apropos of the recent discussion con- 
cerning the rejection of Poe by America, 
it might well be remembered that this 
brilliant and erratic genius who blazed 
with such a fitful, half-heavenly, half- 
lurid glow, was after all a poet's poet. 
Not a singer to the masses, voicing the 
joys and the sorrows of humanity, but 
.an angel of the outer darkness, chanting 



of the poet's pain, the poet's bliss, haunt- 
ed by the memory lost Elysium. 

Platonic affection is a term so misused 
and misinterpreted that one hesitates to 
write it seriously. And yet we hold it to 
mean in its original purity, and as Plato 
defined it, friendship — friendship of the 
truest, tenderest nature. A bond, not of 
the body, but of the soul, so strong and 
finely woven that it will stand the test of 
the severest strain. It is the one human 
tie that contains no element of selfish- 
ness, that hesitates at no sacrifice, that is 
absolute in surrender, giving all and 
claiming nothing. It is the only love, 
or more properly the only relation, for it 
differs materially from the divine passion 
— possible between man and woman that 
is free from the risk of heartache, of dis- 
appointment, a sweetness in which there 
is no bitter. 



The King's Oath, 



The daughter of Herodias danced and 

pleased Herod. Whereupon he promised 
with an oath to give her whatsoever she 
would ask.— (Matthew 14:6-7.) 



She danced before the king, 
A lissome, witching thing 

With gems ablaze. 
Unbound her dark hair flies, 
While still her glorious eyes 

In Herod's gaze. 



Moved by that wondrous grace, 
Quivers the strong man's face, 

Breathless the while 
He feels and owns her power, 
(Undreamed until that hour) 

Drunk with her smile. 



'Till her white hand she lifts, 
Asking for royal gifts 

With mouth rose-sweet, 
Low bends the proud king's head; 
'Ask what you will," he said, 

" 'Tis at your feet." 



Swift from her lips red bloom, 
Leap forth the words of doom, 

"The prophet's head." 
Pale grew the monarch's brow; 
But for his oath's sake now, 

"Bring it," he said. 



And since that oath was kept, 
Men who in power have stepped — 

Kings of the land; 
Still for the siren strives, 
Selling their people's lives 

At her command. 

cAdonen. 



A RECORD OF THE WORLD'S PROGRESS. 



In Politics — 

A noticeable change in the tenor of 
the press throughout the country in re- 
gard to "expansion" has been the fea- 
ture of the month in American politics. 
First impressions and sentiments have 
been giving way to the reaction caused 
by the more conservative view of the 
question which seems to be now prevail- 
ing. The American forces have been 

generally successful in the few skirm- 
ishes that have taken place in the Philip- 
pines, and very few lives have been lost. 
Admiral Dewey, however, has asked for 
the battleship Oregon, for "political rea- 
sons," and the ship is now on her way 

thither. The "famous" war congress 

of 1898 has adjourned, and is to be con- 
demned more for what it has left undone 
than commended for the good it has 
done. The sentiment of the people is so 
strongly in favor of the Nicarauga canal 
that it had been thought congress would 
be forced to commence the work, but it 
is understood, to the everlasting shame 
of our institutions, be it said, that the 
Nicarauga bill was "traded" for another 
which would advance the pecuniary inter- 
ests of our noble legislators. Senator 

Gorman, who has represented New Jer- 
sey in the senate for 18 years, has been 
superceded by James Smith, Jr. 
jt 

The appointment of Phya Visudda as 
envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary from Siam to the United 
States and Great Britain is indicative of 
the fact that to one country at least the 
union of the Anglo-Saxon race is com- 
plete. It will be interesting to observe 
how Mr. Visudda performs his double 

task. The petition of the citizens of 

Fort Wrangel, Alaska, who desire to 
foreswear allegiance to the Stars and 
Stripes and become subjects to the En- 
glish crown, is along this line of union, 
but is such an unusual proceeding on the 



part of Americans that it comes to us 
with considerable surprise. It is under- 
stood, however, that the motive back of 
the petition is one of financial gain.. 

England takes a magnanimous stand 
in acknowledging France to be entitled 
to an outlet on the Nile. This is a con- 
spicuous example of the English sense 
of justice, since it was by no means a 
compulsory act on the part of England, 
but rather due to a fair-minded and com- 
prehensive view of the situation. 

j* 

In spite of the lull in Parisian politics 
which has followed the election of Lou- 
bet to the Presidency of the republic and 
the formation of a new ministry, and 
which, from the nature of the case, must 
be only temporary, France is generally 
conceded to be on the verge of a politi- 
cal revolution which cannot be much 
longer deferred. 

In a meeting between the Czar and 
Tolstoi, the first that has taken place, 
Tolstoi previously refusing to meet the 
Czar, the following conversation is said 
to have occurred. "What is your 
opinion of our imperial proposal for the 
limitation of armaments?" asked the 
Czar. "I shall believe in it only when 
your majesty sets the example to the 
other nations," replied the philosopher. 

Reconstruction in Cuba is progressing 
in a most satisfactory manner. Santiago 
has been transformed from a city of dis- 
ease and dirt to one of health and clean- 
liness. What is true of Santiago is also 
true of Havana. American methods are 
being rapidly adopted throughout the 
entire Island. 

In Science — 

Rear-Admiral Hichborn, chief naval 
constructor, announces that there are 
now building for the navy 51 vessels of 



THE MONTH. 



255 



various types. According to an Italian 
authority, this places the United States 
second in the tonnage list of ships being 
built by the various nations, Great Brit- 
ain being first. 

J* 
If all the wonderful things that are told 
about Tripler and his liquid air are true, 
his invention is the greatest of the age. 
The new substance is destined to "do the 
work of coal and ice and gunpowder at 
next to no cost," and its production is 
limitless so long as the air we breathe en- 
dures. It is both heat and cold. It is, 
according to Mr. Tripler himself, the di- 
rect energy of the sun, captured and con- 
verted into a useful servant for man. The 
man who "harnessed the lightning" ac- 
complished a very mild achievement 
compared to Mr. Tripler, who proposes 
to chain the atmosphere and subjugate 
the sun. Meantime the world waits ex- 
pectantly for further developments. 

Dr. G. Carl Huber, assistant professor 
of anatomy, and director of the histo- 
logical laboratory of the University of 
Michigan, has just discovered, according 
to the news reports, that, contrary to the 
belief of the leading physiologists of the 
world, the blood vessels of the brain are 
controlled by nerves. Dr. Huber has 
demonstrated this and will publish the 
results of his extensive research. 

Professor George M. Hough, astron- 
omer at the Dearborn Observatory, 
Evanston, 111., has made discoveries 
which strengthen him in the belief that 
Jupiter is in a gaseous or plastic state. 

The Reina Mercedes, which was sunk 
in the channel of Sanitago harbor, has 
been raised and taken to Santiago. The 
ship can be repaired so as to be of effi- 
cient service. 

One of the curious attractions of the 
Paris exposition will be the "mare- 
orama" — a large stationary ocean steam- 
ship, with the surroundings so arranged 
that a voyage upon the ocean will be 
perfectly simulated. The vessel will 
roll and pitch, and a half mile of canvas 
will unfold the beautiful scenery along 
the line of the vessel's course. The in- 
ventor proposes to keep up the simila- 
tion of the voyage by sea by every means 
possible. 



In Literature — 

Nothing superior to the following 
poem, by Robert Burns Wilson in the 
Atlantic Monthly for March, has ap- 
peared in the war literature of the day. 
In the estimation of one whose opinion 
carries weight, it is the most perfect war 
poem ever produced: 

"Such is the death the soldier dies: — 
He falls — the column speeds away; 

Upon the dappled grass he lies. 
His brave heart following, still, the fray. 

The smoke wraiths drift among the trees, 
The battle storms along the hill; 

The glint of distant arms he sees, 
He hears his comrades shouting still. 

A glimpse of far-borne flags that- fade 

And vanish in the rolling din; 
He knows the sweeping charge is made, 

The cheering lines are closing in. 

Unmindful of his mortal wound, 
He faintly calls and seeks to rise; 

But weakness drags him to the ground: — 
Such is the death the soldier dies." 

The poem below, reprinted from Ains- 
lee's Magazine for this month, contains 
the sum and substance of Shakespeare's 
masterpiece. Its author, Arthur J. 
Stringer, gives it as the result of a "re- 
reading of 'Hamlet'": 

God, if this were all! 
To see the naked Right, 
And then by day and night 
To crush o'er Circumstance, 
Despair and petty Chance, 
And fight the one good fight! 

O God, if this were all! 

If this were only all! 
But, ah! to see, and yet 
Half fear the waves that fret 
Without the Harbor Bar; 
To strive not, since the star 
Lies from us, oh, so far; 
To know, and not forget! 

O God, that this is all! 

In Art— 

The exhibition in December of the 
works of the late Sir Edward Burne- 
Jones at the New Gallery, in London, 
has revived the interest of the critics and 
set them to commenting and comparing. 
Years ago Ruskin gave his verdict to 
the effect that the art work of Burne- 
Jones was "the best that has been, or 
could be," and Rosetti's frequently ex- 



256 



THE "PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



pressed opinion was, when summed, up, 
essentially the same. A dreamer, an ideal- 
ist, who beheld with the unerring instinct 
of genius the fact — the great under- 
lying principle of art — that truth and 
beauty are interchangeable terms, this 
man has left an impress upon the art of 
his age that time will not efface. 

The new public library to be erected in 
Bryant Park, New York, is designed by 
Carrere and Hastings. From the illus- 
trations which have appeared it is not 
easy to determine the dominant style of 
architecture which these gentlemen have 
adopted in this ambitious structure, 
which is to txtend from Fortieth to For- 
ty-second street, but there is evidence of 
Grecian influence apparent. 

In Education — 

A measure adopted by the president 
and fellows of Harvard University, on 
February 13, provides that all persons 
who have served at Harvard as profess- 
ors or assistant professors for twenty 
years, and are over sixty years old, shall 
receive, after retirement, one-third of 
their last salary for twenty years of ser- 
vice, and one-sixth of their last salary 
for such additional year of service, pro- 
vided that the retiring allowance shall in 
no case exceed two-thirds of their last 
salary. To meet the expenses thus au- 
thorized, Harvard will have at the end of 
this year the income of a special fund of 
$340,000, which can doubtless be supple- 
mented from other university monies. 

A similar provision has been in opera- 
tion in Yale since 1897, and since 1890 
it has been a rule at Columbia that any 
professor who has served the university 
for fifteen years, and is sixty-four years 
old, may retire at his own request on half 
pay. At Yale, professors may retire on 
a pension after twenty-five years of con- 
tinuous service. — E. S. Martin in Har- 
per's Weekly. 

The board appointed by Brigadier- 
General Wood to formulate a scheme for 
public education in the province of San- 
tiago, has made its report. It recom- 
mends the establishment of free schools 
similar to those in the United States. 



A resolution has just been passed by 
the city council of Wartzberg, Bavaria, 
which is worthy of emulation, says the 
Scientific American. According to this 
resolution, the teeth of poor pupils of 
public schools of the city are to be ex- 
amined and cared for free of cost ? pro- 
vided their parents give their consent. 
It is intended to treat diseases of the ear 
and throat in a like manner, should the 
first experiment prove successful. It is 
probable that with slight expense the 
teeth of the children may be attended to 
so that if the latter live they will not suf- 
fer from dyspepsia owing to improper 
mastication. 

Leading Events — 

February . — Lord Hallam Tennyson is ap- 
pointed governor of South Australia. The 

department orders the mustering out of 15,- 
000 volunteers. 

February 2. — Gen. Gomez gives assurance 
that he will co-operate with the United 
States to secure the disbanding of the Cuban 
insurgent army. 

February 3. — France protests to the Porte 
against Germany's acquisition of a station 
on the sea of Mamora. 

February 4. — The Filipinos make a night 
attack on the American lines near Manila, 

and are repulsed with great loss. The 

Spanish cabinet votes to abolish the office of 
minister of colonies. 

February 5.- — Dewey shells the Filipino's 

about Manila. Street riots growing out of 

the Dreyfus affair occur in Marseilles and 
Algiers. 

February 6.— The last Spanish soldier in 

Cuba leaves the island. The United States 

senate ratifies the treaty of peace with 

Spain. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman is 

chosen leader of the liberal party in Eng- 
land. 

February 7.— Filipinos in the vicinity of 
Manila are reported in lull retreat. Amer- 
ican lines are extended nine miles beyond 

the city. President McKinley sentences 

Commissary-General Eagan to suspension 
from duty for six years. The British par- 
liament meets. — —John Dillon resigns the 
parliamentary leadership of the Irish party. 
The United States battleship Iowa ar- 
rives at San Francisco. 

February 8. — Aguinaldo asks for a truce 
and a conference with the American com- 
mander. 

February 9. — The British house of com- 
mons rejects an amendment to the custom- 
ary address to the throne, relating to "law- 
lessness in the church." 

February 10. — American forces capture 
Caloocan, near Manila. President McKin- 



THE MONTH. 



257 



ley signs the Spanish peace treaty. The 

French chamber of deputies adopts the trial- 
revision bill. 

February 11. — Iloilo is taken by General 

Miller. The Monadock and the Charleston 

shell the insurgent camp from the bay. 

The British cruiser Inlrefield is ordered to 
Bluefields in consequence of the Nicaraguan 
revolution. 

February 12. — American forces under Gen- 
eral Miller, capture Jaro, near Iloilo. 

Great Britain admits the claim of France to 

an outlet on the Nile. The corner-stone 

of the reservior dam is laid at Assuam on 
the Nile. 

February 14. — The California, Washington 
and Idaho volunteers and the Sixth artillery 
successfully engage the Filipinos on the out- 
skirts of Manila. 

February 15. — President McKinley ap- 
points Samuel J. Barrows, of Massachusetts, 
librarian of congress. Nicaragua is de- 
clared in a state of seige by President Tye- 
laya. 

February 16. — The United States senate 
passes the Military Academy appropriation 

bill. The house strikes out the item in 

the sundry civil bill appropriating $20,000,- 
000 for the payment to Spain under the 

terms of the peace treaty. M. Felix 

Faure, president of France, dies, 

February 17. — Speaker Reed's ruling 



against the Nicaragua canal amendment is 
sustained by the house. 

February 18. — M. Emile Loubet is elected 
president of the French rspublic. 

February 19. — In a fight with Russians at 
Talien-Wan over tax-payments, three hun- 
dred Chinese are killed. 

February 20.- — Rear Admiral Schley an- 
swers the charges made to the United States 
senate against himself. 

February 21.— Pope Leo XIII writes to 
Cardinal Gibbons, reproving "relaxation of 
discipline in the Catholic church in America. 

February 22. — Kipling reported to be seri- 
ously ill in New York. Gov. Pingree, of 

Michigan, speaks to the Detroit banquet up- 
on "Respectability in the Republic." 

February 23. — At Manila the rebels are re- 
pulsed at many points. 

February 24 — Admiral Dewey asks for the 

battleship Oregon. United States senate 

passes the river and harbor bill. 

February 25.— Military police prevent an 
out-break of hostilities in the city of Manila. 

February 26. — News received of the rais- 
ing of the American flag over the island of 
Cebu. 

February 27. — Army bill passes the United 
States senate. 

February 28. — Germany recalls her ships 
from the Philippines. 



Mother Goose for Grown Up Folks. 

Little Bo-Peep has lost her sheep 
And doesn't know where to find them; 

Let them alone and they'll come home, 
And bring their tails behind them." 



"Hope beckoned youth and bade him keep 

On life's broad plain, his shining sheep, 

And while along the sward they came, 

He called them over, each by name; 

This one was Friendship — that was Health; 

Another Love — another Wealth; 

One fat, full-fleeced, was Social Station; 

Another, Stainless Reputation; 

In truth a goodly flock of sheep — 

A goodly flock, but hard to keep. 

Youth laid him down beside a fountain; 
Hope spread his wings to scale a mountain; 
And somehow youth fell fast asleep, 
And left his crook to tend the sheep; 
No wonder, as the legend says, 
They took to very crooked ways. 

Wealth vanished first, with stealthy tread, 

Then Friendship followed — to be fed — 

And foolish Love was after led; 

Fair Fame — alas! some thievish scamp — 

Had marked him with his own black stamp, 

And he, with Honor at his heels 

Was out of sight across the fields. 



Health just hangs doubtful — distant Hope 
Looks backward from the mountain slope, 
And Youth himself — no longer Youth — 
Wakes face to face with bitter Truth." 

"Solomon Grundy, born on Monday. 
Christened on Tuesday, Married on Wednes- 
day, 
Sick on Thursday, worse on Friday, 
Dead on Saturday, Buried on Sunday; 
This was the end of Solomon Grundy." 

So sings the unpretentious muse 

That guides the quill of Moother Goose, 

And in one week of mortal strife 

Presents the epitome of Life; 

But down sits Billy Shakespeare next, 

And cooly taking up the text 

His thought pursues the trail of mine 

And lo! the seven ages shine! 

O world! O critics! can't you see 

How Shakespeare plagiarizes me? 

For not a child upon the knee 
But hath thy moral learned of me; 
And measured, in a seven days' span, 
The whole experience of man. 



FOR MARCH. 



The Century — 

At the Court of an Indian Prince. . . 

R. D. Mackenzie 

The Bond of Blood.. Will H. Thompson 
Heroes of the Railway Service 

Chas. De Lano Hine 

Sonnets Edith M. Thomas 

Via Crucis F. Marion Crawford 

Poor Little Jane John Vance cneny 

Alexander's Victory at Issus 

.Benjamin Ide Wheeler 

A Temple of Solomon 

Margaret Sulton Briscoe 

Reciprocity Mary H. Mason 

Gilbert Stuart's Portraits of Women. 

Chas. Henry Hart 

The Winslow at Cardenas 

J. B. Bernadon, Lieut. U. S. N. 

Silence Peter McArthur 

Cable-Cutting at Cienfuegos 

Cameron McR. Winslow 

British Experience in the Govern- 
ment of Colonies James Bryce 

Gen. Sherman's Tour of Europe 

Gen. W. T. Sherman 

The Century's American artists 

Series Arthur Hoeber 

Pilgrims to Mecca . . Mary Hallock Foote 
The Sinking of the Merrimac 

Lieut. Hobson 

Scenes in the Spanish Capital 

Arthur Houghton 

The Capture of Manila 

Francis I. Green 

The Woodhaven Goat 

Harry Stillwell Edwards 

"What shall be done with little Jane, 
Little Jane who has lost her lover? 

With the sun and rain of Lovers' Lane 
Green in his grassy cover. 

She cannot sleep, she cannot spin, 
They will have to take her away; 

Her eye is too bright, her cheek too thin, 
She hears not a word they say. 

She has no joy of the summer sun, 

And fearful things she sees 
At the gate in the lane when day is done 

And there's a wail in the faded trees." 
—John Vance Cheney in the March number 
of the Century. 

"A prince of India," even though he 
be but the ruler of a very limited strip of 
territory, is, to Western minds, at least, 
an exceedingly gorgeous personage. Mr. 
R. D. Mackenzie's description in the 



March Century of "His Highness the 
Nawab of Bahawalpur and His Court," 
leaves the reader dazed with the glitter 
of jewels — the flash of rubies and glim- 
mer of pearls — and the general magnif- 
icence of Oriental attire. This young 
Indian potentate, whose dominions 
would easily lie within the limits of any 
Oregon county, is the happy possessor 
of a score of palaces and is a tall, well- 
formed, distinguished looking gentle- 
man, with an English education, a sensi- 
tive nature, a strong will and an iron 
constitution, all of which goes to make 
up an ensemble exactly opposite to that 
which presents itself to the average mind 
as illustrative of the native East Indian. 
The fact that an American girl, a daugh- 
etr of Chicago, is now vice-empress of 
India gives us a quickened interest in 
everything pertaining to that particular 

part of the world. The engraving 

upon wood, by F. S. King, of Ross Tur- 
ner's "Golden Galleon," which forms the 
frontispiece of the Century for March, is 
a work of art, the like of which has not 
been seen in a magazine for, lo, these 

many years. "Via Crucis" contains a 

strong picture — a scene of the period the 
preaching of the second crusade by Ber- 
nard of Clairvaux. Mr. Bryce advises 

the American expansionist to "go softly" 
and to profit by "British experience in 
the government of colonies." That 
Mr. Bryce knows what he is talking 
about no one will undertake to dispute, 
and his words of friendly warning are 
well worth considering. "The Wood- 
haven Goat" is an antidote for the 
"blues." The man or woman who could 
read this bit of plantation comedy 
through without laughing is not a per- 
son to be envied. 

Scribner's — 

The Rough Riders. .Theodore Roosevelt 

The Cub Reporter and the King of 

Spain Jessie Lynch Williams 



THE MAGAZINES. 



259 



Some Political Reminiscences 

' George F. Hoar 

The Business of a Theatre 

W. J. Henderson 

The Winter Stars. .Archibald Lampman 

The Entomologist George W. Cable 

The Street Pitts Duffield 

The Letters of.. Robert Louis Stevenson 

Sydney Colvin 

The Portraits of John W. Alexander, 

Harrison S. Morris 

• A Calendar of Discontent. Oliver Herford 

Psalm vii, 15 Albert White Vorse 

Search-Light Letters Robert Grant 

A Rhyme of the Rough Riders 

Clinton Scollard 

Albert White Vorse is a name new to 
Scribner's, but if his "Psalm VII, 15" is 
earnest of future work it is safeto set 
him down as one of the most virile and 
original writers of the day. It is a story 
of the far north, of the land of the mid- 
night sun, this "Psalm," and there is 
not a weak or a superfluous line in it. 
The strange "white silence" makes itself 
felt. The Eskomos, with their crude 
mysticisms and cruelly hard lives, the 
loves of Latta and Ah-we-ung-onah and 
the tragic termination of the romance, 
all are so simply, yet powerfully portray- 
ed that the reader forgets that it is only 
a "tale that is told," and believes for the 
moment that he is watching the move- 
ment of a real, a living experience. 
This story is so great that it throws into 
shadow everything else in the March 
number of the magazine, though Robert 
Grant's "Search-Llight Letters" are in- 
teresting in that they spare neither man 
nor woman. The weakness, the faults 
and the follies of a would-be social lead- 
er are pitilessly exposed in the glare of 
the well-directed "Light" which emi- 
nates from Mr. Grant's electric-pointed 
pen. Robert Louis Stevenson's love of 
little children crops out from time to 
time, in the sweetest, tenderest fashion in 
his "Letters." And there is always in 
these letters the insistent note of bodily 
pain. "I am a man of seventy," ex- 
claims this yet undeveloped novelist." 
"O Medea, kill me, or make me young 
again!" — Jesse Lynch Williams gives an- 
other newspaper story that is interesting, 
reading, and George W. Cable consider- 
ately kills off the "Etomologist" and the 
other man's frivolous wife and then 
unites the bereaved ones in the most de- 



lightful and satisfactory manner. The 
whole story, from beginning to end, is 
crowded with beauty and warmth and 
perfume, a glowing, softened wealth of 
color that obscures the tragedy and ob- 
literates the common-place. In this last 
number occurs the "Parable of the 'Lost 
Moth,' " "crushed with its wings full- 
spread, not by any one's choice, but be- 
cause there are so many things in this 
universe that not even God can help 
from being as they are." 

The Cosmopolitan — 

The Building of an Empire 

John Brisben Walker 

The Real Arabian Nights. . .Anna Leach 
Flour and Flour Milling 

. . .B. C. Church and F. W. Fitzpatrick 
For Maids and Mothers 

Frances Courtney Baylor 

Of the Golden Age 

Louise Imogen Guiney 

Trampers on the Trail 

Hamlin Garland 

Columbia's Motto. .Ella Wheeler Wilcox 
The Verdict in the Rutherford Case, 

Walter Barr 

Richard Brinsley Sheridan 

Thomas B. Reed 

The North American Indian of To- 
day George Bird Grinnell 

Southern Spain During the War..., 

Grant Lynd 

Successful Attempts in Scientific 

Mind Reading..Edward-Wilson Roberts 

Oliver Cromwell A. J. Gade 

Hito-Kitsune Ethel W. Mumford 

Pelota in Madrid Poultney Bigelow 

"How Miss Miggs Fitted Herself for 
Matrimony" is a story which contains an 
object lesson. In fact, Miss Sarah Miggs 
is a bright and shining example to her 
sex — to all that portion of it at least who 
are contemplating the possibility of wed- 
lock. There would be no more any ask- 
ing of the old question, "Is marriage a 
failure?" if all fair candidates for wife- 
hood acted upon the suggestions offered 

in this story. "Hito-Kitsune" is a 

Japanese ghost story that turns out to be 
a very clever fraud gotten up by a Yan- 
kee speculator, but is exceeding interest- 
ing in spite of the fact that the ghost is 

a sham. Hamlin Garland's "Trail" is 

leading northward now, and he is giving 
his readers some realistic pictures of the 
difficulties and dangers which Alaskan- 
bound gold-hunters encountered on the 
"Overland Trail" to the Yukon. 



260 



THE PACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



"The Verdict in the Rutherford Case" is 

a study of the human conscience. 

John Brisben Walker continues the his- 
tory of Mohammed, and Eric Pape leaves 
nothing to be desired in the way of illus- 
trations. "The Midnight Vision" is 
beautiful enough to have turned the head 
of any imaginative Arab. It is sufficient 
for the purpose if Mohammed did but 
dream he beheld such matchless perfec- 
tion of form and feature. 

McClure's — 

J. J. Tissot and his Paintings of the 

Life of Christ Cleveland Moffet 

Liquid Air Ray Stannard Baker 

Sketches in Egypt.. Charles Dana Gibson 
Moving on the North Pole '. . . 

Lieut. Robert E. Peary, U. S. N. 

Stalky and Co Rudyard Kipling 

This Animal of a Buldy Jones 

Frank Norris 

Lincoln's Method of Dealing with 

Men Ida M. Tarbell 

The Accolade Louise Herrick Wall 

General Wood at Santiago 

Henry Harrison Lewis 

The War on the Sea and Its Lessons, 

Capt. Alfred T. Mahan, U. S. N. 

It is interesting to learn from good 
authority that the "Beetle" of Kipling's 
"Stalky and Co." is no less a personage 
than the gifted Rudyard himself. "Num- 
ber Five" in the character of moral re- 
formers makes an entertaining story! 
Louis Herrick Wall, who is a Port- 
land woman, has a touching romance in 
this magazine — McClure's — for March, 
in which a little child, pitifully deformed 
and unchildlike, is the central figure. 
"The heroine," remarked one fair critic 
who had read this story of Mrs. WalFs, 
"is a fool, and I cannot pardon that. A 
woman writer owes it to her sex to give 
the heroine the advantage — every time." 

Frank Norris' account of the duel 

between the young Frenchman and the 
man of Yale wherein balls, for the Yale 
man was a famous baseball champion, 
are used in lieu of swords or pistols, is 

brief but graphic. But by far the 

most absorbingly interesting thing in 
McClure's for March is Tripler and his 
"Liquid Air." Indeed it reads so alto- 
gether like a fairy tale that one must go 
over it more than once to get the full sig- 



nificance of this new marvel. Ray Stan- 
nard Baker has given the public a clear 
idea of this wonderful invention, and to 
him and McClure's the public is corres- 
pondingly grateful. 

Harper's — 

The Spanish-American War 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge 

Heart's-Ease Over Henry Heine.... 

Sarah Piatt 

On the Steps of the City Hall 

Brander Mathews 

Major-General Forrest at Brice's 

Cross-Roads John A. Wyeth, M. D. 

Storm and Calm Helen Hay 

Their Silver Wedding Journey 

William Dean Howells 

English Characteristics Julian Ralph 

Stories in Verse Arthur J. Strig 

Without the Courts 

Sarah Barnwell Elliott 

The Building of the Modern City 

House Russell Sturgis 

The Way to the Cross . . Stephen Bonsai 

Ebb-Tide Guy Wetmore Carryl 

A Song Hildegarde Hawthorne 

The Span o' Life 

. .Wm. McLennan and J. N. Mcllwraith 

The Rented House Octave Thanet 

The Massacre of Fort Dearborn at 

Chicago Simon Pokagon 

Chief of the Pokagon Band of Potta- 
watomie Indians. 
Violet Martha Gilbert Dickinson 

Julian Ralph has arrived at the con- 
clusion, after due deliberation, and ob- 
servant association with our English 
cousins, that they are not so lacking in 
"a sense of humor or love of fun" as we 
have been wont to suppose. It is true, 
he admits, "they are not so much given 
to joking" as we are, and their jokes are 
of a different sort. But this he ac- 
counts for on the grounds that they 
are more seriously thoughtful, more 
deliberate in speech and action than 
are we, "more given to reflction 
and the calm enjoyment of life." 
The Englishman is never in a hurry, ac- 
cording to Mr. Ralph, who seems to find 
the average London citizen as delightful 
and interesting and "restful" as he finds 
the London climate abominable and dis- 
tressing. The climate is to blame, he 
holds, for most of the evils that afflict the 
world's metropolis, and particularly is it 
responsible for the intemperance of the 
masses. 






F. Tennyson Neely is bringing out 
some notable books that are to comprise 
a "war series," and are written and com- 
piled by General O. O. Howard, General 
Joe Wheeler, Gilson Willets and other 
distinguished people. "Fighting for 
Humanity; or, Camp and Quarter- 
Deck," is the title of General Howard's 
book, and it is conceded that, having an 
"interesting story to tell," he has told it 
in the most admirable manner. "The 
Boy of the Twentieth," by Burr Mcin- 
tosh, is a story for Young America. This 
series is fully illustrated, beautifully 
printed and attractively bound. "Ameri- 
cans in Exile" is a cleverly written novel 
by Grace Stuart Reid, and deals with the 
days of the Confederacy. It is a bach- 
elor's love story told in the first person, 
and is tender, touching and true to the 
best in human sentiment. Another book 
from the house of F. Tennyson Neely, 
by Carlos Martyn, veils a rather pessi- 
mistic study in sociology under the mis- 
leading title of "Sour Saints and Sweet 
Sinners." The author, in the "Prelude" 
to this rather astonishing work mentions 
the fact that a certain New York church 
was in want of a minister because "The 
last pastor had been accidentally killed — 
the church debt had fallen upon and 
crushed him." There are several things 
in this prelude, by the way, which are al- 
together too near the truth to be pleas- 
ant, and Carlos Martyn strikes a straight 
and effective blow at the method which 
prevails in modern churches of choos- 
ing a minister. That is, it would be ef- 
fective if the right sort of people read his 
book, and it is extremely doubtful if 
they will, for the title is not one that will 
appeal to church people. 

Paul Laurence Dunbar's last book, 
"Folks From Dixie," is a collection of 
short stones that range from North to 
South and from grave 'to gay. To the 
student of racial problems there can be 
no more interesting figure in modern lit- 



erature than that of the young Negro 
poet. Just what will result to his people 
from his untrammelled expression in 
verse and prose of the long-repressed 
keling of the race it is yet too early to 
predict, but that he draws his scenes and 
characters with a strong, firm hand can- 
not be denied. Neither is he lacking in 
delicate shadings, in exquisite light 
touches that lend a certain grace and 
beauty to the rudest pictures from his 
pen. In "Folks From Dixie," perhaps the 
best piece of work, the most human and 
tender is "Jimsella," though in all the 
book there is not a story that does not 
possess some charm of its own. "The 
Spaniard in History" is a book that 
makes its appearance at a most auspic- 
ious time. It is by James C. Fernald. In 
the author's preface, this sentence, which 
explains the motif of the work, occurs: 
"The sword which has been drawn in 
behalf of oppressed Cuba must not be 
sheathed till Spanish power has ceased 
to touch with its blight the Western 
world." It is not a chronological his- 
tory of Spain, by any means; but is rath- 
er a clearly defined and entertaining 
characterization of the most important 
crises in the career of the Spanish na- 
tion. Alfonso XIII of Spain is a pa- 
thetic figure among the crowned heady 
of Europe. William Bement Lent'y 
charmingly bound and illustrated volume 
tells all about "The Country of the Little 
King." Madrid, Seville, Toledo, Gra- 
nada, Burgos, Cordova — what pictures 
of past pride and splendor these names 
suggest! To read this book of Mr. Lent's 
is to visit the scenes he describes. The 
Alhambra has been often written about 
— but not even Washington Irving him- 
self has given us a more exquisite de- 
scription of this "Moorish legacy" than 
has William Bement L,ent in his journey 
"Across the Country of the Little King." 
These books are all to be found on 
sale at Gill's book store, corner of Third 
and Alder streets. 



Frederick Warde. 

The actor in private life is apt to be a 
creature totally different from the actor 
before the footlights. A charming wo- 
man of my acquaintance (this is not par- 
ticularizing, for I know many charming 
women), recently gave me a most inter- 
esting account of how, when at boarding 
school in Boston, she went to see Lewis 
Morrison in the New Magdalene, being, 
of course, properly chaperoned by a se- 
verely proper Boston relative and, how, 
having arrived in the journey of life at 
that impressionable age when it is a ne- 
cessity of nature to fall in love, she at 
once most romantically tumbled up to her 
pretty ears in love with the handsomely 
made-up actor. At that age the thing a 
girl most enjoys about an attachment of 
this sort is telling other girls about it. 
This rose-bud maiden was no exception 
to the rule. So glowing were her de- 
scriptions of the hero of her dreams that 
the fifty other rose buds gracing the 
garden, otherwise known as a board- 
ing school, were all equally enraptured 
and were in eminent danger of blossom- 
ing prematurely under the influence of 
reflected ardour. Afterward, in Port- 
land, she had an opportunioty to see the 
object of her youthful adoration off the 
stage and was immediately disenchanted. 
All this is by way of saying that what is 
true of one actor is, in the main, true of 
all, and that Mr. Frederick Warde is one 
of the gracious exceptions that prove 
the rule. For Mr. Warde, great as he is 
upon the stage, and in many points there 
is none greater, is equally delightful in 
private life. An actor who regards the 
legitimate drama as one of the noblest 
professions, who holds with William 
Rounsville Alger, "dramatic art to be 
the divinest art in .the world — the crown 
and flower of all," and who has proved 
himself a worthy interpreter of the 
grandest conceptions of heroic character 
produced by the master minds of the 
past three centuries, Mr. Warde is not 



too absorbed to appreciate and enjoy the 
claims of friendship and the forms of po- 
lite society. He is, in spite of his inces- 
sant and exacting work upon the stage, 
a man of the world, a literateur, an earn- 
est student, a scholarly gentleman — a 
man whom men delight to know and 
women delight to please, and in this 
western world, loved and admired and 
welcomed as no other actor of today is 
loved and admired and welcomed. It 
was in 1884 that he first made his ap- 
pearance in Portland, and in the charac- 
ter of Virginus and of Ingomar, in the 
old New Market theatre. It lies within 
my memory that I saw him first in Eu- 
gene, in Damon and Pythias, on the lim- 
ited stage of a rather remarkably-con- 
structed "opera house, and leaving much 
to be desired in the way of support, and 
yet how that house, crowded beyond all 
comfort, went wild over the young actor, 
for he had a force that carried all before 
it, a vigor and a power that compelled 
recognition and roused his audience to 
the wildest enthusiasm. Since that 
memorable date Mr. Warde has made 
almost yearly tours to Oregon and the 
West and has appeared before Portland 
audiences in the role of nearly all the 
great Shakespearean characters. 

Govenor Roosevelt has signed an 
amendment to the civil code which pro- 
hibits absolutely a doctor from divulg- 
ing any information concerning his pat- 
ients, either before or after the death of 
patient. For a long time the insurance 
law has permitted a man to testify con- 
cerning the physical condition of a 
policy-holder, which was in variance 
with the code. 

A colored preacher upon the occasion 
of delivering a forceful harangue to his 
congregation, said: "I see before me 
twelve chicken-thieves, including William 
Sanders." Now, Sandy was a handy 



'DRIFT. 



263 



man with a razor, and the parson's 
friends urged him to set things right with 
with Sanders at the first opportunity. 
The parson made on the next Sunday 
the following announcement: "Brethren, 
at our last meeting I made a statement 
which, after mature deliberation, I desire 
to correct, realizing as I do that my re- 
marks upon that occasion might not 
have been understood correctly. What 
I should have said was: "There are in 
this congregation twelve chicken- 
thieves, not including William Sanders." 

J* 

McKinley's Opinions. 

"Hello, Central! Connect me with 
Washington." 

"Is this Washington? Give me the 
White House. Hello! This you, Major?" 

"Yes. Send me a few decided views, 

will you?" 

<(_ » 

"On what? Why, on anything. Sil- 
ver and gold, Alger, Philippines — any- 
thing." 



"None in stock. Then let me have 
some mere opinions." 



"Yes — opinions, mere or otherwise." 



"I don't care, so long as they are true. 
I want some good opinions, in fast col- 
ors, that will wear." 



"No, of course not. Not other peo- 
ple's. Your own I want." 



"Not any, eh? Don't keep them in 
stock? Isn't there any such thing in the 
market?" 



"Oh, I see! You have them made to 
order for you. Hello!" 



"Oh! Never mind about the address- 
es, Major. I know where to apply for 
them. Thanks." 



"Good-by."— Life. 



A new postoffice was established in a 
small Western village, and a native was 
appointed postmaster. After awhile com- 
plaints were made that- no mail was sent 
out from the new office, and an inspector 
was sent to inquire into the matter. He 
called upon the postmaster and asked 
why no mail had been sent out. The 
postmaster pointed to a big and nearly 
empty mail-bag hanging up in a corner, 
and said : "Well, I ain't sent it out 'cause 
the bag ain't nowhere nigh full yet!" — 
San Francisco Argonaut. 



Croak, Little Bull -Frog, Croak. 

This is the first blossom from spring's 
boquet of "poetry," and it would be an 
injustice to the public to let it "blush un- 
seen and waste itc sweetness on the 
desert air." 

Croak, little bull-frog, croak, say I, 
Croak while the rain cloud's in the sky; 
The sun's getting warmer day by day, 
All the froggies are happy and gay. 
You have no cares, you know no pain, 
All you know is rain, more rain. 
Croak, little bull-frog, croak. 

Croak, little bull-frog, croak, say I, 
It'll cease raining by and by; 
There'll be no clouds the sky to gloom, 
Butter-cups then'll commence to bloom, 
The lark will sing his merriest tune, 
All will be merry as a day in June. 
Croak, little bull-frog, croak. 

Croak, little bull-frog, croak, say I, 
There'll come a sad day by and by, — 
Sad for you, though sweet for me, — 
When honeyed flowers will feed the bee. 
Tne sun will shine bright up above, 
Green woods will home the turtle-dove. 
Croak, little bull-frog, croak. 

Croak, little bull-frog, croak, say I, 
Your marshy home will soon be dry; 
The sunny flowers will all be gone, 
Your tunes will then be but a moan. 
You'll gasp in the hot sun by and by, 
Croak a weak croak, then wither and die. 
Croak, poor bull-frog, croak. 

"Dennis H. Sto<vall. 



1899— Good Advice for the Spring to the 
Good People of the Northwest: Look to 
their health for the summer, by taking a 
herbal remedy, a standard and modern dis- 
covery of the 19th century, known as Dr. 
William Pfunder Oregon Blood Purifier. 
Take it now. Used and sold everywhere. 
Easy to take and effectual. 



CONDUCTED BY E. C. PROTZMAN. 



Chess is defined as "an intellectual 
pastime." This definition doubtless 
arises from the fact that the eminent men 
of every age have used the study of its 
fascinating and subtle combinations as a 
rest from the cares of genius; for chess, 
and chess only, has the power of taking 
complete possession of the mental facul- 
ties and diverting them from their ac- 
customed channels. So the philosopher, 
the soldier, the statesman, and the au- 
thor have equally been its votaries. 

On account 6f its nature chess is com- 
monly considered a difficult game to 
learn. This is an error — for a half hour 
is sufficient to enable one to learn the 
moves and power of the pieces, while 
within a few weeks both pupil and teach- 
er will find it equally entertaining. If the 
student is at all apt or ambitious six 
months of play will be enough to give 
one a good standing amongst the regular 
devotees. 

In placing chess games before our 
readers we shall endeavor to present only 
those that we believe will prove bene- 
ficial and' instructive to devotee and stu- 
dent alike. 

The "partie" given below occurred in 
Paris June, 1857, between Paul Morphy 
and Count Isouard and the Duke of 
Brunswick in consultation against him. 
We present it as a beautiful illustration 
of the great master's manner of ending a 
chess battle at the first error made by his 
antagonist. The reader will note how 
quickly he was able to bring each piece 
into play and to bear upon the point of 
attack : 

PHILIDORE'S DEFENCE. 
White— Mr. Morphy Black— The Allies. 



1. 


P to K 4 


1. 


P toK 4 


2. 


K Kt to B 3 


2. 


P to Q 3 A 


3. 


P to Q 4 


3. 


Q B to K Kt 5 


4. 


P takes P 


4. 


B takes Kt B 


5. 


Q takes B 


5. 


P takes P 


6. 


K B to Q B 4 


6. 


K Kt to B 3 


7. 


Q to Q Kt 3 


7. 


Q to K 2 


8. 


Q Kt to Q B 3 


8. 


P to Q B 3 


it. 


Q B to Kt 5 


9. 


P to Q Kt 4 



11. B takes P — check 

12. Castles— Q R F 

13. R takes Kt 

14. K R to Q sq 

15. B takes R — check 

16. Q to Q Kt 8— 

check G 

17. R to Q 8— mate 



11. Q Kt to Q 2 

12. Q R to Q sq 

13. R takes R 

14. Q to K 3 

15. Kt takes B 

16. Kt takes Q 



10. Kt takes Q Kt P E 10. P takes Kt D 



A. — Forming the "Philidore's defence" but 
not now considered as strong as Q Kt to B 3. 

B. — Probably Black's best move, for if 4-P 
takes P, then 5-Q takes Q, 5-K takes Q, 6-Kt 
takes P, also threatening to take either B or 
K B P and, of course, loss of game. 

C. If White takes Q Kt P, Black is able 
to force exchange of queens by Q to Q Kt 
5-check, opening up their own Q Kt's file 
and leaving a weak center for White. 

D. — Attempting to counteract White's ter- 
rible attack but futile as well as fatal; for it 
affords an opportunity for Mr. Morphy of 
which he takes an immediate advantage. 

E. The key move to one of the most beau- 
tiful and grandest coupes ever occurring in 
a cross-board play, and well worthy of his 
great chess genius, ending only with the 
final mate — each move being forced. 

F. The sacrifice of the queen is a most 
exquisite ending to this consummate piece of 
chess strategy. 

Notes. 

Questions regarding the game are so- 
licited as we shall in our next issue de- 
vote a column to "Answers to Corres- 
pondents." Address "Chess Editor, Pa- 
cific Monthly." 

We shall be glad to pubHsh the ad- 
dresses of the headquarters of such chess 
clubs as may be in existence in the differ- 
ent cities or towns of our coast, so that 
chess lovers who rrjay be visiting can be 
enabled to call. 

Joseph Ney Babson, one of our great- 
est problem composers, is at present 
making his home in Seattle. Friend 
Babson, we would be glad to hear from 
you in these columns. 

Mr. Frank A. Steele, Seattle, writes to 
a friend here that arrangements are being 
perfected to have a chess match between 
San Francisco and Seattle by wire. Mr. 
Steele is a prominent attorney, but is also 
a lover of chess as well. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY-ADVERTISING SECTION. 



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ONE OF THE PROBLEMS 

Of merchandising has been, how best to advertise. 
A store must advertise or it cannot prosper. 

IT HAS BEEN FOUND 

That magazine advertising pays best in proportion 
to the outlay. 

MORAL! 

Advertise in The Pacific Monthly. 20,000 readers 
every month, and before the family thirty days. 



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It's time now ^ «g 

To think about Spring clothes. We clean clothes, 
we dye clothes, and we do the work for as little money 
as good work can be done for. If you're in doubt as 
to whether your old suit can be dyed a certain color, 
ask us about it We'll dye it if possible, and do the 
work well. 

We are economical acquaintances for you to make. 
A soiled suit or faded dress contains possibilities un- 
thought of by the layman. We'll call for vour goods, 
or you can send them to our office, a" postal will 
bring our wagon. 

Oregon Steam Dyeing and Cleaning Works, 

DODD & JONES, Proprietors. 
Col. Phone 547. 
Or. Phone, Red 2903. 353 Burnside St., Portland, Or. 

Country orders solicited, and will be conscientiously 
and promptly executed. 



Established 1885. 



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268 



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«r 



Sole Agent for 



JQ ^Poffftrfc Dry Granulated Sugar 
. for one dollar 

With all general orders of 
GROCERIES. 



A. HEWITT, 



374 Washington St. 



S The Celebrated "REGAL" Guitars and Mandolins fc 

m "REG1NA" Music Boxes and "Gramophones." » 

ft £ 

cA good stock of records '» 

5jJ to select from. J? 

5 335 Washington St., Cor. Seventh | 



Artistic Effects in Photography *# *£ *g 



cAre demanded novo as never before. 
We have all of the up-to-date methods 
for securing this result. 



MOORE'S 

Dekum Building, Portland, Or. 




When dealing; with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



▲.▲▲.▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲.▲▲▲▲.▲▲.A. ▲▲j 



"Best Work at Least Possible Cost." 




PKR TOOTH 



Crown and Bridge Work (22 K Gold) $4.50 

Best Set Teeth, Rubber - - $5.00 

(The same as you pay $io for elsewhere.) 
Best Gold Fillings • ■ - $1.00 up 

Best Alloy Fillings - - - 50c up 
Teeth Extracted, painless, by our new 

method .... 50c 

All work guaranteed to give perfect satisfaction. We do not attempt to enter into competition with 

cheap dental work, made principally by inexperiei ced students. Our work will bear your 

closest inspection. It will pay you to call and see us before having work done. 

dr. jones, Manger. PORTLAND DENTAL PARLORS, J«ffiSLS2SSst.. 



Tne Biumauer-Frank Drug Co 

..WHOLESALE.. 



Fourth and Morrison Streets 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



AND MINING 
STOCKS 



FOR fllNES 

see ROGERS & ROGERS, 

Real Estate and Mining, 



Room 304 



I BROKERS 
Spokane, Wash. 



Fern well Blk. 



Portland Cut-Rate Taxidermist Co. 

I84>2 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, OR. 

Birds, Animals arid Insects finely mounted in 
a life-like manner. Rates reasonale. 

Lessons given in 
Taxidermy .so cents. 



W. B. MALLE1S, Manager. 



PHOENIX BICYC LES .*** 

"THEY STAND THE RACKET." 
PRICE, $40.00 &. $50.00. 



Golden Eagle Bicycles 

BEST $30.00 LIST WHEEL 
ON THE MARKET 



Clipper Chainless Bicycles 

LIST PRICE $75.00 
A Superior Article in the Chainless Line. 



Call and examine, or send for Catalogues. 



MITCHELL, LEWIS & STAVER CO. 

First and Taylor Streets, PORTLAND, OREGON. 



When dealing with our advertisers kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



UNION 




9 



Si 




I 

lies 



DESIGNING- 
-HALF TONES . 
ZINC ETCHING- 
COLOR ,W0RK 

^SPECIALTY 



ep 



tywmt 



5303^ 



525 

I^lARK&T ST- 






SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



g»c»o«o«o«c»o«c^»o«o«o»o«o»o«o«o«o«o«o»o«c«o«o«o^^ 



The Natural ^ ^ 
«* ^ Body Brace 

Cures ailments peculiar to Women. 

Simple in construction. Comfortable. Ad- 
justable to fit all figures. Endorsed by every 
Physician who has used it. 

COSTS YOU NOTHING TO TRY IT. 

Why should you sot walk and work as 
painlessly as the man whose wife, sweetheart 
or sister you are ? You are not a laggard by 
nature, but some bodily derangement or dis- 
placement has sapped your ambition and made 
you weak and peevish. Wherever you are, 
the miserable pain in your back or side or 
abdomen is ever present. Write for illustrated 
book, giving candid facts and conclusive tes- 
timony, SENT FREE, in plain sealed envelope. 
The brace has cured thousands just such 
as you. This letter is one of thousands : 
Health Brings Beauty; the Natural 

Body Brace brings Health. Pine Forest, Alabama, May 30, 1898. 

I was well pleased with my brace from the beginning. After wearing it four weeks, I am de- 
lighted with it; would not exchange it for money or anything else. I send you my heartfelt thanks 
for it. I had suffered a long time with falling of the womb, painful menstruation, constipation, heart 




disease, backache, headache, bearing down pains, etc. 
Money refunded if Brace is not satisfactory 
3 p. o. box 1013. 



Mrs. W. B. McCrary. 



The Natural Body Brace Co., Salina, Kansas. 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthlv. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



The latest fad 
Carbons on porcelain 

HYLAND 

Photographer 

Corner of Seventh and 
Washington Sts. 



■»^»»»»»»»»»»»»»i^»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»^»»»»»»»»»»g^»»»»»»»»^»^$^ 



Insure ivitb the 

Home Insurance Co* 

.....Of New York 
Cash Capital, $3. 000,000.00. 



The Great American Fire Insurance 
Company, 

Assets aggregating nearly f 12,000,000.00, ALL 
available for American Policy Holders. 



J. D. COLEMAN, General Agent, 



JOHN H. BURGARD, 

..SPECIAL AGENT.. 



250 Stark Street, 

PORTLAND, OREGON. 



LOF JOHNSON 

Ladies' and Gentlemen's 

TAILOR 



Room 602 
Dekum Building 



PORTLAND, ORE. 



THE 




WORLD'S 
MASTERPIECES 




JUST WHAT TEACH ERS HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR. 

... ^Entertaining anfc aSeautifullg 1illustrate& 




For 
the 
Children 



The Story of c RaphaeL 

The Story of Murillo. 

The Story of Millet 

Bach containing Ten Half Tone Engravings of the 
Masterpieces. 

By JENNIE E KEYSOR, Author of the popular "Sketches of Ameri- 
can Writers." Price only 10 cents each. Address 

EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING CO. t 

809 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISC 




SSJSS^N^xxxx^xxxxxxn,^^^ 



SEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDS 
SEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDS 



SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 



If in need of anything for your garden 
ivrite for oar Catalogue, 



BEE SUPPLIES 



POULTRY SUPPLIES 



SEND FOR OUR CATALOGUES. 



SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 

FERTILIZERS 11121 

SEEDS 
SEEDS 



SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 160 and 171 Second St 

SEEDS 



Portland Seed Co. 



SEEDS 
SEEDS 
SEEDS 

PORTLAND, ORE. SEEDS 
SEEDS 



SEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEED3SEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDS 
SEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDSSEEDS 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



X^VVX'VVV-K'SCK'V 



Quality Improved 
Price Reduced 

COLUMBIA 



They arc Built to I^ide. 

They are the best Bicycles possible to produce, 
by the most skilled workmen, from the best ma- 
terials, in the largest and most completely 
equipped bicycle factories in the world J> J> J> 



HARTFORD \ They arc Handsome Bicycles. 

VtDt lit; They are stylish bicycles, and they possess those 

% niceties of detail that give an added value to 

B, * } the discriminating purchaser £• £• J- J> J> J> 

icycles <& \ 




\ They are Built to Sell. 
OTG B CO. J " 1S " Pto " 

\ Columbia Chainless, Lady's or Gents' . . $75.00 

I Columbia Chain, Lady's or Gents' . . . 50.00 

1 32- 134 ■ Columbia > Mod el 49, with '99 Improvements . 40.00 

\ Hartford, Lady's or Gents' 35.00 . 

SfvfVl ^AypoY * Vedette » Gents' 25.00 | 

IX 111 OtrCCt i. vedette, Lady's 26.00 2 

We handle the best line of Juvenile Bicycles 
Portland, Oregon, j in the Market. 

^ JOBBERS I N BICYCLE SUNDRIES. 

; Agents wanted in all unoccupied territory in Oregon, Washington, 
\ Idaho and Montana. 

When dealing with oar advertisers, kindlv mention The Pacific Monthly. 







THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



A. B. STEIHBACH & Co. 



POPULAR PRICE 



Cot*. plPSt 

and Morrison 
Streets 




Devers' Blend Coffee J ft Ml Flnsl 

TO INSURE GETTING THE GENUINE, BUY IN 
SEALED PACKAGES ONLY 

CLOSSET & DEVERS 

Coffee Roasters... PORTLAND, OREGON 

..The Barnes Market Company.. 



Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



Oysters, Game, Poultry and Fish 

OREGON, CALIFORNIA AND DOMESTIC . 
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

Manufacturers of 

-p^Tgygssz-p-^v j^ ftJ^Hf) C 5 ^ FT F\ "FY F^ F\ 

Telephone 371... 105, 107, 1074 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 

Agents in every city and town in the Northwest to 
solicit subscriptions for the Pacific Monthly. Salary 
j^j^arj^jrafaf jr'arjra^a^j^a^a^ or commission. Write us at once for particulars. 

Address Subscription Department, The Pacific Monthly, 

Macleay Building, Portland, Oregon. 

\\^e call for, sponge, press and deliver one suit of 
your clothing each week for $1.00 per month. 

Unique Tailoring Co., 124 6th St. 



TH»antet> ... 



Oregon 'Phone M. 514. 
Columbia 'Phone 736. 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The rarific Mnnthh,. 



P UBLISHERS* A NNO UNCEMENT. 



* I J HK publishers of The Pacific Monthly desire to make the Magazine unique 
■*■ among the literary publications of the day. With this end in view, new depart- 
ments will be added from time to time, and every effort made to conduct them along 
original and interesting lines. 

It is evident, however, that this object can be more immediately accomplished by 
giving the magazine a distinctive western flavor. Accordingly we call for manuscript 
relating , 

PIONEER EXPERIENCES, ANECDOTES, 
STORIES OF CROSSING THE PLAINS, 
RECEPTIONS BY THE INDIANS, 
LOCATING THE NEW HOME, 
THE NEW ENVIRONMENT, 
ADVENTURES AND ROMANCES OF THE NEW GENERATION, 
INDIAN LEGENDS, EARLY CHARACTERS, 
THE GROWTH OF A CITY, 
LIFE IN THE EARLY VILLAGE, 
THE INFLUENCE OF THE INDIAN, ETC., ETC. 

Almost every pioneer in the Northwest holds in memory some interesting fact 
which has come into his life, or has been told him by others, and the telling of it at 
this time will be of intense interest to the world. We hope, therefore, for a very 
liberal response to this call. 

Manuscript or letters relating to any of these subjects, or along the lines they sug- 
gest, will receive prompt and careful consideration. 

Any suggestions in regard to these articles, or any ideas relating to any depart- 
ment in the Magazine, will be gratefully received. Address all correspondence to 

The Pacific Monthly, Macleay Bldg., Portland, Or. 



$ " My Health is my For tune, Sir," she said, x 

* "and it came from eating " 



I RALSTON HEALTH CLUB BREAKFAST FOOD 



We are headquarters 

on the Pacific Coast for..... 




Ralston 
** Health Club 
Foods 



Send us a two-cent stamp with your grocer's name 
and receive samples. 

ACME MILLS CO. 
20-22 North Front Street, PORTLAND, OREGON 

When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



Absolutely Delicious" | 

Is the verdict of all 'who have tasted <fc 

our Chocolate Creams and Caramels. They V* 

are fresh, pure, and of exceptional flavor. S| 

Our Ice Cream and Ice Cream Soda are > 

unexcelled. Only a step from the street * 

and you are in our store. £ 

DENNIS & GOOD, 

322 Washington St., near 6th, Portland, Ore. 

N. B. — To the Trade. We are making a 

specialty of filling country or 'ers in the most 

careful manner. No order too large or too small. 

If you want fresh candy and wish to increase 

1 your business at once, try an order with us. 



.HATTERS AND FURNISHERS.. 



i 



Sole Agents for 



94 THIRD STREET 
Portland, Ore. 



PORTLAND GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 



CARRIES A FULL LINE OF 



MOTORS from One-half Horse Power Up 

POWER for ELEVATORS and all kinds 
of Machinery. 

ARC and INCANDESCENT LIGHTING. 

Electric and Bell Wiring a Specialty. 



Electric Supplies 



COR. 



SAMSON BATTERIES 

GENERAL OFFICES 

SEVENTH AND ALDER STREETS 

TELEPHONES (Both) 385 




ARE NOTED FOR QUALITY OF WORK AND PROMPT SERVICE 



JAMES R. EWING 

..Bookseller.. 



Miscellaneous Books 
Bibles . . . 
JMorthwest Views 



267 Morrison Street 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Careful Attention to Special Orders 

When dealing with our advertisers . kindly mention The I'ariflr Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



)8lUs flbrmtmg Co, 



Established in 1887 



PRINTERS 

PUBLISHERS 

STEREOTYPERS 

Bulbing in tbe iprinting line 

from a caro to a catalogue 



Telephone 

Columbia 307 






105 FIRST STREET 

Portland, Oregon 



MARK TWAIN 




Said we ought to be thankful that Pj/j 
we have any weattu r at all. 

OREGON'S WEATHER 

is a pleasure c when you carry one of 

MEREDITH'S 
SCIENTIFIC UMBRELLAS. 

We are exclusive dealers in Umbrellas. Repair work 

done promptly and carefully. We make old 

umbrellas as good as new. 

312 Washington Street, Portland, Oregon. 



Ore— PHONES 734— Col. 



J> 



Model Laundry Company 



308 MADISON STREET, 



Between Fifth and Sixth 



TRADE 




MARK. 



RIO GRANDE WESTERN RAILWAY. 

THE ONLY LINE 

-OFFERING- 
TWO Routes from Portland. 
THREE Routes through Colorado. 
FOUR Routes east thereof. 

The Grandest Mountain Scenery in America by 

daylight. 
Personally conducted tourist excursions through 

to the east without change of cars. 
Free Reclining Chair Cars in all trains. 
New and Blegant Equipment. 
Perfect Dining Car Service. 

(Will be established May ist, 1899.) 



PORTLAND, 



OREGON 



... STOPOVER IN UTAH OR COLORADO ... 

GRANTED ON A I, I, CUSSES OF TICKETS. 

No trouble to answer questions. 

M. J. ROCHE, J. D. MANSFIELD. 

Trav. Pass Agt. Gen'l Agent. 

142 THIRD ST , PORTLAND, OR. 



When dealing with our advertisers kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION 



WHITE COLLAR LINE 
Columbia River & Puget Sound Navigation Co. 

Portland and Astoria 

Steamers Telephone or Bailey Gatzert leave foot Alder 

Street daily (except Sunday), 7 A. M. 
Leave Astoria daily (except Sunday) 7 P. M. 

U. B. SCOTT, President 



f R. R. li 



WINTER SCHEDULE— Daily 

Train No. 22 leaves Portland at 8:00 a. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 12:15 p. m. 

Train No. 24 leaves Portland at 7:00 p. m., arrives at 
Astoria at 11:10 p. m. 

Return 

Train No. 21 leaves Astoria at 8.00 a. m., arrives in 
Portland at 12:15 P- mi. 

Train No. 23 leaves Astoria at 6:30 p. m. and arrives 
in Portland at 10:35 p. m. 

Train No. 22 runs through to Seaside, leaving Seaside 
■on the return at 2:50 p. m. 

All trains leaving Astoria for Seaside or returning 
from Seaside run on the Flavel Branch. 

The Astoria and Columbia River R. R. Winter Sched- 
ule is now in effect. Trains leave Union Depot, Port- 
land, daily at 8:00 a. m. and 7:00 p. m., arriving at 
Astoria at 12:15 P- m and 11:10 p. m. Leaving for Sea- 
side at 12:20 p. in. 



GO EAST VIA 



Oregon Short Line Railroad 



THE DIRKCT ROUTE TO 



Montana, Utah, Colorado 
and all Eastern and Southern Points. 

AfFordiner choice of two routes via the UNION 
PACIFIC Fast Mail Line or the RIO 
GRANDE Scenic Lines through Colorado. 

LOOK AT THE TIME 

N DAYS TO SALT LAKE 
1\ DAYS TO DENVER 
3i DAYS TO CHICAGO 
44 DAYS TO NEW YORK 



Free Reclining Chair Cars, Upholstered Tour- 
ist Sleeping Cars, and Pullman Palace Sleep- 
ers operated on all trains. 



For further information, apply to 
C. O. TERRY, W. E- COMAN, 

Trav. Pass. Agt. Gen'l Agent. 

124 Third St., Portland, Or. 



[1ST ) * SOUTHERN 

- i via PACIFIC 

* COMPANY 



LEAVE Depot, Fifth and I Sts. ARRIVE 



* 6 oop. m. 



* 8 30 a. m. 

Daily 
except 
Sunday. 

X 7 3oa. m. 
X 450p.m. 



(OVERLAND EX- 
PRESS, for Salem, 
Roseburg, Ashland, 
Sacramento, Ogden, 
San Francisco, Mo- 
jave, Los Angeles, El 
Paso, New Orleans 
(.and the East. 
Roseburg Passenger. . '. . 
f Via Woodburn for") 
Mt. Angel, Silverton , 
West Scio, Browns- > 
ville, Springfield I 
(.and Natron. J 

Corvallis Passenger 

Independence Pass'ng'r 



9 30 a. m. 



* 430 p.m. 

Daily 
except 
Sunday. 

t 5 5°P-Mi. 

X 8 25 a. m. 



* Daily. X Daily except Sunday. 

Direct connection at San Franci«co with Occi- 
dental and Oriental and Pacific Mail steamship 
lines for JAPAN AND CHINA. Sailing dates 
on application. 

Rates and tickets to eastern points and Eu- 
rope, also JAPAN, CHINA, HONOLULU and 
AUSTRALIA, can be obtained from J. B. 
KIRKLAND, Ticket Agent, 134 Third St.* 
Yamhill Division: — Passenger Depot foot of 
Jefferson St. 

Leave for Oswego daily at 7:20, 9:40* a. m.; 
12:30, 1:55, 3:25, 5:15, 6:25, 8:05, 11:30 p. m., and 9:00 
a. m. on Sundays only. Arrive at Portland 
-daily at 6:35*, 8:3°. 10:50* a. m; 1 :3s, 3:15, 4:30, 6:20, 
7:40, 9:1s p. m.; 12:40 a. m. daily except Monday 
and 10:05 a - *n. o • Sundays only. 

Leave for Sheridan daily, exeept Sunday, at 
4:30 p. m. Arrive at Portland at 0:30 a. m. 

Leave for Airlie Mondays, Wednesdays and 
Fridays at 8:40 a. m. Arrive at Portland Tues- 
days, Thursdays and Saturdays at 3:05 p. m. 

* Except Sunday. 
R. KOEHLER, C. H. MARKHAM, 

Manager. Gen. F. & P. Agt. 




Fast Mail 
8:00 p. m. 



Spokane 

Flyer 
2:10 p. m. 



TIME SCHEDULES 

FROM PORTLAND. 



Salt Lake, Denver, Ft. 
Worih, Omaha, Kan- 
sas City, St. Louis, 
Chicago and East. 



Walla Walli, Spokane, 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, 
Duluth, Milwaukee, 
Chicago and East. 



d:oo p. m. 



8:00 p. m 

Ex. Sunday 

Saturday 

10:00 p. m. 



6:00 a. m. 
Ex. Sunday 



7:00 a. m 

Tues.Thur 

and Sat 



6:00 a. m. 

Tues, Thur 

and Sat. 



Orean Steamships. 

All sailing dates subject 

to change. 
For San Francisco — 
Sail every five days. 



Columbia River 
St arners. 

To Astoria and Way 
Landings. 



Fast Mail 
6:45 p. m. 



S: ' kane 

Flyer 
8:jo a. m. 



4:00 p. m. 



4:00 p. m. 
Ex. Sunday 



Willann-tte River. 

Oregon City, Newberg, 
Salem & Way Landings 



Willamette and 
Yamhill Rivrs. 

Oregon City, Dayton 
and Way Landings. 



4:30 p. m. 
Ex. Sunday 



3:30 p. m. 

M011. Wed. 

and Fri. 



Willamette River. 4:30 p:m. 

Portland to Corvallis Tues.Thur 

and Way Landings. and Sat. 



Lv.Riparia 
1:45 a. m. 

Daily 
Ex. Sat. 



Snalc River. 

Ripaiia to Lewistou. 



Lv. Lewis- 

trn 5-45 
a. m. daily 
Ex. Friday 



A. SCHILLING. W. H. HUKI.BURT, 

City Ticket Agt., Gen'l. Pass. Agt., 

254 Washington St., Portland, Ore 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The lacific Monthly. 



XX 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY— ADVERTISING SECTION. 



H »»♦♦»♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ t ♦ ♦ ♦ t <♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ H ♦ ♦ M ♦ H » MM ♦ ♦♦♦ . ♦ t ♦ ♦ ♦ M ♦ 1 1 M t ♦ » ^ - 
"JVb Community is Prosperous Whose Yeopte a.re Not Employed*' 

I You Need Our Factories!! 

■<► 

•"■ r\ t 0- yO\J preach this doctrine, now practice it. You say you 

\ i ±3tVOfttZ& love y° ur nome ' now show jt - You say the comn,unit y 

r **•'' +*' ma/w should be more prosperous, keep your money at home. You 

admit we manufacture over four hundred articles of impor- 

T-Ts~mm s* ta.nct as cheaply as in Eastern or foreign markets— why not 

JT10TTl€ i buy them? You admit that Chicago and other thrifty cities 

not so far away were made so by enterprising citizens ; fol- 
— ^ low their example. You speak of the patriotism of the whole 

l<y\H{i c/f*11 people, hence show unselfish devotion t© the manufacturing 

lllUUSlf y \\ industries of Oregon. 



M. ZAN, President 

E. H. KILHAM, Vice Pres. 




R. J. HOLMES, Treasurer 
C. H. MclSAAC, Secretary 



i »44»»»»»»»4 MM »» MH M»»» MHHMMHHMMMMHMHHMM »: 




The Favorite Transcontinental Route Between 
the Northwest and all Points East. 

Choice of Two Routes Through the FAMOUS 

^^ROCKY MOUNTAIN SCENERY 

And Four Routes East of Pueblo and Denver 

All Passengers granted a day stop-over in 
the Mormon Capitol or anywhere between 
Ogden and Denver. Personally conducted 
Tourist Excursions three days a week to 

OMAHA, KANSAS CITY, ST. LOUIS, 
CHICAGO and the EAST. 

For Tickets and any Information regarding Rates, 

Routes, etc., or for Descriptive Advertising Matter, 

call on Agents of Oregon Railway & Navigation 

Co. Oregon Short Line or Southern Pacific 

Companies. 

S. K. HOOPER, R. C. NICHOL, 

Gen. Pass. & Ticket Agt. Gen. Agt., 251 Wash St 

DENVER, COL. PORTLAND, ORE. 




mi competition 



'Sp|CTO^ pV 



As regards Time and Through 
Car Service to Chicago and 
other Eastern Cities. 



JUST THINK! 

3^ days with no change to Chicago 
4.^ days and one change to New York 



THEN AGAIN: 

Trains'are Illuminated by Pintsch Gas, 
run Into Union Depots, and Baggage 
Is checked through to Destination. 
Lowest Rates. 



For Information pertaining to the Union Pacific, 
call on or address 



J. H. LOTHROP, 

General Agent. 



C. E. Brown, 

Dist. Pass. Agent. 



135 THIRD ST., PORTLAND, ORE. 



When dealing with our advertisers, kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 




>A 



I 



=% 

w 



Do You Like .*.*.* 

A Luxurious Meal? I 



tJ* &**2*10*lJ* W* J^ 



''TIGER BRAND" 



"KUSALANA" 

Ceylon Tea 



ASK YOUR GROCER FOR 

... THEM ... 

THE FIRST TIME YOU SEE HIM 




$ 



f 
I 

Pure Spices ^ 

"OUR BEST" * I 

Roasted Coffee 



1 

...c4re Items... X 

«**£*£ <o>M:/i in/// a/</ materially >£<£<* W 

SManufadured and yi> 

.&/</ by * * * yfy 

I 

viz 

CORBITT & MACLEAY CO. 3 

Portland, Oregon* 




uEND TO VS FOR PRICES ON 



We arc Manufacturers of thc 

Celebrated 

Maltese Gross Brand 
of Rubber Belt $ 
Ajax Brand Cotton 
Mill Hose... 



Rubber and 

Leather 

Belting... 




The Gui pa I nner- Milan 



87-89 FIRST STREET, PORTLAND, ORE. 



RUSSELL & CO. 



A. H. AVERILL, 
Manager. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 




High Grade, 
Engines, Boilers, 
Saw Mills, 
Threshers... 



Estirnates furnisned on Steam Plants 0/ all Sizes and for 
any purpose. Write for Catalogues. 



RUSSELL & CO., - Portland, Ore 

When dealing with our advertiten v kindly mention The Pacific Monthly. 



The Pacific Monthly. 



Volume II. 



May 1899— October 1899- 



THE PACIFIC MONTHLY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 
Portland, Oregon. 



The Pacific Monthly Publishing Company. 



ALEX SWCCK, 
J. THOPBURN ROSS, 
WILLIAM BITTLC WCLL5, 
LISCHEN W. MILLER, . 



President, 
Vice-President. 

Sec. and Manager, 
ftsst. Manager. 



COPYRIGHTED 1899 BY WILLIAM BITTLE WELLS. 
All Rights Reserved. 






CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

A Monograph Claude Thayer 253 

An Etching William II. Shelor 270 

A Workingman's Enterprise H. 8. Lyman 147 

Art— A Threadbare Topic C. E. 8. Wood 170 

A Sketch of the Author of the "Grand Coulee" 108 

A New Remedy for Trusts /. W. Whalley 125 

A Quatrain Edward Othmer 1 27 

A Scene in the "Grand Coulee," Eastern Washington. 102 

Art and Its Possibilities in the Northwest W. E. Rollins 18 

Attending to Each Other's Faults 181 

Art Class in Portland, Orrgon, Y. M. C. A 242 

A Metaphor J. W. Whalley 19 

Books (Department) .' 35, 38, 134, 181, 231, 283 

Chess (Department) 40, 97, 142, 193, 236, 285 

Daybreak in Oregon (Poem) Fred A. Dunham 177 

Destiny (Poem) Theodore E. Morton 5 

Drift (Department) 

4 'Ay Want a Mortgage' ' 36 

A Young Man's Love 100 

Announcement of Sketch 143 

An Arizona "Bar" Story 240 

College Amenities 98 

His Heart Was Won 98 

How Some Famous Men Wooed 194 

Humorous Selections 196 

"Is That All?" 37 

John Philip Sousa 38 

Low- Voiced People 143 

Oriental Maxims 38 

Standard Articles 239 

Strange, but True 194 

The Green Turtle 36 

The Judgment 143 

The Unsolved Problem of Astronomy 144 

The Servant Question in Portland 195 

The Oregon Industrial Exposition 237, 286 

The Canadian 238 

Work and Genius 100 

White Squaw Very Brave 36 

Fantasie — The Strange Confession of an Unknown 

Mystic Ledru Kinney 151 

Frank Du Mond, (a Sketch) Lischen M. Miller 217 

Greek Lyric Art II. R. Fairclough 71 

Hope (Poem) Beulah M. Sigmund 135 

"Imperialism vs. Democracy" C. E. S. Wood 55 

In the Third Generation (Short Story) Charles Willard 47 

"I Must Go Back" 146 

Is Ttiis Life a Dream ? (Poem) Valentine Brown 223 

John Philip Sousa (Half-tone) 2 

Life (Poem) John Leisk Tail 121 

Life's Repetition (Poem) '. Adelaide Pugh 207 

"Les Martiques," France. . , 108 

Life's Cards (Poem) Walter Cayley Belt, M. D 28 

My Dream City (Poem) Katharine Farmer 9 

Men and Women (Department) 

Living Together Edgar P. Hill 91 

Love !35 

The Question of Marriage Geo. Melvin 185 

The Ideal American Citizen • • • 186 

The Secret of Happiness W. H. Shelor 229 

What Are We Here For? . . 280 

Maya, The Medicine Girl (Continued Story) Sam L. Simpson 284 

Natewan (Short Story) Adonen 205 

Oregon (Poem) T. W. Whalley 210 

Old Hankin's Roundup (Story) Adonen 28 

Once (Poem) Florence May Wright 221 

Our Point of View (Editorial Department) 26, 82, 128, 176, 222, 271 



CONTENTS.— Continued. PAGE 

Poems of Oregon — 

Memaleuse Island Sam L. Simpson 53 

The Loves of the Mountains De Etta Cogswell 54 

Poems of California — 

The Men of Forty-Nine Joaquin Miller 158 

The Golden Gate Madge Morris 158 

Poems of Washington — 

December Herbert Bashford 208 

Parting Ella Higginson 208 

When the Birds Go North Again Ella Higginson 208 

Poem of the Pacific Coast — 

Spinning Belle W. Cooke 279 

Probable Issues of the Next Campaign Judge A. H. Tanner 209 

Phoebe (Poem) S. E 169 

Rose of the Bramble Hill (Poem) Valentine Brown 25 

Resurrection ( Poem) Adonen 67 

Questions of the Day (Department) 

Expansion A. II. Tanner » 92 

Trusts W. II. Shelor 93 

Anti-Expansion --Two Views G. II. A. and H. B. Nichols 136 

Is Religion on the Decline? — Two Views W. II. Shelor and L. F. 187 

One View of the Woman Question Geo. Melvin 228 

Equal Rights for the Sexes Abigail Scott Duniway 278 

Sam Simpson As I Knew Him Fred A. Dunham 168 

Selection from "The Scorner" Elizabeth Calvert 161 

Scene on the Columbia River 81 

Semper Fidelis (Poem) Harry E. Burgess 234 

The Future of Music in America John Philip Sousa 3 

The Voice of the Silence (Continued Story) 12, 75, 122, 162, 313 

To Shasta (Poem) Frederick Wards 21 

The Dynamics of Speech Robert W. Douthat 22 

The Alchemist 42 

The Upheaval in Asia, and Its Significance to Portland's 

Commerce R. van Bergen 43 

To Ethel (Sonnet) /. W. Whalley 57 

The Pioneers (Poem) Walter Cayley Belt 74 

The Grand Coulee Captain Cleveland Rockwell 103 

The Legend of Pueblo de Acoma, the Cloud City of 

New Mexico Albert J. Capron 109 

Two Poems by Sam Simpson — 

Beautiful Willamette 167 

The Feast of the Apple Bloom 167 

The Haunted Light (Story) Lischen M. Miller 172 

The Moral Side of the Philippine War W. R. Lord 199 

The Musical Woodpeckers of Burnt River Captain Cleveland Rockwell 211 

The Indian "Arabian Nights" //. A'. Lyman 219, 2t»7 

The New Idea H. W. Stone 243 

The Wind's Story (Poem) Adonen 257 

The Unsatisfying Draught (Story) W. H. Shelor 2*8 

The Wreck of the Jonathan (Poem) Sam L. Simpson 269 

The Month (Department) 

In Politics, Science, Literature, Art, Education, 

Religious Thought, with Leading Events 29, 84, 130, 178, 224, 273 

The Financial World (Department) 94, 138, 189, 235, 284 

The Magazines (Department) 32, 95, 139, 189, 232, 281 

The Idler (Department) 184, 230, 28^ 

The Dead Past (Poem) Josephine Peabody 183 

The Servant Question 181 

The Time Will Come (Poem) Adonen 188 

Vogelfrei (Poem) Col. E Hofer 157 

Wyeth's Expeditions to Oregon F. G. Young 10, 79, 159 

Whistling Quail (Story) Fred Lock/ey, Jr 6 

Washougal — An Indian Romance Charles B. Reid 68 

Why I Am An Expansionist Wallace McCamant 116 

Women and Wages Gustav Anderson 264 ' 

Worker and Dreamer (Poem) Rosetta Lunt Sutton 232 

What If ? (Poem) s . Rosetta Lunt Sutton 141 






Sousa on American Music. 



Bi — BH 

ET/3 I B|J 






H"t4JwW. 






' — : 







the Pacific 

AQNTHLY 



Volume 2 



MAY 

1899 



Number t 



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Subscribers, however, will receive the full number of copies during the year. 

CONTENTS FOR MAY, 1899. 

John Philip Sousa frontispiece 

The Future of Music in America John Philip Sousa 3 

Destiny (Poem) Theodore E. Norton 5 

Whistling Quail (Short Story) Jred Lockley, Jr 6 

My Dream City (Poem) Katharine farmer 9 

Wyeth's Expedition to Oregon F. G. Young, Ph. D. 10 

A chapter in the history of the occupation of Professor of History and Economics 

the American continent. Introductory paper. in University of Oregon. 

The Voice of the Silence /2 

Chapter VI. The writer will be unnamed 

for the present. 

Art and Its Possibilities in the Northwest W. E. Rollins 18 

A Metaphor (Poem) J. W. Whalley 19 

Old Hankins' Roundup (Short Story) cAdonen 20 

To Shasta (Poem) Frederick Warde 21 

The Dynamics of Speech Robert W. Douthat, Ph. D... 22 

As Introduced by Philosophy. Professor of Latin in University 

(Third Paper.) of West Virginia. 

Rose of the Bramble Hill (Poem) Valentine 'Broivn 25 

DEPARTMENTS: 

Our Point of View (Editorial) 26 

Life's Cards (Poem) Walter Cayley 'Belt, §M. C D. . 28 

The Month -A Record of the World's Progress 29 

In Politics, Literature, Science, Art and Education, -with Leading Events. 

The Magazines 32 

Books 35 

Drift 

White Squaw Very Brave 36 

"Ay Want a Mortgage" 36 

The Green Turtle 36 

"Is That All?" 37 

John Philip Sousa 38 

Oriental Maxims 38 

Chess 40 

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W. B. WELLS, Manager. J ° 

LISCHEN M. MILLER, Asst. Manager. 

Copyrighted 1899 by William Bittle Wells. 
Entered at the Post Office at Portland, Oregon, Oct. 17, 1898, as second-class matter. 

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W. 2 



The Pacific Monthly. 



MAY, 1899 



S<$. i 



The Future of Music in America. 



•By JOHN PHILIP SOUSA. 



AMERICA is pre-eminently a mu- 
sical nation. Indeed, we may 
go so far as to say that in 
no other nation is the love of music 
as universal as it is here. The news- 
boy whistles as he goes upon his errands, 
bubbling over with strains from the pop- 
ular airs of the day. The infectious mel- 
odies are taken up, passed on and on' 
until even sedate and dignified busi- 
ness and professional men permit them- 
selves to become young again, and 
whistle the pent-up melodies. Take a 
peep of an evening into our homes 
throughout the land, and in thousands 
upon thousands there will be found 
gathered about the piano a jolly com- 
pany of young people singing the songs 
of the day, or else listening to the more 
or less ambitious efforts of those who 
have studied instrumental music. So 
we find in nearly every home in the land 
a musical instrument of some character.- 
In our colleges there are the glee and 
mandolin clubs which make annual tours 
about the country, and are supported by 
the country in a moit liberal and enthus- 
iastic manner. America is the Mecca 
of the foreign musician. It is here that 
he achieves his greatest financial success, 
and nothing but a very pronounced love 
of music could bring about this condi- 
tion. America, therefore, must be con- 
ceded a music-loving nation, and when 
we realize that there is nothing in other 
nations to correspond exactly to the con- 



ditions above described, the conviction 
forces itself that our countiy must stand 
at the head in its appreciation for music. 
It is remarkable that this is true, but the 
facts certainly justify such a conclusion. 
With such love for music its future 
here is full of wonderful possibilities. 
The conditions point more and more 
clearly to the formation of a distinctly 
American school, and to a wonderful 
domination of music in America. Some 
are pleased to say that I have created a 
characteristic quality in the march, yet 
it is as equally true that we have a man 
(Stephen Foster), born in America, who 
wrote ballads that are so essentially 
American as to contain the very flavor 
of the country's music. He wrote "Su- 
wanee River," "Massa in the Cold, Cold 
Ground," and all those songs of the 
early 6o's. Such national melodies as 
these form the foundation for more pre- 
tentious works. Great ideas spring 
from them, and these great ideas, after 
being treated in a technical way, develop 
into the symphony. Generally the sug- 
gestions for such original melodies are 
found in the national instrument. For 
instance, when you hear the folk-song 
of France, it suggests the hurdy-gurdy; 
those of Scotland, the bag-pipe. The 
folk-songs of gypsy countries like 
Hungary, suggest the violin. Ger- 
many and England, not having na- 
tional instruments, the melodies of 
the folk-songs of either country 



THE TACIFIC SMONTHLY. 



are easily mistaken for those of 
the other. The Italian folk-songs sug- 
gest the idea of the tambourine and 
guitar, and aie of a declamatory style. 
American folk-songs may be said to be 
radically different from any of these, and 
out of them will develop the ideas which 
will dominate all music. 

Whether the American composers 
that are to be will be satisfied to go on 
according to tradition in harmonic de- 
velopment and continue writing sym- 
phonies, is questionable. It is not at 
all improbable that they will develop not 
only a school of music that will be ab- 
solutely national, but new forms, new 
modes of expression as well. The sym- 
phony in course of time may be the can- 
dle-light of music. I believe that the 
American composer will not allow him- 
self to be limited by the so-called classic 
ideas. My theory of the real classic in 
music is something entirely different 
from these. 

A classic is a composition that first of 
all comes under the head of an inspired 
creation, the result of self-hypnotism, 
as it were; a condition wherein music 
is composed without the effort of 
the composer, and for which he 
is hardly responsible. A good example 
of such a classic is found again in "Su- 
wanee River." It has a pure melody, and 
was evidently an inspiration. It has 
lived, and it is received by all who are 
intellectually honest. The musician 
who is intellectually dishonest hates 
many of the best things in music because 
they do not come under his category. 

I would rather be the composer of an 
inspirational march than of a "manufact- 
ured" symphony. Now, why a man who 
manufactures a symphony should be put 
down in a special category of composers, 
and the man who writes an inspirational 
march should not be considered as hav- 
ing accomplished as much, is one of the 
incongruous things of life that the fu- 
ture of American music will certainly 
change. We know that that which lives 
and lives in an atmosphere of purity is 
the best for the world. The "inspired" 
works of a composer or an author go 
down through the corridors of time, 
giving men joy and happiness, while the 



manufactured stuff, in art or literatuic. 
or music, is placed aside, and the "worms 
eat it." 

Some years ago a friend of mine start- 
ed in to write "stuff." After he had 
been writing for some time, and while 
I was playing in his city, he came to me 
and asked me if I would not play some- 
thing of his. I did so, and the music fell 
absolutely flat. He saw me afterwards 
and said, "I have been writing music 
these two years, but the public seems to 
want nothing but trash." I asked him 
what his mode of composition was, and 
he replied that he had been writing 
"down" to the popular taste. If he had 
written "up" to the popular taste, his 
compositions would have been mpre 
successful. 

It is just such misconceptions of pop- 
ular music as this which retards real pro- 
gress. Popular music is not trash by any 
means. It is music that makes the 
whole world kin — music that brings 
races together, and it may be either the 
simple melody of a popular air or the 
stately movement of a symphony, but it 
must be music that is inspired, for such 
alone is valuable. 

A glance at present conditions shows 
that we are just beginning to make the 
same forward strides in music that we 
have made in commercial inventions 
since 1776. These inventions were ab- 
solutely necesary to the development of 
the country, and as a consequence the 
American mind during the last one 
hundred years has led the world in the 
way of commercial inventions. We now 
have a very great number of labor-sav- 
ing machines and a great many things 
that conduce to man's comfort. Take 
for instance, the improvement in 
the modern bath-tub, which is very 
essential, the electric light, the tele- 
phone, the telegraph. All of these are 
of absolute benefit to mankind. Now 
what produced them? Certainly not a 
stupid brain. It must have been a bright, 
virile brain that was able to find out the 
necessity for these things and invent 
them. If this brain power has used up, 
in a great measure, the field of operation 
in the commercial world, — and we must 
admit that it has — its energy will be 



"DESTINY. 



thrown over into the artistic world. 
When this brain begins, therefore, to 
compose music and write books is it not 
reasonable to expect that American mu- 
sic and American literature will lead the 
world just as American inventions have? 
The future of American music, then, 
is exceedingly bright. The domination 
of an American school over the rest of 



the world, which I confidently expect to 
occur, will mark an important epoch in 
our nation's history, giving us a promi- 
nence in a form of human activity that 
we have not yet enjoyed, and thus ex- 
acting that sort of respect from older na- 
tions of the world which the cultivation 
of the aesthetic nature alone can give. 



Destiny. 



When the earth has made her final revolu- 
tion, 
And she staggers in her path as if with 
wine; 
When the stars shall blend in fiery solution, 
And the sun, burnt out and black, shall 
cease to shine — 

When the heavens shall roll together 

without warning, 
And, with mighty noise, shall take 

eternal flight; 
When the light that flashed the first creative 

morning 
Shall be overwhelmed by deep chaotic night. 

When the universe shall be enwrapped in 
fire, 
Till the curse of sin is burnt and purged 
away; 
And when Death himself in deadness shall 
expire, 
And chaos waits a new creation day. 

Then, the earth her mignty force shall have 
expended, 
And, a burnt and frozen wreck, shall drift 
away ; 
And then, man's mysterious mission shall 
be ended, 
And he shall have crumbled back to primal 
clay. 

Is there then no more, forever and forever, 
Of creation's curse and glory, sinful man? 

Is the light of life extinct, to quicken never? 
And shall all be as 'twas ere the race be- 
gan? 

Shall that mystic, lambent light called in- 
spiration, 
Which has flashed along the future's dark- 
ened way — 
And shall reason's steady, strange illumina- 
tion, 
Leading out from error's night to wis- 
dom's day — 

Shall these wondrous powers that dwell in 
man expire? 
Shall they rust and rot and renovate the 
sod? 
No; man feels them burn within, a deathless 
fire, 
And exelaims "I am not clay, I am a god." 



"True, the clay in which I live may fall and 
moulder, 
But the T that knows and wills, cannot 
decay; 
She shall burst the bands of flesh that now 
enfold her, 
And be born to spirit-life's eternal day." 

If it be not so, then living is but dreamin™, 
And creation, but a vain and empty show; 

Then Humanity's a farce with tragic seem- 
ing, 
And faith, a foolish fancy's fervid glow. 

Then the wise man is the man who wrings 
most pleasure 
From reluctant life, as time flies swiftiy 
on; 
Then the foolish man is he who lays up 
treasure 
In a heaven to which no man has ever 
gone. 

If it be not so, then lar.gh and dance, make 

merry; 

Work your pleasure, be it sad, or be it gay; 

With your cla.3 , your good and evil, men 

will bury; 

And you >ieed not fear a resurrection day. 

But it is so. It is written on all nature.. 
Or the earth and stars and on the heart of 
man; 
It was not ordained by Heaven's legislature 
That man's life should end in dust, where 
it began. 

No; creation, though a miracle tremendous, 
Is a fragment of a mighty plan well laid; 
x'ut the other part, a marvel more stupend- 
ous, 
"s Redemption from the ruin man has 
made. 

nan, O fools and blind! Why be deluded? 

\N hen you live your little life here, is all 
done? 
No; man's destiny will never be concluded 

Till he lives eternally, beyond the sun. 



Theodore E. Morton. 



Buker City, Oregon. 



Whistling Quail. 

A Legend of the Alsea Indians. 



^By Fred Lockley, Jr. 



LONG ere the white man had won a 
foothold upon the Pacific Coast, the 
western shore of Oregon was the 
home of the Alsea and Siletz tribes of 
Indians. It was a long-established cus- 
tom of theirs to give great potlatches, or 
feasts. When one of these rose to the 
dignity of a tribal affair it was a matter 
of no small importance. For days before 
the feast the various members of the 
tribe busied themselves in securing a 
bountiful supply of provisions for the 
coming event, consisting largely of rock- 
oysters, mussels, clams and fish. The 
shell heaps which are so frequently found 
on the Oregon coast are the result of the 
great potlaches given by these tribes. 

This legend, which the Alsea Indians 
still tell around their camp fires, I tell as 
it was told to me. 

Among all the Alsea maidens there 
were none who could compare with 
Whistling Quail. Tall, lithe and active, 
with symetrically rounded form, her face 
oval in shape and dark' tinged in color, 
eyes dark-brown, almost biack, slumber- 
ous and heavy fringed. tier ringing 
laugh and bird-like voice were so clear 
and pure that they had won for her the 
name of Whistling Quail. It was not 
strange that, as she took on the added 
charm of maturity, many youths of the 
tribe sought to win her heart. 

Her father noticed her increasing 
beauty with a heavy heart, for he knew 
the time must soon come when his lodge 
would echo no more her clear voice and 
merry laughter. 

As he sat in the door of his lodge 
watching the sun sink beneath the waves 
of the Pacific, Whistling Quail came up 
the path from the spring with an earthen 
jar of water. 

"Come, my daughter," said her father. 
"Come near and listen to mv words." 

Whistling Quail, with swift obedience, 
approached and stood in respectful si- 



lence before her father, for he spoke not 
often, but when he spoke his words were 
wise. 

"Sit down, my child, I have much ta 
say to thee." When she had seated her- 
self at his feet he continued slowlv: 
"When thy mother, Lolieta, was yourtg, 
none in all our tribe could surpass her 
for beauty. Thou, child, art as much 
like thy mother when she was thy age as 
thy two moccasins are like each other. 
The time will soon come when thou wilt 
leave thy father's lodge for that of an- 
other. My heart is heavy when I think 
of thy going. Thou hast thy mother's 
beauty, but thy father's heart. Thou 
hast not the heart of a woman like thy 
brother, Trembling Leaf. His heart is 
weak within him. The Great Spirit was 
angry when thy brother came. He gave 
to him, not the heart of a brave, but of 
a timid doe. When fever laid hold of me 
so that I, the strong man, was weak as 
the new-born child and sick unto death; 
when all my kinsmen fled from me 
through fear of the sickness, it was thy 
mother who, through the dreary days 
and long nights closed not her eyes in 
sleep, but fought the fever spirit, seeking 
out healing herbs and strength-giving 
roots till she had won my life from the 
evil spirits of sickness. When thou 
goest to the lodge of some brave of our 
tribe be thou as faithful to thy husband 
as thy mother has been to me, and thou 
wilt ever have his love and honor. For- 
get not my words, my daughter." 

"My father, thy words shall dwell in 
my heart. I will follow thy counsel, I 
will be faithful;" she paused, then added, 
"even unto death. Whistling Quail little 
knew how soon she would make good 
her promise. 

"Go now; I have finished," said her 
father. 

Many there were to woo Whistling 
Quail, but the time came when she found 



WHISTLING QUAIL. 



she loved one of her suitors above all 
others. When he urged her to become 
his wife, she responded: "I am young 
yet, my loved one; thou must wait many 
moons ere I come to thy lodge. When 
the young leaves come again I will come 
to thee." 

All was activity within the scattered 
wigwams along the banks of the Alsea 
bay. It was but a few days; till the great 
tribal potlatch would occur. The Klick- 
itats who lived far inland w,ere to be the 
guests of the Alseas. The calm surface 
of the bay was dotted here and there 
with the long, narrow, double-pointed, 
canoes, each made from a single tree by 
the aid of fire and rude implements of 
flint. In the bottom of each of the canoes 
knelt a sturdy boatman, his swift paddle 
stroke making the keen prow cut 
through the waters. With spear poised 
stood an Indian in the prow, from time 
to time directing with gutteral monosyl- 
ables the movements of the paddler. 
Now he motions the paddle to cease. 
The keen flint-pointed spear descends, 
and the water is lashed to foam by the 
struggles of that king of fish, the salmon. 
Others of the tribe are procuring rock- 
oysters, clams and mussels, while the 
women and boys gather wild honey and 
an abundant store of berries. 

Soon their guests in holiday attire ar- 
rive. The games